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Victorian Naturalist 


of the 



MAY, 1933, TO APRIL, 1934 


The Author of each Article is responsible for 
the facts and opinions recorded 

Melbourme : 

Brown, Prior & Co. Pty., 430 Little Bourke Street 


"the Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. L,— No. I May 3, 1933 No. 593 


The ordinary meeting oi the Club was hekJ at Ihe Rovul Societv\ 
Hall on April 10.. 1933, at S pm, The President,' Mr. J. A. 
K.ershuw. presided over an attendance of about lOO nicmhevsi ajul 
friends. -j 

COK R KS I H3 .\' n K N CE 

FrOiiri ihe "'Cainijers Club'' ^'ivrng intormalion regarding' the. 
obJLxiii and aims r>f rhe Club. Mr. H- I^ AlcColl, 97 VValj^jle 
Street, Kew, R4-, is Se.rretnry pro tem. 

From tlie RKO Ra<bo Picrure>i, regarding a motion j)icture ul 
nninial life. 


Reportb v\ exeurslous were ^iven: — Sunicrlon, Mr. \\\ Hanl-;s; 
Relg'ryvc. -Mr. J. W. Auelas (by leucr) ; Maeedoiu Mi'. G. >^, 
Hyan( (for Mr* J£. E. Pcscott). ' 

iiLliCTlOX 01^' MilMniiR 

On a show of hands. Mih.s A. Sinclair, 7 Uraenjar Street, 
lls-sendon. wa.s (hily elected as an iM'tbnary member. 


Mr. Charles Oke presented lo the Club a photo|;rapli of ;ui 
early Conversuzionc held at the Mustjaic Jlalb MellxMnne. 


A ounibcr of memt.Hir?! ^pokc on the habus of ihe Leaf-curling 
Spidei% Anivnts ^jaf/iwrl, and several nieniioned that empty snail 
shells {Hrlr.s ^npcrsir) were found in the webs. Mr. C. Barrett 
s;ii<l thai, in lien of a leaf, these spulcrs someinnes "'curled'' od<.l 
,scra]"»s of paper, inthitb'ng tram rickets, tound lyinji; in the garden. 


A lecture eniilled '■Incidents of Travel aJidLil'e in Tanj^anyika, 
East Africa", was^ given hv Dr. K. O. Teale. IDirector of the 
Geoloj^ical Survey of Tanj^fanyika Terntory. The lecture waa 
illustrated hv a fine series of shdes showini( wild life, natives. 
Ideological and geoi»rapliical features, etc. At rhe close of the 
leettne a vote of thanks to Dr. Teale was carried by acclamation. 


Mr. ?- C Richardson. — A bcrlfs <\( volcanic iKMnltK. h-niii JSX. 
Albert and Mt. Eden. Auckland. N.Z. ; i\\m pbcjtc^graphs shoxvin^ 
Inva on |-Tie slnpc:.s i»f Ml Rangitoto, Aucl\lanfl 

Ma.iler Pnt_ Flecker. — An old collection of pressed platils. 

Mr. Gee. Cog^hill. — Pressed Howcrs ivcni iht- TLast Coasi.. Tas- 

Mr. F- 5- Colliver- -A series ot fossils fnuii .Sandy Bay, Ifohart. 
I'asmania; age Carhopermiau, and coii5i5cii>g ol bnichiopody, 
Spirifer. brvalve-s and poUtou 


By C. KHKNcir. Jnr.. Govcrnjfioiit 

No. ^ : "The Apple l^oot Borer" (VVeisvU). Lcptoi^s squalidus 
Bcih ^= /.. Hopai Fab- Family Ci,ircidio»udar. 

The natural fond plains of this miicct arc vanons species of 
Acada. However, withni the la&t (orty years, thiis ini-oct ha>> 
JHrcOiiit: one of Llic wOrst ci the pcists attuckj'ng upplt' and iMliOr 
iriut trees in Victoria, and in the other States, flic hectic?, the 
nmle (i( which meusure^s nut nuir^ f-han ^ inch in '.enj^th. the iemule 
heinj< much larger, are light i;re.y In colour, and \r,\\'e. the head 
produced info the itsurI clo^garffd snout tyiiicnl of weeviK. with 
the sharp flatt<?ned iiianc»bre-s situat*:d at the up of tht .^nout. 

The eggs of this insert arc deposited on one half of <i l*^af of 
the tree attacked, and the ieniale then L^nims the other half ovtv 
the eggs to produce a sac. Ou luitchmg. the k'^iess gruhs drop tO' 
the ground, and, rnaldng their way to the roots of the t^ee^^; i^Uft-W 
and ir.rrow in the roots. The larvae remain in the soil tor at 
lease iliree years, after which they pupate, sometimes to a depln 
nt hve teet or 3ix feet, even in the hardest of .soils, usually ad- 
jacent to the furrows ii^ the roots 

Quite recently, these insects tiave hcen recorded as attacking 
pears, vines, cherries, nectarines, peaches, phuns, apricots, eitrns^ 
cherry pkinis, and rose buds 

Scvfn niemkers undertooli ih'? evfUfMon ami werp favouneii with a perfect 
autunui day. The party proceederf by car to the Camel"; Hun»p, and ciijoye-l 
Ihe niaguiiicent panoranta. At ■['ayfor and Sangsici's niirierY iihy-year-oir! 
5pcctme»s of rnany conncrs and deciduous Iretirs were seen in the s^ory OJ 
\Ue\r aiituojii tii"it<i Tlit laie Sir Win. MrPher.'jnn'.s garden -:iiid that of 
Mr. n. W. Covvper were, next visitL-ti. The Eorniec M ao example r.>t' modern 
Uy-o«l, and \Uc lAtlcf a very im e:vc4K.plf oi Ii^ gardoTimi: wurked 
into a backgrmmrj of i>atlvc bu.Oi. Miss Ronald's- injr^ery and 1 .-i<(y llgdiTOt,' 
xarderis were uispcctcd ou tlit rttii^ii to the stAiion, and prov--idctl g-lorious 
vJ^fifS of uiitiii»ln ti»iis 041 tfie tivc> grou-itig in jjroiiision thcrt. 

G. N. HYA.U tior Mr t. k. HcHX'tl:)- 

My Kwm Coucman 

T lizive long lvnow»i that ihe flovsxirs of Diurh r^nlphnrca ar^ 
visited by ri snuill, swift, |ir€COCii>ns bee, M'hose ;i<:lioii is very 
diiTcreiU frum tluvt ot legitimate l^oney or polleti gatherers, lu 
ivjy paper Du the polliivntion of Diuns pednnrulatti R.lfir. (f*'..V.> 
Dt.H.Tinbcr, 1932) I ni(^nlione<l Iiuving seen the ]>o)linj<i of lhi.s 
orcliid withdrawn by a species of )>er rliffercnl FrOiu ihal which 
l>ollinates ibe earlier-flowering* I), pcduufuiata. 

T have since seen itirtber visits of \\\\s bcc in circumFianccs which 
leave no doubt in mv niind that they are stimulated by ins-tinct^ 
sinnlur u\ ihost'. whicli actuals llie nwle ichnennionid, Lissi7pimp!a 
sanipiiUcfiUo, in ihc |>"lb' nation oi fuur sj^ecies of Crypto.slylis, a? 
rucordcd in prcv ions issuer uJ ifiis journal I load ho]>ed to submit 
n drawing oi rh<* inscri. bnr s;> far it hus evxrled cispture. 

fl mav seem muvinc ro nuike .x .sfaienaent which I Ciiu at present 
only parily substantiate On the other liand. il should lead to fnlkr 
irvve^jtii^aiion by covin* vy nK-mbrr^ whose oj^portunities arc more 
favonnible tlian tny cwn. 

A will be recrilled iluU 1 madet a Himilut statement concerning 
the pulbnaiion of the VVcstom An^iralian orchid Cn^pfostyfts ovata 
(/'A*, July. 1929). 

Ill that instance ] had mi»rely wiinessed the astonishing 
behaviour of an ichi^eumonid whicti aitenijHed to enter a fad«d 
flower of C ovaia } had not seen ihe actual removal of the poUen- 
inasscs. -on^i askrd VV*estf:rii Awsfndian botanists to make further 
experiments with, ire^Ji fiower^. This they did, an<l my slnte- 
mcnts were ^ulh* confirmed. 

Jn the present in>t3nce T cnn be somewhat more definite, having 
on rhi'ee oceasions witnes'^etj thti complete removal of the poi- 
Jinia. as well as \\w significant actions of a number of b^e^. 

Not lvivin*ij handled a specimen. I oinnot dcscril>e, in failbfiaJ 
duad. tlje •■ij^ent assiKiatrid witli Uie flowers of D. sulpliurea, but 
J believe it to be a small, exceedingly active, native bee^ .similar in 
shape of bo<ly and antennae, to HoJicfus lnv{juiuosus, which so 
ef><'Ctively pollinates the flowers of P. pcditncuJutti. h dilTers in 
cii^our, tov\ iis lur^'cr .sixe, bcinji; about twice as large, and of a 
dark-bi'owii colour. The njjpei' surface of the abdt>men appe<irs 
to Ix; diirk. reddish-hmwn, vividly banded with vellow (haitii^). 
The under-snriact; Ucks these bands, 

Willi but a superficial l^nowlcdge of insects, the (;otanisi who 
studies the ]Milhnation of flowers soon learnn somethin.i; ot thrir 
habits, and is al)le. at a glance, to recoKuiiie the hLuUcr, the nect;ir 
or pollen gatherers, and those that seek to deposil eggs, or to 
jiara>itiy-e lar^'ae or !?m;dl ^pider^;. There is yu't another i^roup to 


IfC.cousidereHl, whuse taistoms arc niu; iviorc it-.tonishin^^ vcs^t-latian 
111 the life of tlit bee. 

The bright bltlc bunded Ijcc a: once iu-ousi:i| my inre.resc. fff 
actions wcu^ Nwifr avul fortivfc. a-S ^t it feyrcfl hindrance in i\% 
<»bjtct, Or coiv.pfrilidu. ft stecmed swai'e a^ tov siit;htcs: mOvc- 
meat. Even the shsuh.'W of my bat dihtiirb^'d it:. 

i had :-;cen ?^iniil,ir behaviour m Lissof^iififihi iCntipnihtaio. 
which visits no less than kmr species ot Crypfo:ifylii, Tl'.c male 
u-hncumnnid, howevtr. was ;ilw;tys rc;idily <-ai>tiifefl. nnc^ ir had 
viUered o flower, in which it iistialiy remained \'or perhaps *i mihiitc- 
or more. 

UsiHS thumb -and t<ircfin^'cr. owe could easily jxnch it out of rhc 
now4^r. wilhoiil bartn, (o p.*iiho)" mi' us One cxmbl even lr.oUI it bv 
the wijiys, while il rcnmintd Uiidi.%tnrl>cd in the flower, i-n jitiv^'criiil 
wfih the attracticm of thct (^rchici. 

But. so far. rhc litt'f ban<ir(', bee lin"<; been loo shy and too swiff 
for c^anttuc- (t do not use a net for k^ar oi tlaniagnig the pollitila). 
I'Jach unt'. remained m the flower only lony tinou^h for the adhesltJii 
o{ the ^dand. I his wa? carried oft" oi\ the upper siirfnce nf the 

Teiitiny, with a dibbcciiii.t; ncedic, ihe viittdity oY the: glnilil. I 
was snrpnse<l to find that prf.ikmgcd delay was not itecessary for 
its adli^'sion- Once the* rovttltar-memV/rarc hnd hee.n rnpOuTd t'he 
cxpOiied glund speediiy h-cihiy i'enaei(tns. 

L felt ccjiivinced that all the Ijees were males, and Lh;U there wu.s 
bift one motive tor their vi.'sitK -iciipfm^e to sonie mysterir>nH 
;Ulracliov. possessed by ibe inohid, p.'j.rtly scent. pa»llv n rf5>t?m 
blantc to die females d' ibeir kmcl : but tuore p^roliably Lo a mar- 
vrlknis. impcrccptibU: ^nmnioTDr. which vvo himuii^s ean. i\y yet. oMy 
partly inteiprt'C. 

I had never before thought the flowers of Dhms sitffttutnfi- I'iir- 
ricularly in%cct-tike, but after the visii.t; r.( ehe banded bees L coidd 
notnndersrand why 1 luid not tict^<''rc JiOltid an insect-resenililauce, 
'Children have smcf pointed it unt to iire. 

I'hc colour of the Hnwer h- yedlow with dark brown martcings 
At in uwsl yichidii which hear u r^al. oi Cancied. resemblance to 
insects, the miimcrv i^ shown ni the lahelUmi. the colours of ivhich 
.ar'e broadly those ot the bande<.| bee- 
Seen from a}H>vc, the arrangement oi l)iown and yellow vihnUe^- 
iuto a barred effect. ?;imilar to that ot the bee's abdomen. 
■ The labeflnm is trilobed. the middle lobe, which is markediv 
keeled^ being more than twice a^ ion^ as the broad, win^-like k\teral 
lohfts. Ihe s-ides ol this long lobe are so doseiy reflexed. nUcn 
pKc^te. that. bt?,ide:< aeeentnatmg the height of ibe keel tbe\- give 
to this se^n«enf the appearance ot an insect's abck^roeiv 
j The central part of the keel is elevated mto a hump, an .-ida]>tive 
dwiiige whicK ceriamly aid.-; |iollination, by taisin^ the body i>f Ihe. 

f^ ] 'CotRifAN'- Faffm-fiihvt oj Dhtris suiphurro R.Br. ^ 

lioc hijjh enough XQ hnn^ Us heud in contaci' wiih tfi-e uH-imporiiDit 


Tnily almost evei vihini:^ in the Hivdy ot biology Incurs wimcKK ii> 
^fctlaplalion. Ev<irv pari uf Ihe orchid appear?, tu .^prve s<^int* n^^civ' 
imrjKXsc. ami none, more ingeniously than this liunip, w\>tc1i Huh 
hcroinr bevinti fully ;Kl,-)]>terl Jo the purpoSie it serves so wundui fnlU. 

Thc ;ibufl, ;ii> tir D pahmculafo {vide V.N., Dccen)I.u:r; W.S2) 
hts into a nouJi un tli« upper niari^in of the sti>;'niafir j^lalc. tnucll 
^<5 a 5Uspei^ler-hutton slip5. \\\Xo its metal niot. It may l>e dci^cnk-il 
as u prominent. irrc.(>nlar buH-ijIobc oF viscid matter. eovcro<l hy rt 
thin, trrinsparcnl niemliranc which is umtinutiuw with i*hc* stig- 
in:i!ti: secrerinn. 

To ihe ^laiid, rwo bdohed polhnui are attached l>y their ;qjictf:i. 
A tonch in the cenire ruptures the TastclUir-memhrar.o. Icavipo the 
jjlnnd i|uirtf free m its slot. r(*u<ly for removal whtm it shidl h,-»v»*- 
bccouie silued lo die hexid oi ;\ visiiin^ inject. 

The itigina. whicli '\s <:afoldtxl In' the apptnidagc^i rd rhc. coiiim.*.. 
may he reg:ir(ted as the hpiut i^f nn jivstu'f (Siricrly sptMlcin^, thcrf*' 
is no o-oHnni;. \o\\ (^ ihts i^t^nns. lOale and fmiinif p<»rl.s arc n^'l 
wtildcd together, hui art: produced .separately. lIjc sLiiimti rrum the 
Front. t\\c anther from the hack of thi- receptacle ), 

Thonsi^h (he slit^nia buli't^s with iidi.siennig. visi-id >t.M:retion. the 
hanrk'd hcc i^ nui conLcrucd willi this. N'ur do its mourhpau.s sf^lt 
hiddeti nectar, What then is tlie attraction held hy the orchid lor 
the eager beer 

ih ;ih tliL- instaOLVs noted, the abdomen was curved, \\6 apex 
CUrvijif.-' over the apex of the lahc-lhnti. If, to uur eyci>, tht-: lahel- 
luni hilars a shght re.semhlance to a hymenoptei'on. no a l)r-e, jm- 
peiuoui-iy :;ins\vejini^ a summons -\\<i cannot interpret, anticipatin;^-. 
compention which necessitates swift action, the resemblance js 
doubtless <!(iii<<; titrikia^ cnongfli to ^UK't^, liim lo ihc csacl ^y\}\ 
wheiue issticd Ihe call. 

Without pansni;^' ly diacriminHLc; lie prccipiuilcs WnibClt iipon 
the lahellxim. In the -u1i.%P:nct: ot Ktf.finite knowit;dk;<- we «;au On^y 
assume rhar ho tf^ actinj^ ru'cordini^ \o his natiual insrinclf. 

Fm-ther l^mowledgc of. the history of the handed bee wonid V'n>J.>- 
al»ly reveal the fact that the uinles greatly onriiuinher the fenmles. 
and chat, in ihv tY>mpetmon for a mate, swiftne.'is is ess<:ntiai. 

Tlic Howcr> arc well pollmated. One is surprised, too. bv the 
numJJcr in which the poJhnia have been coinplcielv removed, telling 
evidence of niimernus Y^sits. Jt is not unU\n;\l ti» find them ahsent 
iai five out oE five Jlowcrs: in a racetn<*.. with, rhotigli niore taieh, 
as jnany Cipsnlcs scr. 

Jt seems strange that the winded agent is so seldom >ri.-n. rhongh 
T have sijcnt many hali-honr-.. siurrnnnded hy i^cofe.s oF planu in 
full dowei. J have only wiliicsieJ tl»c actual visit ou nix cccasi'Hi.^. 
The hee.s proha)>ly work at an honr when we are rarely afield; hui 

t Coleman, Poih'nafion of Diuris stilphnrca "R.Br. [ y^,'_ 


Diuris stUphurea R.Br. 

the tvrtiljty of the flowets ,sugR;esl!5 that ihc mysterious me^sa»l[C. 
fla5hefl to the I>ec, coincides with Ihc exact raomcnr when tlie ^bnH 
IS ready. 

Evi-rythtng coasidere*!, it is perhaps not so strange ;if1er ail 
rliat ihe poJhnation of D. stdphH-nm is seldoui witnessed. 

I'^or niaiiy A^ear^ the polliuutiur. of the Huroppan M_v Op^Jl'VS* 
Ophrxs muscifcra. was a mystery. l>ar\vii] knew we^I ibal ^!i^ccti 
wer^ I'ndispetirsabli- for the feriilizafion nf tliis orrhid. and that Its 
inconspicuous flower^*- were beautifull)- adajiicd lo facihtale such 
visits. V^t, oU«?n as lif had watched iheni. he nvvcr ontc! -saw an 
• nsccl approat"]] llicsx: scentless, honcvless Jluwcrs. Oti tliis (<uli- 
ject the .London fournat vf Bo/auy (Scptcmljcr. 1930) has an 
itllercatuig' note Ij3 H. G. Willis. ^1.A■, whn rea>rds having srcn 
the Fly Ophrvs visited F>y a fly. Cummcncin^ on Darwin's f.iihne 
to di--sct^vcr* the agent, he says:— 

'*Probahly there have iKten few other watchers. Darsvin fi>cor<i*i 
that oiu of 207 Bnwcrs. e»ghty-eipht received vtsirs and only thirty- 
one Itad one poDinimu reirioved ; and aga»n. ciiat ont t>i ^9 flowcrb 
only seVcn uUpMiltcs were prndncixl. It may lie fhiit a rts)W<?r j^ets 
hut one visit*, and it the stignia is receptive ior five diivs of fonneCii 
hotirs. and Ihc visit ]a>t5 three ninnucs. then (or the observer to 
he waTehiiijyi <Kinn^ che i>nf period nt the insect'^v vinu Dut of the 
1400 is very unlikely. Nor one in a hundred persons, would notice 
and record the presence or any insect smaller than u nioth or a 
bittterfly ; hence the chance that duriniy; three minutes a certain per 
»^on may notice and record the visit of a fiv to a certain Howe? i« 
one in 140,000/' 

Here in Australia with itn hirger floral areas and mtuc almndant 
nrchid^, the matter is perhaps less Fortuiti>us, th« discovery ot ^i^ 
i-nsecl aijent not quite so remote a possibility. 

I do Tiot suggest that the l^anded bee is the only agent m the 
pollination oi D- sulphirca, The large }icrc£nta^e of pollinia* 
removals, anci ilie lew bees seen^ suggest that other in:=ects may 
share the work. 

.^pinmthcs tutstralis, tor instance, is viiiited by no lesf. than three 
.-species of bce_. each of which is able to remove the pollnna. But 
in tny exjscrience, one agent only is inoie generally a^iiotiate*! witli 
a species, or even g^enns^ of orcluds. 

Scores oT yellow-banded hover-flies freely visit ilu: flowers of 
D. s'ufphHrca, but they enter in a less purposeful n^anncr. and do 
not remove the pollinia. A dainty yellow and l:>rown spifler. whicli 
consimas her snares between ihc flowers, eapnires niariy an \in- 
•A'aiy iubect. but not a V;ande<l bee falls victim to her wiles. 

iVor were Ihe l^anded bees interested yn rhe many other flowers 
iltat\n?d in the hainns of Dinrh sttlphurm. Near nie., as I 
have -Nat writrhing, tall. Hccnt«d Cras?i-trce flnwers (Xti7ttho7-raf{^ 
minor] were heseiged by eager foragers of all kitids, which lian- 

t C0t£*i.\?4. Potttmilm t^} Otnns -juZ/^/fvivv R Br. [^^*;J( ^*^' 

4Mf?re(l roy^illv on an ^ibuiiclaot and wcllstcKertised in.*clar . but 
never once did che I>aiiclrd l>ec alight on Che Mciw<rri! 

Tlint cDloiif [liays ihc iritiial pari in attnictuig the hces to D. .ml- 
phii^CiX T do n(*t doiibt. That Ijeer^ ifiogni^^r their pa^hircii by brrwcl 
colour chftcreno<?s i.s evident in Ihe yarfkii wheifx* tlicy so ofteit 
Wiirk tTon) reds to reds, ycHowji h' yellows, etc. Ont: is >.ninelirm:s 
rnikufiissed In their <ittraction to a hat or a blouse of !he colour 
lUcy are fullowiiii; u|>. Hia*^* cye-Iilve spots oti the orchid. wKich 
arc so stai tlit'igiy proniinenl. may serve iis a prclnninary ;atniClioii. 
Tasccts. like other creatures, evince curiosity, asid are drawn to the 
imu^ual D<dpiiiu helievH th^it the changinj^ colour^ %A Bow<»r^ 
were specially in)t:r»de<1 to iiw'oru) (ertiliziu^ inseets ut ttie pi'optr 
moment for cftccling inipregnalion. This miglU more, satcly he 
intcrprctetl tliat colours chan^ve -it the moment wlien injects rouUi 
v'lTeet iniprtgnnlion. Hnt in !'). ^,1-tlpititrco I here is iici volonr chjin^p. 
perceptible to us. to signal (he prupitums moment. It v> true tlnn 
the stigtiia. with its abundant .se<;recion. ^diitcns se<1uctively in 
unpunintrte4i flowers, hut i thnik both colour niid gli^^tening stii;^KL 
herald n more powerfvd attraciion. Wlm shall say how the im- 
pcnous 'jimimans is conveyed to the eager niales? Being himian. 
we can only mtcrpret the nie.syagc according to human idc;,*'-;. Thi? 
late Kenneth ('irahanie. in hi.s dHif^Mfid lionlc. Wind in llir IV'il 
lows, tehs how ihe nose of the mole searched hither iind tlTithcv 
l*> vcwiHure tfK' tclegruphic current tdat called hiui tu his undvi- 
j^tound home. He adds 'We others, who hav** long^ since IohI 
the more stihtle of the physieal 5enses, have not even proi>er terrri^i 
W» ex'press an animals inter-ccniniunications with Ins snrronndin^s. 
living or oiherwisc. and h-ave only the word 'Bmeir,, for jnstance. 
to include the whole range of deiicate thrills, which murmur in the 
nnse of the anin'ial night and day, summoning, warning. intitiTV^. 
I PppHini; " 

And so I can only use the word m Us accepted sens^ wheri I srate 
my Ijelici t^Uil die bees are peremplorih' summoned lo the orchids 
by u perfume, imperceptible to us. but perceptible (o the in:•ects.<L^ 
pertnme wfncK is probably ussocv.Ued vvilh the icrnalti oi tlveir 
kind- Th**. manner in which they ^*pick up" Ihib mysterious tall 
presents .so nwuy fascinating aspects tliot 1 hope to return to it in 
my next pai>cr. 


\. Tyuiceil riic^ttie o\ Outiis tuf/>hitria. The illu'iKalJnri sIko vt*ow<; tti<^ 
rcniarkr^hk t;l')n^.^t»oii of tnc pcclunclr- iftir fertiliaation Uo^'^est flower^ 
commoTi in tills gciius- 
ii. The 5t»Krnatic pl;^lc with (A) sutvhcr showing .ibovc. am.l (R) rofitellar* 
gUiid, with il5s Uansparent. covevins; meimbrane, contiminas with the ^Irg- 
matic setrftion. (W) Appenflayci; of the "<oliittin." 
iii The ^aine wUh fOSte*I<ir-p:lau(1 removed, showint? tho slot (K'j iiilO 

which the. fiiUnd fitted hcior*: its removal. 
iv. Posterior view of slaitd with polhnui .itMfticH. 


A lg)'iV:Uviroiv.or]ih. i\i.'(/t/ilif{c <7.y:v.<"Aw Smhli 

Arduilj^^ insects wci ocoisionally nnd ayjecioK'nij wiih Kiili 
».'f the i?od_v male, and rhe urlici half fi,^mal<i. In -.-ionvj the line oC 
dcniarcation is sharply defined, in others dn- sex chciracrcr* 
nvc dfstributed widiotU apparent -Ji'der. Recently, ] rec<iivcd one 
01 the latter kind from K VVilitiv. of Wov Wov. New South 
Wales- ... 

Thcjsc t-xtrHordinary crcuuirtis nre known us ,s^ynandu.>nKJ^)?ll^^ 
arid Professor ^'^o^g^^ (1*^14) sngf^cits that thf v>hLnr'ntcn<^i) Jh 
the rcsuU of soniv abnt^rinal uction during the (Hvisiun oi tlic coll 
m the primary stage ol feriili/.aiion. Tht ifx chnimosomt^ fads 
»o r<.-Hch its inu: ol^joctivc. and ihoreaftcr, die fnnaion.s of llu' cell 
are iioi ijcrujrnie<l in their nnttuMl >jeffncn':c. in plain lanjiua^'C. 
ilid TWO sex characrers. maloiK^.SH Jtnd femalenei^H. arc prcscMit )n all 
creaC.ires, ^nt one is m subjccrirjn. so to speak. Tlit^ re^siilt Is a malt* 
wht:n feniaicncss i-s. in ahoyfrncc. and -d :.cmalc when malcnc^-i in 
in aht-yaiHT- Tliat i^ Un; nornnd c('urs<\ i)nt aocidcnla- divcrsn^rt 
<jf (lie &f.\ chromoSonics u).thvt^ the law, ami aijriormal lornTs ;irc 
then produced. 

B_v ihe greatest of j;ci(id forrnne, J ccH consirnctcd hy this liCl*-- 
was foinid in gar<len noil, at a depth of 74 mm. Tlie .shaft hatl a 
dic*mcter ot 10 mm,. :x\v:] when the. .solilao' <^<^-'l wjs found com- 
pleted, the sliau was ftlle<l with earth. J'he nest wa.!> compobed ol 
seven elliptical pieces of rt)sc-li^af aiitl four t>f f.ijt-ttovif. all more 
or less oval. 15 mm. at the lonj*' axis, and ertjht mm. ai the shovl. 
'J'here was one round piece at the hoUoin. and four cn-cu)ar rUscs 
for the cover. 

The cell contained a mass of dark, orange-rerl ))i)1len, ahntn 
sevtin mm, in diameter. Under the mfcrosc<;pc the grains wciv 
?iliall. :imooth and spherical, nnfl ai)i)eared to he white, with a mass 
of orange-coloured oil-*^dahules hi.>idin;^' them lo^j-eiher. :^m\ givin^I 
the colour. Among milluois -'r these griiOuk-M was a iriangul.-if 
one I'roni ^ome UiH-alypttts. Although I 'searched very cariv 
fully rhrtiuj<h the ijollen-pa.sic. I c<inld not iinrl any trace to* an eg^. 
The cell wa.s comijlcted. and just closed, when it wa^ taken, utid 
wa-s not interfered with m any way, The ah-sencc of an egg. in a 
cell Innit hy a ^'vnandromorjlh. is veiy .'iui;);esrive 

'I'hi* tarsal halis uf tiii:i bee. like diose ol the males, .-ii'e. very 
long, extremely closely phinKKC. 'anf} since they arc Iduck on the 
npper half, they lonU very di>imctive- 1 have contrasted the meii- 
-sUremenlN in three columni-, ami it will be seen that g>nandfo- 
mol^Jh plainly lie> lietwcen die lw<» sexirs- Thr vlrawing? make 
the points clear at a ylaiiec. , 


*l Rcni<irf^abii,' Lcuf-Tntfcr 

^"^'- ra.?!"" 

iNJOrma! Male 

Mornial F^^nialc. 


L.ciipth, 11 mm, 

|5 iTitn. 

II moi. 

VVkUU .>{ Ab.. 4 5 ninu 

('i in»ii 

5 irrnt 

T'o^lertor Wir.K, 7-5 n>iii, 

JO ivttn 

8-5 mnt. 

I.encth of Antenna. 5 ^ 


4 5 n^Ttt 

S TTiin. 

No. oi scgrfncats, \^ 



Hamuli, 35 



Tarsi UiUitei!: long hair 

Sot so. witti short 

Tarsi greatty dilated: 


long" hair 

Coj«ac finely spiued 

Not 30 

Finely opined 

Apex of ah. hidctitatc 



Mo sc6i>a 

ilcavy £LOV>a 

Hea.vy \vhit<; scopa 

Detail? oT Gynamlromorph 

My specimen is MegacJule cJirysopyga Smith. In size it re- 
sembles the male, but the hair is much more golden. There arc 
the twelve female seJ^^^lcnti■ in the antennae, though they are Long, 
like the male's, the apex of the abdomen is smoothly rounded, like 
a female, and there i5 a sting: the pollen brush on the belly ii?. well- 
dcveloped. But the luost astonishing icaturc is the greatly dilated 
male tarsi of the anierior leg^. Not all leaf-cutter males have thl^ 
f&iture, though many do., but no icmale poijsesses such a curious 
modification. The male cox?d seg-ment of the anterior leg, in this 
:-pecic£- is armed with long spines, and this is the Case with the 
^'ynaudromorph. The stri^il combines some characters of each 
^t:K, though strange to say. the spines on the malus appear on the 
inner edge. 

This observer gives a good account of the it\sect's work. "The 
bee takes a long time to select a suitaWci site, but once sati*fi<:d. U 

gous to work in eatne:^t It bite:^ away at tlic eaHli, a«»<J di|;s Willi 
Jls feet, scooping the soil wiih its front licet by backing ;jiway aivl 

dragging ihem over die loose, soit earth. 

When the hale is deep enough, it ^tis To g-athering pieces Of 
mse-ie;if in lliis ofdec. Fiir>r. .q small rourid piece, the** four large 
in sucrtisiQji, one small, one lar^^e, otic small, two Jargc in succks- 
sion, one small, five large in succcsbioir 

The l>ee (lien departs to visit the. \ellriw flowers. .Six;lavf>e loiids 
i\i pullLtJ were gaiherc'^ m three ai»d a half hoars. When iFtc laii 
Itvid was brought liomc. ihc bee vejnaincd inside for fifteen min- 
utes, th<Ji reappeared, nud carried in aiieee^smvi mur sntall circnlar 
pitce-i. After a while tlie bee came our. and --craped ));iek the soil 
with it*i front fert. furnnig' T(>inid ;ind ronnfl, and (iiuilly |jre<sii}jf 
ii down njJhtly with its head. All ihe oranj^e-ivdoiired pollen was 
carried on rhc bee's beliv h^iT " This i$ probably the normal man- 
ner of tht species,' di^gin^ ni*>tliod^. 

So far as T am able (o discover, iliis ii iKc f>T«>t gyuandromorpb 
described in the Australian Megachilidae. hut in Amrnca, *1". \i 
Mitchell (I'J'JSJ) menrinus many i^\ rhe.^e abnormal leaf entt-t^r.H 
in his work, ^V.: ■^jinnuxttci iu. ihr Gctia-i Mrfjtichiic. Li\r.tiv<U'a' 
murphs, such as thit described here, must not be confused with the 
remark-'dife tjenus. A1f4rnffylf»'ill^ Ckll,, where tUr female h;is tbir- 
leen sej^^ini'oied antennae. :4nd a slivi^', thougli h;ivin.i> lo5.t the ;d>- 
dumin^il scopa. In sloiio cviraordinary way. a few of the mnic 
elements, in her genetic constitution, have dornmated tlie feniale, 
not by mere accident, hut by same nhscnre Jaw nf genetics, :r,ii}{:Ki 
th( characters arc constantly beiuR- rcpcaicii. 

KEY TO Tl.LUS'!;R.Vri.ON" 
I. CoKa oi rriaic, ^ihowin^ lOQg ipiacs. • 

'2. Cas^a of feniaU lias not any spine=;. 
3. Ccjxa of gytiandromorpJi h si>iin'd Ukv, the male. 
-4, S. 6 Tibiae of male, feiiiale and i:ynAn<lrOinO:i)b -Vole thai <n Itic 

female and its subspinose [.liAr;ictcr 
7, 8, 9. Tarsal iegmeJUs of male, female and i;ynantlroniDrrtli. 
lO, II, 12. Apex of Uj<r al""1c»"icn mi ftie scime order. 
LI, I4-, 15. Stri'i^als oj the anterior leyi in ihr. sanie order, 

16. One of tlie black-tipped, lon^; tarsal hairs. 

17. Leafy cell, complete, iintt two ut tlic pieces. 

18. Otic oC ihe Joiig ypiiios of the coxae. 


Wf J. 1'. SpinsraTn, Amciiia, Dutcht^ss Conuty. K'tw YniVr, TJ-S A., A^isS 
f<ir aid in obtaining information in regard to Auytralian iipeciei; oi ilnnatii. 
''I itni etpecatly iiUerested in this ftcnus of plants/' he writes, ''and \\^vt whal 
r hclt'pvr CO li? one nf the largt-st colltclions of (Jcma.hs species a.i*d varicncK 
unili-f caitivahon In Acnerica. )i\n T am Tioable to prr^cwre F,ee6-^. plants, i*ir 
(Jried specimens of Australian spL'cics except C ff^niianoidt^s," Mr. Spin;?ai*n 
li a»iMuu; tu procure soeds, planU. or dried ipeciuieivs of such specits as C 
arhhfo. C Fa-iCycUh', C. iiJ^r^f'otdirSf C. tmcrof^hylh, tjtc, as well ai lli^-- 
Teisman lan C. cohturo. 

I Till. I«. 

Cy At.A>f OuTf.i^oN. M.Sc 

Tn The cowsc u( PKippinj; stune basalt flows to The south of 
Gcclong. r <]i3ct)verr<l ihiit thtisc flaws which run cast fnjni Mount 
Diineed TO tht virimiy of f.ake Conviewane iirt nn^rt* e-xtcn^ivc 
rlian .t^^encrally iiiiagmcd. E.NUHTuncilion o^ th*: Ir.uiks nf ihc lake 
Nh<.»wccl that one tongue of fiasall. which onRituiUy .slrctcliecl fioiii 
Tiiit'b Point to FiiheTiiian'.s Poiut (sec n»ap) has been l>rcach<xl 
l»y Ihc Karwon River. Eri(|iiiru-.s lunonj^ resitlents inclie;ite<l that 
ii similar Km^'ue exists at th<: norti) riKl of the channel Ir'-iKlitij;' 
^nxn the* lake to the sea ni Mar won FJtad-S- 

Ti ihtjreforc hccatiie imperative tUorouj^ihly lo exjimine the l»etl- 
rock (»t the lake, as tht^ fxtciit of basaltic h::ns iiiis^hl^ throw 
Lonsiiierable light on the origin of the lake. Mr. Ed^^ai Churcht:5i. 
who hveson Caiiii>bell'H Poioi. kiiuJIy placed a Uat at my ijispovul. 
anil viurktn^ from fhi.s ur by standiiif^ on tbt linntr muilUinks. 1 
h;i,ve fhilie<l with a 50 foot rod at re*ci;ular intervals, over the area. 
bringmg up sanipJcs ot" thr hrrlrnrk anW r^^r^rfling »hc depth ol 
^\k. Tljis work is not yei rompJeied. hut SO inleTtsLiTiii; i.i the 
natiira] history o< the area that I have taken the opportvmity tn 
l^lace on rccorvl the naiii<?s ot the i>lants. mQlhl^ea atul binl-^' which 
are io he iouinl iheie. \ have to lliank Mi. C J- (.iahric^l for 
fflentifitalions of niolhisca. anti Mr K J Uuc. Government tor iilentifications of plant);;, My eumpaiiions? i" the 
work at Uie lake have Ineti Messrs. A. V. liailey anil f M. ]]iil>ltii^ 
wiihoKl (heir assistance the work wouki have ?>een inipnsvsitik-. 

Tiie wor<l Connewarre. sjx^lt Cnufwarrc on ihe j»arish plan, is 
flerived Froiii the iilKni^Mnal Koonwarra. meaainj^' HIai'k Swan. 
Com|wie. Barwon and Pavwau. trom Hairoworn. meanmg 
Magpie I he lake hes ahouJ eight miles from Geelong, via tlie 
OueenbcHiT and Melaleuca roads. It was tormerly very popular 
with ispovtsmen. and a nun»her of professional shooters were kepi 
hnsy 5>iii>]>Iyine. the mciropoliian market with leal. A few hir<liJ 
are still obtained at each '^Opening*, but the nuuiUrS have ^'rvatl/ 
ctLH-TCased in the forty years, and those birds which rcmam arc 
cxtrciociv wan. A j^eneration <vr two ago, yaehtint^- (m ilnip 
keel floats) was a favourite a]K»rt. hut the gradual decrease in Iht* 
iltrplh ot water han led to its alvmdoiauen*. borty years a5;o the 
jiveragc depth oi the *'Rig Lake" was about seven feet; to-day ii 
avcTiige> Ihre^fr feer 

The waters oi the liarwon River enter ihc lake at the wcalern 
end. hut except in win(<*r the flow is feeble. Ihere is n tidid 
range of 30 inches tn ihe lake, but this iy nut ^een on any f^ne. ilay. 
UN l!u' winds t^reatly affei:rl the hpi_£;Ut of the watei. Stron^*^ 
westerlies and snutberlies caubc continuous \vgh water, whtk*^ 

] CbvL«ov. ,^ :>tn4Y ol Lake (! an 11^^*0 iri'^ |3 

eusierlic^ a?Kt north^itiks ciiii^e'bw water. Tlir tlaiJv rirks Ti^mti 
.•vtroiv; ctiiT^nts along the ch:innel berwe^n the lakes uihI ihe sc^, 
and heic llic vv:it<-r is never still. In tlie weslcrrj jxii t o)* the liiKt* 
the water ih iM.vki.-sh, hui in ihc I>v^ Lake it ha.s the coin|josilk>fi o? 
ur^limry sea- water. 

To prevent the titlal wiuej- from travdling up thb Biirwnn t<"i 
Gcclojig, it li;ii, W^en n^c^ssarv to construct F>reiik waters aciosos 
tbt* river. The U|>i)er Ricakwaicr i^ .-ilw^nt two miles south-cast 
of Oceloii^. and wai Innlt of basalt hy convioi bbonr ahtnit 1844. 
Th<' L<>wcr 13n.-ikwater. hnilr .ibont 1898, as a Jajulinaii; ^1 iht? 
sonth-easr ejul of Reedy Lalif, u»i<l is bnilt of wooden i>ilts, fillwl 
with a boat 5|i|> Kind Ljaniry. 'Hie bbiict pilincf was merely ilrivcn 
into the silt, but as there ib a depth oi over 60 U-cx of silt m this 
(joini. it i.s not ahJe to widvslaiKl the annual fioo<i:i, and re^initvs 
periodic iTConsitUction. However, n serves its ])nrpo<;c. which w 
to keej) back the iialt water from the Sparrovale Irrig;iiion Farm, 
an arttficiaMv reclaimed portion ot tl>c mar^bcb. Thi.s ir. the 
|»r*)|»eny uf (he G<?f'!oni;' Harljom- Trust wliich alsit lunnrols th*' 
HavMuii River and the bike area. Ihe Irnsl *^neinr<^i. Mr. OuU|- 
sit.oie. ba^ supplied mc with much infonnation ee-n^cnuni; ilii 

It has ofien be(*ii nn^cd ihal the Big Lakr shonkl Iv- nTtinmlly 
reclaimed, and. a!tf»')Ugh the j)P.:sent is not a fasomuble lime to 
be^in, it -ircnis p^is-sihle. that in the tiiun-e a barraj^c wiJi in: thrown 
across Ihe lake, either ai ihe N\-cstei'ii end (beiweon J'ait'.s fV)mT 
and F'MiermanV Point) ov at tlie eastern «nd (tlur lake end in' 
the channel) At bn»h of these points, J believe solid ^Kt.sah 
hnindations would he available —in the first cus<.' at about 35 tect 
below water level, and m the second at 14 Icet. 

I.iulc i>y known o»" lh»j 'iuitability uf the soil ior agricnlueal 
and i>a3tt.>ral tipenttions, and a stuvey similar to dut made •>£ the 
soils of the l*ed of J-ake Albert, South Australia bv Ta'^lor an<l 
Poole {C.SJ R Journal No, 2, May, 1931) shonbl" <*bvi"on.slv bf. 
made jjrie^r to any money being spent on reclaniaHon work>- 

AUhon!;*'h the area under water ai medium tide i-i oulv i,7 satiate 
miles, the silled-np area total-S 22.7 .square miles Mlowint;- an 
average deptii of 30 feet of vsilt in the Ree<ly I-ake Hasin, 20 
feel in the Bii^ Lake. an<l 3 feet in thp Great Swani|>. the nnaJ 
qiianriiy of sediment is '.TO.OOO b>ns. If tbi.% were sprca<l over 
the '.Ir^inage area (J. 409 square jniies) of ilu. I\looiabiK>l, ].a.ieh 
and li-arwon Is'ivers. it wonid have a uniform thickness of 2^ 
inches. I'Vii.s solid rcsidnmn repre.senls. of onb' u small 
fiaClion »)f llie rocV removed bv dennilation. 

Ceob\i^ical Quarter Sheet 29 N W. niapi)ed by (Sirj Kichard 
Daintree iit l^rd. shows cleavlv the i^'rear diiTercnre he'wcen the 
^ee^ku^v id the norlliern bank and dia» ol" ihe southern. T\\l: 
north hank i-: from 50 iect to SO icet high, steeply biu|»ed. mu] 


Cuvtsiuw. A V/iitf.v nf fMkv C*J«n(r«'rtitv^ 

L Vui. 


clutactfiizetl by small landslips, which give it a hunimocky ap))cftr- 
ance. Tt consists for the upper 50 h-^t u^ 70 feet of Older Plio- 
cene terrii^inoi»5 sandy clays, winch rest nn Mificene mnrinc ihys- 
Owing to the porous nature of the sattds^ rain water (k rcolatci 
down to the impervious clays, and luhricuting these. t>rovKie5i a 
slippery surface^ alon^ and down which the upper .sanity mat»:rial 
slides. The south bank consists of !fi\v-lying Sidm\ atid nniri. rest- 
ing on hasaU- Thii» basalt is pait of a broad sheet cxtcntlmi^ south 
to Barwon Heads BlufH and west to Mount Dnneed. L^aUl Hill. 

^ V V V V 

V ^ V V V \/ 



Map of r.akc ConncvvArre 

locally known as Midd(eton'.s Island, is a resicrnal hill ot circnm- 
ficnudation in the south central portion oi the bke. It consists of 
-vandy limestone, unfossihferous but prohably ?«^iocene ; similar 
roc*c occurs at Fisherman's Point, on the other side of the lake. 

At [jrcsent the most reasonahic theory as to the origin of the 
l;ikc appears to me as followis: Imagine the present north l4ink to 
rcprcsciJl a former line oi sea cliffs, and the beach otT this $horc 
w* have been fairly shallow, say, from 10 feet to 20 feet d€pth- 
liHO this shallow water flovved large volume^ oT lava from Mount 
Danced Thi^ lava flow, at the site of Connewarrc, was about 
four miles wide, and ran from west to east. I>ut did not extend iv 
to the shore except at ihe two tongues, (shown on the inap). 
Rising mainly ahove the- level ot the sea. the basalt flow thus 

ionucd ivfo lake.s — Rewfy L;ik<^ 3.ikT I .ake ConiK'wan'e. The 
dammotlhack waters of the Barwon carvtd out the basin o^ Recdv 
Lake imul.they brcaclicd the first Inisalt tongiu'. bcrwet-n Tair's 
Poiiii and Fisherman's Point; then the combined waters soon 
car^^ed 3 cIiaTinel ovei* the secvmd ton.i^u**. lo ciU^r the sea at 
Barwon Heads. Meiinvi.'hrlc aciiltati deposits o( aiind and coin - 
niiiiiiuxl shell had formed the dune limestone of the tilud kt Bar- 
won Heads, antt flif: diir;e„s b«*t\vfLn there and Bre;im Creek- i'lie 
TWO basalt Twrs oheekecj tire flow af the rivers' waters and caused 
the dcpoiiiijon of the suspended matter, causm;^ rapid siltation. 
Mingled with the sand and cfay brought l)y rhe riveis are shells 
uf marine sinO lirackish tvater inQllnsca and decaying vegetable 

Certain of thi: nmdljanks at present are caited with a thick 
hlncU .>h'tne, which nn an;ilysis prnves ro he larj^eh' ferroiis -smI- 
phidf>. The origin o1 (his is. not ntidcrRtood, but lIic irvin is from 
inorganic matcriaJ? ajul the suJplmr mainly orgaatc. As iht; mud- 
hanks build thcraselve^ higher above water le^^el, they <rxhibit A 
Hdrishe sequence f^i vvayy intsrestljl^ di,anider- Sampliiie Gla^-^ 
won. Sea Blite, avA Wafer JJutton.s arc fjrsi to appear, fuiloweij 
bv Sw^iuip Weed. Common Orachc. Sea Celery. Slender Celery. 
ComniDn ?fa Mfath, Strenkctd Arrow ^jrasN. Creeping l^iooli- 
weed, then at a hic;her feve) Salt Ciai^i, vShrub Asier, Pale G'ios<f- 
foot. Scaberry Saltbtish.. Tliatch Sedge and i.^rlev Grass. Iiinum- 
erable webs of the Thorny Sjjider (Casfcrocauttui-K vmia.r "fhor^ 
are to be Sfen amouj^ the t.ussooks. 

In the heslier \v;=iter of the Kecdy Lake there is a prohfic giowtli 
ox Bulrush, Pipe Pecs.!, Conimou T^.iish> Mar^li Clun-msh, Water 
RiljlKJUs an<l Yelluw Mar.'*h Flnwcr. with ULcasi<»taaI .>])ecimen^ of 
Crass J^aisy. Small J.oofestriie, Water ^'lilfoil and Bitt«' 
Cress. Coiled around tfie reeds is the cenacious Brown Bindweed, 
wjrh its bcautifn! lilac flowers. On die pernianeut shore are many 
clurnpb oi 'J\ahgled Lignum arid :^onie fine specimens of Moonaii 
(Mclafcfu-a f>iibesi'Cfis) . Alonj^ the channel, the Marsh Sallbush, 
Mealy SaUbubh and While Mangrove appear in increasing num- 
bers. The widc-spreacting^ and •4U4ck -growing nature of the mait- 
i^rove makes it a very effective reciaiuiin^ agent. 

Growing irj the water oi ihe lake one nnd.3 Vollisncrkr, SpJro- 
gyre? orHcularis. N if el fa tri.sio-ki and Sea Tassel. Small gastery- 
pods, rnostiy Coxiclla sinaluki Menke, attach themselves to these 
plants, Mid the latter are consequently uprooted by the docks rmd 
swans ill their feeding The loose weed forms larj:je masses of 
floatni|r ""carpet \veed'\ which are llic bugbear c-f all ba^lmen an 
(he lake. Strong' winds pile the carpet ivecd on the shme. .Symc 
farmers remove it at loxv lide and use it us a ftrtilizcr Larvat: 
of Caddis-flies often use the ruhuJai' stalks of some of the weeds. 

Mullet, bream, Salmon Trout. Whiting, "Toadies" and Hftls 

art! the conmioncst fish ni the lake. As thtve arc: no stuiics in the 
\-rikt\ LiiKler which ihey nuiy hMt:. the crahs iCyi'lofjraf-SHS a^tih- 
noi-ii- M. Ed.) Have rebOrte:d Ui Iiurrowint^ in the stift murlhank.s. 
'riiey are wundeifuny quick in f-nterint^ fhesfi, cUie, tid rlo\ibi. 
prarrico in evaflmn; the \vaclirig birds. MoHiisco o; ?evcfa? kifi<l> 
iir'c; abundanL om tbie sariiijhire flcits. Init only tlcatl e^ptv-'inKiib arc 
Uiiuid in tile Bii^ Lak«- The incrcasini* oiudrliness oi' the watf.r 
aiu'l the iormation of ferrous sulphide. Ivive |>robfibly lo be l>lanv::<l 
^OT this. Mr Gabriel l>ixs fioaitt:c( o«f that some ot Ihc <IchiI 
^pccihicn.s. c.c;.. Anaydara Iraf't-ria Dfsh., ave m;Lrine in hahitar . 
this wraild nuHaite rlvit the Irike was {onncrly ii'iore salt tli'm "it 
IS now. The aboriginal nnrtdens on Campbe-H'i I'omi. nml Ttsber- 
ntan'.^ Point contain large luiuiber.s of O^trva. %'incs('c*rs Ang;4^ 
indicacinK that the water wuft clear enough in ihoisp. daV!* fOv 
oysters to flourish. 

l.iviiijLj in the Nidc ch^^mitU and on (he ud:il flats arc founil 
So!iiui-fo>- quuynmu P. v^ M.. J/o;ny(/t'uM (v'?(rv/?-i>( <.h hli'u) ton- 
Aff'icto- Lamk,. TitfOo Hnctuiiitiur, Martyn. Xxnicnc l^ciizfuc C. (k P.. 
Palimrr.s piuiuhen Lamk., Hnlla niiSiralis Gray, Hot(tjnuir..s ntisfrnhs 
O. & G., CommincUa lincoUita l.anik., Biltiwiu ccriUimm Q. ■& (»,. 
Liitamuhi iraumo Rccvc. ^^ytilus f^hznulains lamk . Caydinfii 
tr-iuiif /•} stilt 'iHi Larnk.. Katci\K<iit s-iric/osa [.antk . Cliionc ^/{dhnalft 
l.amk., Miicmnu {I'tdiiiui) dcltoutaUs LaiVik., Spisula piiri'a- Petit. 
PolinuifS ionica. l-'hasuiHcUa atistralis. 'I'dhnc dcUouiaih, Ncotlm'is 
■sni<>Mttu. Ci-'lhvit vtrrwQofa, :^tM\ ^on^c species cf Ptfujpod-^. 

Connvwarrc is jiisllv famed lOr it;- bttd hie. Sir Charles 
He.lchcr. now Chiet Justice of Trinidad and *l'ohai.'.<j. who \va^ 
\>Cn*n ir t!;o di?.TrJrt, has ricsci'ihed ni dtfljghlful fashion UW avl- 
f-juina m his 7Vir Riyo\<; of the Diatykt of iicelotuj. Au-Unilm. 
There art? Ubually bcvcral tKouvaiid black Swaiib on the lake. :uKt 
the spectacle uf a hig flock Ti^hitJ iiDni ihc waLCr i-H iii3prc.»>yive 
kccenrly some hundreds ot youngf Swann have been rt-nrcd in 
the Reedy Lake, bnt water rats take heavy toll of the e^'^n nnd 
youiij; The mnnhers of Teal 3ek! !.5l;iek l>nck vary ihroM/;hou2 
The yciu, bru chc loui( is some thousands, Mc-nntain Duck-; and 
Musk Ducks ar<; lesb conunon. A stiiall t^iJony of Pelicans, niakc!^ 
Its he^Ldquartcrb <Mi 4i heap ol ba^iilt boukltfs iiciir the mouth of 
ihc channel. 

On a. reicnt visit <if the Ltr;ich Memorial Uird Club. <^ui(leLl In- 
"Messrs T'L A. Pinoell and A. A. Grant, of the Ccelon^' Held 
Naturalists C-Iub. tlie Jnllowhur hir<ls were noticed dnrinij rhrr 
ahernoon- Spotted Crake. LiftJe Crake. VValerhen. Bald Cool, 
ATt->n7)ihan Caot, Crested Grehc Wtiitikcrci Tern. Silver Gnlk 
PaeifiC Gtdi, Spur vvinj; Plover. Dotterels. Sea-Cnrltw, Sharp" 
Trailed StuH, -Soipe, Spaoubilb Whitc-trontcd llcrun. White Ibis. 
|3igr Hntern, Cormorants. Swamp Itawk VVIiite-fronterl Chat, 
Reed-uat'hlcr. Silver F-yc. Thortihtlls, Llhie VVrpn. .SrubhFe. Quail, 

^^^ ■] Cot'u^ftN. .1 -Vhirfv of Litk.' Comiru*nrrJri \7 

Gainii Gaiij* C<xk;»i\to aiul Tnwny P'rogmouth. A Uim. p^iir of 
the latter nest, in a tree at Mr. lldi^Mr Churches\ 1khu<*. and ai**- 
artists in the practice of oimnnflase- 

At ihe instance oi the Geeloiig Town Pliinniiig A&-iociai>on. tlw 
river Yrcnn the Lower Breakwater lo Gcelong was proc)uinieil ;i 
sanctuary, and the increasing nimilier of brrds is a camplctc jiish- 
ficaii'oii ol this aciion- 

fVff-ir nCTTEKVLV f.T THATf 

fl.iw iTiany a(natfiir tuture iovcni have t^AprcxscfJ a dtsii"^ frr>(ti sJiivsr I.iv<* 
Ol naitiriil objects;, lo V^^Vt up ih*^ slud) f>i sonic jtarticuiar Kroup. but uiMur 
lunitolv do nor f^f.cvori'* The rcnson. in ihc t»»ajoruy ot cases proh/ihly, i^ 
•be iu:t Ihal all tlic littraturc* Jitc.eiisary ior rcforcncr to citable th<nri to cam. 
on rheir ^ttiOi<;s, is "''•''i' t<M> iKhmcal." 

iJr <i. \ W?«Tr((iou-ii'. uf Syilnfv, in lii?- (lonk llVw/i Rttttpvfly U Thaff 
tpiil>Iished by Angu-i unci Wuljcrlsoii, Svdnev), lias ,sii(i|>]iV<l a long needed 
^quidr (n one hrancli ol n.-itural bif.t'>rv. 

.S^ inr as Austratiyn Hpcck-s arc '_oK'.<;riK'<1, lh»s work i^ ilic (ir>i tit* ns 
kind on biiHerllies, ;tiid is itic ivraill of nmny >>?ms ui (.-tti'iicst :;uni\' and 
oafKhil cnlUntion of <lata, TVip boot,- contains 'icicntifirally accurutc. dv-scriii 
IJO'H and bgnres of all \]\<i Auslralian vpt-ctes oi buUerHie^ Uiai ctre hkely 
r*v he nir-r \vitli. I'lie^i"- <V-v"fip''»7'i^ '**"€■ '^<> worded .ift to be clearly tntoHi" 
gibic to any .student of Ok* .subjt^ct. hi a.ddilion to tin; scirnlihc nainrs ol 
all ibc specio, and ibcir iftinily i»o.^iliu)i^. ibe anibnr has U'vtn earli ir, vt?r 
itacular naim- ITc b^s br-td to _srlccf <i,i)irir of tbfsf" !litnL\olf, i. t;»sk" by iiv,f 
mcann e;isy. In all cases where a conunon name has existed Jind has bfcn 
ill y.cncra! and accepted us-:, it has been adopted in this book. 

Life history stajjcb rcpCcsentAlivc oi cftch l^indy arc dcf'^'^d. m\i\ tbcfc" 
^ire cn^*>nrcd drmvingf^ of the bntrei*llte=i fsll ihe s|x>cie'0 thcnisolvci^, tnc 
latter -digbtly rfidncfcl in sire, in thi.s part o« the work Dr. Watfrbouse- 
Uus beeii ab]y iissisted by Mr. Ix'cvilie Cayley and NTias i-*b> lbs Clarke, boilr 
M Sydney- The typical life history stages pasiicd tbrouqb by any butterfly 
w its developineni Iroin e^g to perfoct itiaeci are given; \\\ addition, the 
5lmrrtjrc of .1 butle^fiy i^ r;n-cfn!ly detailed, as vvcH -1^ (he principle iiivolv«,*d 
ill classilicaticHi. 

Dr. VVat<:rhuu&e'5 works, spread over a imml^f-r of years, ar^ well known. 
Ht* IS joint anrhor wttli Nfr. G. l-yc(l, of Gi5horne, Victoria, o\ that inaji- 
ikiriceiu -icienhht work, Tliv Butivifltc!) oj Avsiraiio. pnblishrd in July. 1VI4 
Hi': new bool.- is ont tltat will h^e welconic^l and appreciated by all wVio ar<" 
i^lte^e^twI in the study ol .Australian bulterfltes, and it ks lo be bopsd that 
it may be the tneans oi stumUaun^ worker? ni other groups ol insecls l» 
.'^Ttrnipt betnki; oi .i ;nnilar lond. 

A n. BUMXs ¥M.%. 


This e,\curiion was attended by twelve n>enibers;. Mount Ailken is a v<>l 
C&hic TfDt .ibont throe nides wrsi nf Craisifbuni raiK%'7ty .station- It prci-^ei»l»"» 
jome innisiial (eiatiire;;, which the leader pointed out, on the ascent from i|ic^ 
iiurihem side and descent on the we.^tern side. Tffc weather was perfect, 

By RiiV. W. M. R. Rupr 

Ju a briof article on the aftxnitics oi Australian ;tod New Zcaliincl 
Orchirls. piiWished in this journal. Octoljer, 1932, I atUu.led tO 
the- I'clitHonshi)) hciwecn the \'ew ?!cn,lani;l T oxvnxom<7 iieilif^fii 
Chee.-^emaii find the Tasiuadlan T. viridls' (Hook.). Dc. F. A 
Red way. oi Nowra, "NSW, ^on of- the veteran and distinguished 
Tasntcinian hota'AJst. Mr Leonnrd Kodway. wrote to me inquiring; 
nr, Co the identity oi tht Ta^rnaiiiau Totvmonia, since it is not 
mentioned ui hi?: father's Tasmmtian i^hra. The corrt!5|)Oiid<'nce 
which crifiucd k<l mc to look more closely into the characti^.ts ot 
these ?4cw Zealand and Tasnianiaa plants. 

Kcn' ^omc ycar-s I had had hei'luinurti .>pecimt'nf<. et)llecte<i on 
the Tasmanian weisttrn highlands, ol ihe orchid which appc;irs in 
Rodway's flora (p. 201. with a plate), under the name Acmntlws 
viriilis Hoitk. In the c<.inrsc r»( yomc correspondence with Dr. 
R. S. RoijtM"?. the lafttT pointo<I out that if the late T. F. Chc-^iie- 
man's Htw Zealand genns- Tuwnsoim (Manual of tfir N.Z- hlora, 
1^06 I'dition. p. ti91) he recognized a^^ valid, tl^e T3.iinaniHn Ayxttn- 
fhus ^•lrid■is nui$t inevitably l>r removed to it> as the two pktnr.^ 
are vtry c)o.5<:ly related indeed. From the otitscc. since 1 first 
saw tile Tasina.nvan plants I had noticed tha( it appeare^^ to differ 
ill important re&pecu from any other Acianthns known to mc. 1 
had not seen the M'ew Zealand loivusoma dcftcxtt; hut Passumed. 
I'rom Ihe gjst of Dr. Roi;crs's letter, (hat il was qnite in order io 
recogniie the Tasnianian plant in (lUiire as* Toii)ti.\OHiu vtridifi, und 
this I have a'tways since done. 

A few years a^o I- received from Mr. H, Ti- iVTatthews. nf 
R<;nuicra. Auckland — well known as an authority on iht orchids 
ot the Dumiiiirjn — a mobt vakial)le ai^bortmcut ot i>pcc»ni€us. mclud- 
ing two of Ttyfi'usonki dfffexa collected hy W. Town5;tin hin^self. 
The fiuwers are at an advanced jtagc. and the rhizome or caudictc 
3ind bn.sal leaver; arc lacking; hnt even with the^sc defects I could 
see at nnce the intimate resemblance to the Tasmaniaii fmm. Mr. 
Matthews subsequently sent an excellent photc-graph of a cok^ur- 
sV.'ctch I>y Mrs. Bvownlce Ot' three livti^g s]>ecimcns, $howin^'a)l 
pM'is of tlic plant: and no one scemg this conkl douhc for a 
moment, if acquainted vvith the Tasmanian form. th.r iieces*uy 
of placing the two in the same genus. My material bein^'^h'mite<l. 
I have not cared to risk damaging my sjiecimens by over-handling. 
I'Ut 1 mti5t confess that, after subjecting ihcm ro considerable and 
vnreltil esamitv^tion. I nm strongly disposed to regard them as 
Slot jnerelw closely, related, hut actually convpecific, Whether ihis 
"be tht or not. however. Ihe fact remains that they must he 
incluck-d m Hie aanie^enus; and the <tut5tion to be taccd m respect 


may t 
1933. J 

RiJTFj An Inierestiiiq Tasmaman Orchid. 


Toivnsonia or Admit hits f 

A. Tot0isonia dejiexa Cheesenian. Drawn from hcr]>iirium 
specimens and Mrs. Brownlee's colour sketch. 

'B. Aduvthns viridis Hooker. Drawn from herliiirium speci- 
mens after very careful examination. 

if) Kucr, /Tjtt t»M-cxtvt{i T^.umuiiMi Cmhhf. | y. 

Vicl. 51(1 1. 

)l L. 

of this U wh^tltfir Chetsfcnun was justtftiid Of not in cMabli^hntg 
tlic genus Toi<;iisoHia. Probably opinions will diftei : my own 
view 'S that, he wai. 

I cannot rnid n possible la iupposc Iftal Ctiecscraan Wc"i^ 
^pf|uaintcrl witK Hooker's Tasinaniiin i;|>ci!.ics. Aciauth^u 7.;nV^JX 
his (tniis.sion nf any allusion to it wUcfii f|<-:sci*ibin!^' To:<*HSfyhiit 
w\n\U\ m fh;il- r.n*?e be inexplicrible. Vet it is a inct fhat ir- desri'ih- 
iiii:^' New Zca\i\u(} orchid spcci-cs ^li.Stingnishod bot:inisti; liav<; bt'^r) 
Strangely oblivious to the c-sdsttnct: ol' certain lon^'-cstablisbftd Aus- 
tnilian species. Thus Hooker describe?., unfier tlie name C^rys- 
iiiulu^s Clicd'cuiaHnii, a foT-iw wbicb. c^miol be -^cparaiCtJ I'lon* 
R. brown's C. hkaharatii (unw C. aaniUifJorrs ?;ilibb?). aud 
iiiulff the a-ime FtuKostylis f>Hl:ci'i4la, n, form indi.*''nn;ti-i^bahlc 
from P.f. vntfo R- Br-; and Chcesomv^n himseU de-sctit-.ted a.s >a new 
sp^jcicS (Pt Matthcxvm) oilr old Tricnd P, luitatu R br. 

Ic is ctiriotis tli;it Cheeseman, in describing i nivnsoiwr. makes 
i\o reference whatever to the tretnis Actau/hus He crrfainly knew 
the EK'inirriion A. Sincloirii Hook, (very close lo our A. trscmts- 
R. Br. J, and k Jih-^s n(jt seem to l*ave ocmrrcil to him ^it all Hial" 
■| own*-:4in'5 discovery might be iijckulc',1 in this genu.:;. He con 
5i<lered it close to Kooker's Adcuochllns. ^md irjenrions its affintOf'.^ 
with CJnloglorAls, Calad&nia. and Bumritio 

The plate iUiistrating Ackrnthus viridis in Rixiway's Tit.wUluwn 
J'lora shows the flowers iar more erect thaa in any specimens .1 
biivc 5>ec*i Iv^ hII niy western iiii.;lilaiKl> .specimens and in o-ie 
recently received TTom Mr. A. J. Tadi^eH.. which came from the 
ncighhonrhoml ot Moinit WcHiti^lon, dicy arc cxaetly described 
bv (~hefse.m:mV words for Tnvtnisonia, "[icrianth horizontal or 
-ieflH.ved". Hut in Mrs. Brnwnlee*.^ To^omonia sketch the n]>i>er 
flower on two stems is fairly ?rect; ir seems re-a-sctnable. rherftfore. 
CO suppose thai; "perixmth xooyt hoeotniug horizontal or def!e.\fcd'* 
mij:ihc tit the i;icu. 

1 have already tjivcn the reference in Chces':rm:in's Matumt for 
his descripi-ion of Trnvyisomti. Dc^scriptionb oi Acittnt^tns vnidis:, 
ill addition to Ihat of Koclway. will be found in Hooker's H- I'us'm.. 
li, 372. an<l Bcntham, PL Aus/r,, vi, 371. T now append a tabula- 
tion oE the pnitits whicli appear 1o me to jusiily the relrntion of 
Cheeseman'3 genus. 

Tmrnsonia Oiee^-enisn .Aatinfhus R.Br. 

■plAnt with a crt'cpisig rh:-;:ciiie- or Plain with ekn*ic», siirflileni' fib- 

cuuiikic, tijicKc'ir^d .It mtcTv.-tl-s inUt ruus fiiuts tni^> Tubcr*- usually 

lulicrs. with a few short IjbrDiis rwo. ut the end of the mam tlic 

Toots alio, and more or Inss cov- chief ;HiJvc'itUiuu3 lool. I^^^l other 

crca ■•-vilb ^liurt ti^ir^ L-xtvjji. di Hit tutvTf- may he develofed by -^malltr 

gr4>witt-j jiomt. n.'Ot3 under certain circnmi.kkmcts. 

Radical leaves l-i. uronitnctilly l-eaf ;£j:iliiar>. 5«ssnc or a.mii|pxifaul 

petinl.irc on tKf rhuoiiit;. iomelinics oi> the it-im. varying in incidence 

) al the bate ol the Howviruf 5tctn. irunJ the Irasc to aborr italf-\\*y 

Ri.'n\ /in lii!fiu\U>n{'j Tasth-crftitr't Oirhid, 


"iv«af lamina ov&io-'-u'lMCuUr or 
cortlate, witl- crcnutatc iDarguis, 
Stem leaf niuuh smurcr, alx>ut 
haK-w'<4y v]}, sc'^Mlti. acute al ihc 
ii(>ex,'gini; crcoublr or auire. 
}'*tower.> 1-4, nooit bccotnm}*' hori- 
?OiUiil or (leflrxed. 
Pcriamli-.sctinicnt,* iicuiy or oIkusl. 

Pctah very mintirc. crcc.r or hoiik*- 
whal rcflcxcd. 

.-.ahcUidn rather i;n;>.ul it frOiU. 
hardly ;-ci:tt\ 

Hasal call; o^jscure, r<iiUlC%fd 10 iwv 
rt«t ricl«cs or apparency somttuiicH 

Co)i4riin I'rfcl. uronitiicntly winjicd. 

apes, no; crenulaic. I>iit exhihitn-tx 
occasiondl tendency 1o lobation. 
and ill one specie;-; often d<*ej^)y 

Flowers !-Uj or twtn Mi/.r^, Imt ftcl» 
duin solitary : '.^rect. 
PeriantSi-seBinunix Acult lo finely 
Acuitiinnte <>»' fttanieniost'- 

Petals small, otlen completely re- 
flex eri 

T^dh^iliJni ver>- ^1C'Ue or^ 
otxccjit in W. n'orjof'H\iSy \vhore a Jv 
very hliiiit or L'm;irj;)natc. 

wiimcci (escqjt .1. )\^tii},u inis). 

h would apiiear that \hv l;»i)i_;llinii iind column ul" //. rrinj<ffuti.\ 
Acvw 10 liiilv liiL' Ljcner;! loj^cthoi, InU il floes not -iceni lu mc th.'ii' 
this i:^ the cast-. < >f all species of ,!<• unit has. .'/. /ryn/v>r;j)/> k Vik: 
like Towjisouiit. and Iho laljella m pHtticuiiir <!<> not rcs<>mhlc. widi 
ollit;'r f r the rorif><;n.-.;i.s of llglantoitl ojjiuiuti ts a^aitisi (Ibfe^'-niaii. 
Ijo it Ml. In iiny ai^<:, I hope that this firtick may be <'l" service 
jn revcalmj^ tho charucicr ol' u spccici (or i; it iwa?> xvhich is 
ilV-f,-!!-*)!)!";*!- (o niauv of onr orchid-sttulor.ts:. 


Ciiltiirv in thr finxh is the cuptivatinj;- title cjf a book rcc.cntlv pubHslied 
rjj- Met.^rs. Angt::* i\: UoberKon. Sydimy. The author, Mr H. J. Girler, is 
witrlt'ly Known ;is an entonujloftt^t. .'.nvj 1ki5 map.v* frien<is ainunp: inemlK*r« oi 
our Clul> Some of us have Ivreii hi:; companions on outings, and know how 
plcaiant it is to be afield with ;i stii/ntific natur^lij*t who also is a lovi:r 
of w del uAtwrf. ajd can torn Iiftln'.y from bi-s ,spfciaUy io :a'k of men and 

M)' Cdi'it-r •• biKik is a vdluatile record lor fellow entomoiogists, ajid oi 
interest to a!l wIki car^ ior tiatnral biutory. H<t is primarily a cokoptenr>i, 
r>ul while beetle:* ^rt i:hc favourite -iiibje*:! in these teases, nu'ch information 
16 given concern I IK'' tree*- ami wild (lowers, while rain forestH. n\oiint:iin 
tops. pl;iin'',. iind ttiv- sandstone comitry around I-i-ydney are described Reader^ 
are' tuken to the 3.^lue MoimUuh^. to the liarri'iyton Tops, ta inland New 
SoLld) Wfik'?'. mni(iiU*tn<ms p,<n^ oj" Vii-toria; to places- in all the States. 

VAinc^ tannliai* i^i nv'ml»ers of the Field Nalnrali-^ts' C'tub of Victoria 
appear in this; fai:einulinw record of a nuturah>t'5 bu-sh wanderings. The *aU' 
Mr. Tho^v. G. -Stoaue wta one o\ (1-e auihur's oh^^X friends and a rompanion 
or, many notturc o'aili- 

A trdiiile t't aiir tlliil) (> p;ud by Mr, Cat tt;r. He say;* it h "i>erhai>% {ht 
most vigorous thinR of its kind m Austrahti/' and that its Joumo! takos a 
high place III tbfi iiativo IKCratufe of the Commonwealth. 


liy W. H. Nk*iu-iM-^' anrl fJorTJ^■H, H T. OnApRv 

.'U'laUthtrJi hU(U-iJmnu.\ n. -sp. 

I 'fan/a tt'tuassimn, tiUihra iirrif,:r 10- IS rut. dlin : jol^Hin lni$i 
orhuiilarc-rnr^hitHlft. (,vin>/ At'uiulhiK^ rfvijornils Scltltr.) \ nuilU 
triii(irX.Kinni.K. jntrl'itfCifx; infloicu'cului xf' taxiusntl/t , fiorcs ^ 
7!cl 13, iditjHiuulo i>iurr..<\ rtfiyhtos-f^ur purer: ofonutv- clongotUHi; 
IfMcfciw ponuii\, &vo{o-ucitinhi(rtnc\ conawav, ciyvitcr 5-6 mm. 
lonqac; scftahtm-dorsaU nutfiistr Uiunrti, cycriuvi, courfwu-m, 
ubf'Kptc KiioninatUin, t'ircih:)' :V-9 mat. ionf/ntv,; fwiah ci .\cpiilu 
htlrjuiivi. finrnna. arciUr 7 ci mm. lovna: pctala pato^tta. vd 
rcficxa; ittbt-llttni jv.s'.aVf. cunrnlo inncrol/riitw, cirdtry i tum. 
longinn c1 3 mm. huxan: htmma plana, huryr/inibus rcjU\\:a, biu<i 
i/londuinr. Z rovwac, f^ronttucntcx; 2 hifsac Pimillclitx?, iusijuc 
'jiii'.fliuni iMstrucfnc: cohtinnii clrcitcr ^ -^-5 tnin. louf/a, r]onfr^i*«, 
Iwifrr. IncttrcHi, 

An extremely .-.IhkIiii' spccich iiboiii 10-18 cm. in height, k-al 
Ai or near tlic Ga^c flcsliy. orlncular-cordate. varying much in ^-ize. 
uuti vcvv similar to that in Atlnaihus vcniformii Schltr.: inflor***;- 
c.<*nce in ;l loose S])ike; flowevs 2-] 2, of more, .qrceri or g-n^wnisFi- 
|->m-ple : ovjiry elongated. tKc <^uhtencbag bi'acti ^liiull ovrjtc- 
iicuiui)iaLe concave, atjoiit 5-6 nmi- long^,; nf> hxwcX on stem Iielow 
inflorescence; dorsal si')>m] narrow linear, f'.rpcl nr prnjecleiifj for- 
ward, concave, abruptiy-acuminave. ahout i>-9 iiini. long x 1 nun. 
or les?; \vi<lt.': late^nil petals <nul sepals linear, iibonr 7 aiut f' mm. 
long TC^pcclivcly, f-'Llalis '^picailin^ ot rcflcxcd; I;i1)c'lluni NK^^sflt*. 
cuncacc-lanccolatc. broad ac the: hanc. wheve it enihraces tIh? base 
tvf 5h^ column, ahouc h mm. lont^ x ^ mm. widti; Inmina flat, mar- 
gins ffHr^xf-dj rerminaiing in ;i fthori point ; 2 pronnnont corneal 
p:la)Kls at the hase, hcivin.q: blacV apices: tUcuciing' from tUe l>a:>c 
(»f glands almost lo *jMreiric apex of laniina ar-if two parallel 
jiiisceiiins; lines or rtdy^cH . column uhout 4-4-5 ntm. lonj;, cred t'or 
iwo-thirds of it^ le%'th. then al:)ruptty nicnrvcd, tip icrniinad'ns,'. 
in H knoh (anlh^i. stig-nia. etc.). 

This arldilion to the ^cniif is of ntoic than llMial intcretit, 
because it show^ t^lal Schlecltlor'Mi roncUisi*.ui chat Crystostylis is 
NTiperfltuHis Liis a ^cnua name, tb ei'irect. The new .sppcie* grnwv 
ui colonie;s under thick bciaib. m wet. ptaty tioil. 

VVr-titcni y\u3traU<i : Baviswater, near Pt:rth. (Colonel K 1^. 
C:r)adhy. Se\>tf!mbcr Octol)cr, 1932) 

,'U'intu'f\UJ swedes 
a_ At'iOi'tiiUs fi'n\nssin'm n,si>. ; h- .•^dnnUtfts U'ntiifstuvn. ii.5p.. in !niJ. 
Vniiwiit;;^ aUvrntitiau> rycJb. ctc.^ i-, Lt-ai" ( ihir.Wrsiflr.- 1 .4c, icn*iUK^ir,t\i-y u.n])., 
J. Lubiinn liea<l. Ar. lcn\uss\>n\n from front ; c. riow-^r from side. Ar, Jcvnlssi' 
itUts : i. l.rihe.lUini Irom above. Ar. tciuUsimu^f. u, (xlantLs ir<m\ luhellum 
IjyiHe. Ac. lciini-^sitnu-\. li, Two pollen iti;isiics; I, .'h'imithus i'lifilofuri.i SchJlr.: 
). I .abelhtir Acmntlua rcfufonuu SchUr. ; k. iU\ui)ihux i\vji.'rtux VL.Br.\ U \ 


May -] 

XiCHtK.Lr^- and GoAPKV Vc-Tv' I'crrcshtn} Orclti{i. 

naiKiifis trjiuts'^imus. n. sp 

24 SrAtXf l-'o.^sH I'n.'tiiu oj tin' Grcltwu District. V^vti ?!*^' 


liy Liio VV. bTACtr 

/- TliQ J^cih ol Thomson's Creek. Mon'ar. 

Ditmig a rri|jit.l aurvcy ot the Etrea south ot Ckieloi)^. innlm ihc'_ 
guidaiiu'c ot Mr. Alan Cniilsoit. T w'lVo .'sliown a fo'si^il locality 
disco^^ered by .VJr. A. M. Howitt^ at Tlioinbon's Cr<:pk. -ilHnir rwit 
miles i^oulh of Monat -railway ntation. Ir proved lo be panicti- 
larly rich in moltusra rmd rorak. an<| during the hali-hour spciU 
collecting there the' following species were fouiid ■ 

ANTIIOZOA. — Sivt^hanoirorhn.s' hiivi Dcjuuim : PUibdlmn 
nicdioplkatmn Dcnnaot : P. dk\(trt<hiin Edw. and IF.; P. ia.s'ti. 
rjixtuMi Dennani. PlacoirfM'hus clomjalu.- Duncan: Plafytrochiu sp. 

BIO\Cll]PODA..-.~riUjuioHiyncfnii coclcUa T. VVuuds. Maijcl- 
taula rof'ior-Hsi.\ McCov. 

PELECYTODA.- Pvitr.n sUtrtuum.s 'I' : P, praaundr Chap- 
uum: Spomiylus pscii/hraiJuhi McCoy; S. tjacdcropaidcs McCoy: 
Limops'ts chnpnww S»ng ; Gtyi'hHcris ornitliopetKci Chap, and Sing; 
C. aimo^oira T. Wotnls; G. if fjronfis Sing: Tru/oiiiOi-i:eini-itniUi- 
hid McCoy: l^'cuc^icurdiu- jan-jukicnsis Ciiap. and Sing. 

SCAPHOPODA. —Lhahdiiiw mmiicUi Zittel, 

^CASTKROPO\'y^. ■Ivm.fclht- sopfifrtn/a Tate. T. frisffru 
U'ate; yolniiliflms onrkln^ttlaHt- McCoy; Cypmau pkityrhyncha 

NOTES ON THM KACNA.— The coi'als Toinitl at rliis iuiulitx 
aie typical Janjuklan (A'f>o<.enc) terms,, twcj ot thoni, viz.. 
S'lephanolroclnis iaiei ynti Plobclhiui toeing hith.crlT) 
restricted to the nearby Toriiiiay beds, while PiobcUiim distimhttih 
i^ recorded rxa only ivdm Torquay .md Tabic Cape. 

'Pcfptloihynchia coclahi is found at Muddy Creek, Hamilton, 
aud also in a lUimber of. prcnmndjly, Juujukian localities, not 
inchuJing Torquay. Glydmcris ornithaptera is a tj' Jan- 
jiikiun forui fouiul in considera^>]p abundance at Torrpja}-. pnd i^ 
iilio recor<led from Wauru Ponds. Table Cape. etc. 

Tlifi occurrencf. of Turniclh srpUfwfO and Cypracn pUdy- 
rhyndia, which are botI> found at Torquay, thq toriner l)ein^' 
recorded trom Sheliord and the latter from Table Cape, furthe-j- 
itlustrates the relatitm of the I homsons- Creek beds to the hed<i af 

Krom this QWt may conclude that the Tluvinsoub CfiicH W<ls> 
have y typical Jaiiiukian fatics. 


*Kowill. A. Nr., Hi^rmds 0} Cro/, S}trve\ ,►/ /'V( .. Val, H* i*C III. 
V 26i. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol, L. — ^No. 2 June 6, 1933 No. 594 


The ordinary meeting of the Club was held at the Roval 
Society's Hall on May 8, 1933. at 8 p.m. The President. Mr. 
J, A. Kei'shaw, presi<led ovev an attendance of aljoiit IOC) nienihers 
and friends, 


From the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, in 
reply fo a letter sent from this Club protesting^ against the use ql* 
])0ihOncd wheal bait for kilh'iig rabbits. 


Rqjoru of excursions were i^ivcn ns follow: Noogec, Mr. A. G. 
Brown; Za<.>logical Gardens, Mr. J. A. Kershaw (for Mr. A* 
Wilkie) , School of Agriculture, University, Mi.S-S J. Rtift. 


The President announced that riic Club in(en<U'd to hold a AViM 
N'aturc Show on October 12- J 3; 1933, at the St. Kilda Town Ilall. 


Mr A. D_ Hardy .spoke on the Leaf-c-in'ling; Spider, oil leavts 
curled by an unknown insect, and also on the Giant Tree recently 
discovered on the Mt. Monda Track. HcalcsviHe. 


The folluwinpf nominations were received : 

President: Mr. Y. H. Miller and Mr. A. S. Kenyon. 

Vice-Presidents: Mr. G, N. ?Iyani and Mr. J. W, Audas, 

Treasurer: Mr. J. Jngrarn. « 

Librarian: Dr. C. S. Sutton. . 

Assistant Librarian: Mr, W. IT. Ingram. 

Editor: Mr. C. Barrett. 

Secretary : Mr, F. S. CoHiver. 

Assistant Secretary: Mr. L. W. C<x>per, 
; Committee: Miss Vi. M. Havnes. Messrs. E. E Pcscoll. S. K. 
Mitchell. P. H. Croll. Chas. Dalev. Geo. C:og:hilb A. S. Qialk. 
H. P. McColl, W. Hanks, and A. H. E. Mattingley. 

Auditors: Mr. A. S. Chalk and Mr. A. Q. Hooke wei'^ duly 

^ ficid tWdhtranstf CM Proa^cdmtfS. [^y",'. ^*^ 

A lecUire oo "Some Modern Conceptions of Soil Science" was 
j?iven by Mf. W. R. Jewell. He cxiilained the metliod ol soi' 
testing, the composition of soil. €cc., and gave nutch tncere^sttno^ 
Hifnrniation on ^oils generally. A scries of profile.^ of various 
Victorian soils was shown. At the conchision of tlic lecture ?l 
vote of tlianks moved by Mr. C Dale>% and 5.econded hy Mr. F. 
Pitcher, was carried by acclaraation. 


Miss J. RxifT. — Insects tolkctwl during the CUib's Easter Excur- 
sion to Noog<:c. 

Miijs Kenyon. — Botanical specimens from Mt. Rosea 

Mr.^. Freamc. — Sea SUtg^s (Dcridiodoris) ;ind Pipe-fiih iSyuQ- 
nathus Hgris). 

Mr F. H- Sal,Tii.-^P.'cr^).v/W'iLv uhito, Somerville; P p<l^'^'^flnr(lM 
Diamond Creek; P- pfdoff!o.<.^a, Spritig VaU ; F- lyvolnia, Grcens- 

Mr. H. P Dicken$, — Stone chi^ifl. from NoOg&c. 

Mr. A, G. Idrown. — Grasses. Mountain Wild Qat {Poir divffs), 
and Antdope Grass {EcJiinochlon pynimidalis). 

Mr, W. Hanks,- — Ahnriginal, implements an<l chippiugjs Fivni tl*c 
TjGTiki of the Merri Creek, at tiic hack o^ Pentridjte Stockade, and 
.It Short';^ Road. North Cohnrg. 

Mr. V. Ff Miller -'Two paper Nautilus shells, from RalnaTriuj;. 

Mr. D. J. Paton. — F'tcroxtylls ohfusa, P, pannflora, Prasophyl-' 
hiiti deapecians^ Dipodlnm pimctainm (ont of seasoti), Lcptorcras 
timhriatujH, EurioMJus cuculhii us, Hakta nodosa ( in ^*'y wer ) , 
Lotncuia ilicifoiia (in fruit, showing winged seeds and dehisced 
fruics)* ■ 


At Jilntast the htad oi \hc Thomson River. s«veii n)il« frotrt AlXirfeldy, 
along the oM Reef ton mining trac)-:, there is a prominent conical hill, at an 
altitude of JOOO leel, nanit(J Ba&alt Hill. One of the disai^trous. fires m 
Fe'l:'riiar3", I0i3, swept up from the Thom,son River to Mount VV'hitelaw. on 
the Baw Baw PUteau. Owmg to th<: *.ortical nature oi the hiU the fire dttl 
nut p;is5 over the summit, but swept around each shoulder and joitied agaiH 
about one-quarter oi ;a mile rtowix on the Whiteli^vv Creek fall, leaving one 
ol those iiniall grccii oases ^vhich often occur in large forest fire ^reftf. 

J^te in the aftcrnocai of December 8, 19J2, with Assistant Surveyor 
A. R. L. Small. I was walking <towr* Uom Mount Whitelaw, ainJ. Itavin^ 
passed through burnt country for the previou.s twelve miles, was e.Npectirtig 
lo iicc some a^n-mal life in this Jsolatod triangular patch of virgin 
forest. lmmedialc?> atter two Lyre-bird?, had run acrois the track ;*tst ii> 
front ot me. th^^»^ was a 5<.4Ucr ;inw<tsi tht musk on n\y left and out ran 
ii pure white bird It began to fly and for a few seconds I had m viesv a^^ 
aUvino Lyre* Bird — a female. 

Mrrvyv E. Bill. 

[This interesting record was menlioncd, as a tiature note, ^K a meeting of 
the Field I^aturahati' Club.— Ednor.] 


Plate I 

I Curpobronis acquilatcrulc HIack. 2 Mcscmbryanthemum cordifoliwn L. 
3 Lampranthm te^^ois N. E. Brown. - i^. 4 Cryophytimi crystallinum 
N.E.B. 5 Crvophytwn Aitonis N.E.B. 6 Disphyma ausrrale Black. 

7 i\U'sc)ubr\'aiithi-}iiu})i hixniH Haw. 

liy R F. MoR»«i5. National H^irbanum 

Th*:sc nOt<!:^ arr ^iubnikted m vtcw of the \Aci Hiat greater iftter- 
cst is being taken in ]?lants suitable for rock gardens and clr>' and 
saliiie SQiIS- It IS hoped that they will serve to show the import- 
ance, and S4innihitc i'luther ol^servation and cultivation of out 
native plants, and at Ihe same time be of interest to botany 

J3otanis.ts in Europe and South Africa are busy classifying this 
long-ne^Iected tamily. Many -clunges m nomenclature can b*.* 
eNpccte4. especially ni the genus Mesembryantkan-um, which onte 
contained more than o50 specie.-;. It is recognized as one of the 
roost intcrrsting. yet difficult, genera to clasi^ify in botanical 
science; the fruit structure being one of the n^ost compHcated in 
exi?itencc. It has been found tlui a difference in the habit and 
the character ot the toliaj^e of these plants usually coincides with 
S<sme diflTerence in the Rower and j'ruit, indicating generic dfsbnc* 


Our native plant!) arc nearly allied to 50!ne In Soutti Africa, 
.nnd ])ror>ahly }> been ilcnvcd from them. 

The family generally is easily recognized by iis glorious flowers 
when in bloom, all having a family likeness, tliough there are end- 
tess diflference.^ in th'i floi'al organs. Some flowers open as early 
as 9 o'clock on a sunny morning, and will remain so until tl^e 
lemjjerature of the day declines at 6 p.m. They close ior the nighj 
and iHt-open next niDrningf, provided the day is fijie Others can- 
i\ot be aroused until the clock ha-^ struck one. and then only pro- 
vided I lie day h fine Species with cnmson-backed petals open 
at 4 p m. and close at dusk. Finally, there are the very wide- 
awake flowers which lie expanded throughout rhe day and night, 
wet OT iine. 

-It IS strange thait the diaraciers afforded by the fruit of the$e 
plants had never been used for dassificatory purposes before Mr. 
N. ]£. Hrown. the greaieai worker on the family, made the facts 
known recently, There arc juicy edible fruits, stony-like ones, 
capsules remaining closed or ^plittin^ in various ways- There arc 
•i*ieds of transparent, paper-like thickness, and the range is co bon«'- 
like structure Some capusles open in tespon&e to heavy rain, 
natnre ha\nng arranged the release o( the seeds when the ground is 
in a Mutablt* conduion lo receive them, 'the fruits remain open 
\vhilc wet. but, when dry, return to their original position nnri 
prevent the seed being shed. 

'3^" J»!nMft*s, tiallvj and Inirnditccd Au:Q<KaK. L Vol L^*' 

Lraf Stkcctl'sles 

III Ttiany citses, tlic leaves are protected from animals hy Ihir. 
tmiidles o[ tannin-ljeaTing ccUs, generally placed in special tuf-^e- 
like acrangcmentK. They are easily uoiiced a.s doLs witliin ihc 
green tissue. A lew species of M^sembryanthnnum urc excellent 
ioddcrs, others are toxic to maq and beast, while several supply 
excellent medicine. 

Oi the many fasiinaiing leai-iorms wbtcli gr<i\v, it ii>u$t suffice 
to mention a few oi the remarkable ones. Here the leaver arc tht. 
most tmportrmc t;ictor The gcnuvS ConophyUim ("Gjne-:(j]ai-it5.")^ 
has globe-sliaped ie;i.v«s closely welded, •with a small oritice at the- 
top through which the Hower emerges. Tlic Lithops ("Stonc- 
Uces'') Ixas a slit right across the lop of the welded globular 
leavej^; and a short wriy down each side T>ie Giiibaemn ('*G'>uty 
plants*') has one leaf .shortej" than tlv, other, closely paired to- 
gether, gu'i]ig it the appearance oi having a hump. There arc 
other pl:inCi which have no two Je^ives alike. Then there are 
aiiinics, like Meseinbryunthetiitim Dolusu. with lai^e swollen 
leaver., so closely resembling stones Chat, without flowers. Ilicst!' 
'planty niergi^ uriperccplibly mto theii* surroundings." The roots. 
Iwives and stcniii hvive special storage rcacrvoiri* to Inde Lhcm over 
drought peiiods. 

There are other rein;»rki-ible growth tonns such, as *'SpUaer- 
uides'\ "Dumpluigs". nnd "Burtons", atid. according lo Ihc great 
worker, Mrb. T-I. M. Bolus, ot the Bolus Hcrtciriiun. South Atrica. 
the most fascinating ot the whole Mrsembryanthemimt group 
HFC the "Sphaeroides." -S^ke describes "dumpUu. and lessor dump- 
lin or dumphu siixil his wife" in Notes on Mesemlyryanihemum ttnd 

Sum*: AUlcd Ccncnt 

1 will ijuw deal with our ualive specie.^, and the planls that 
have lK*cn inlruduccd into Viaoria, and now appear at homt in 
theu' adopted country. Wc have ticven ualive and nine introduced 
>|ier.ies of AizoHceac. representing eight gevieru. Our nalivc plants 
can he used tor rock gardens, siindbinding, saline or <\Ty soil 
gard^ns^ <i,rul as vegetable or medicinal plauts. i-. 


Prostrate herbs or hall'-^lirubs wtlli rep:ulrLr flowers, bisexual or 
rarely dioecious. Calyx ot fov»r to five sepals, or flivided into 
tour to six lobe^ down tu the ovary. Petals rnany, free, connate 
to' form a tube or absent. Staiitcns five, by dedoublement more 
numeroas. The Mesenibryeae possess nrany petaloid organs. 
which 1 have iv:f erred to as petals For the convenience of readers. 
Ovary suj^eiior, half superior or inferior, two-many chambered, 
with usually many ovules in each chamber Styles ,^s n>any ^% the 
ovary chambers, freely nr nirely united. Fruit a capsule or a 

i\ family oi 52 genera and 500 species. 


J Voh»«is, Noiivv tmd hiiroduted Aisaaccac. ""ij 

JvEV TO Orders 

A.— Tribe Mc5cmbryeac- Plate I (Figs. 1-7), 

Calyx diviilcti <iowii to the ovary or icrmtng a rufK; iicMb many or mqiic; 

ovary (rtierior, rarely setm-siiperior; frin'l a capsule, druj;acei>us or \i\oc a 

oui (eepcra 1-0). 

B — Tribe Aizoidcac. 
Calyx tube more or less elongated, pi-tals none; ovarv r'tJpcnoi", fruit a 
capsule. l*-5 aiigled. 2-5 locuiar, ] seeded ii\ each ktculiis. Gaknia socuiida.. 
C.^'lribe MoUugideae. Text (Fig. 2)- 
Culyx deeply fivc-clcft, fivc-tjartcd ; puUls three to many ur none; ovnry 
superior: fruir a capsule, seed swollen at base. GJintis. 

Key to Gener.\ 
A- oEUKvsibe. petals or petaloid orfiaiii prticut. 

Fruit jiifco', not Mplittinj? t>y valves, srjg^nta^ " 

4-1^ Citrpdbioius T 

Fruit a tapSiile ojicjiipg" by 5 VHlvf^, sti2;mai 

H ; tubercle 2-1ohe.ti Disphyma 2 

Fruit a dry cap&ule . tubcidc absctu In celh . h^cacmbrya^'ttu-onntt 3- 
Leave< opposite, crowded, under 1 M\ci\ long . Ltitnpranihns 4 

T.ea^fs oppasitc below, alieniatf aliovt*. 

ivcavcs with wavy margnii;. tliick, flattened, 

coti&picuous^y papilk'St .- . . v» -- Cfyoffhytuut 5 

B. Lfjvcs alternate; pt'ta^s none. 

Flowers a,vi(Ury; fruit a nut or (tCri'y-ljlitC: j, 

leaves sligiiily iMpilloie .. Tt'traj/oHla ^ 

C. J.e;i\rc5 oijpasite or in whorls. 

F lowers a XI Han.', hairy, sc-ssi'.c- , fruii a 

capsule ■ . .. .. .. GitknfiJt f, 

i' lowers Avitb aniall petal-like slaiUfeili; calyx 

almost divided to base;, Icixvtts \n false , 

whorls - ^ . ... ^ . . . . - . - - GHuv^ • • S- 

CarpobroHis ae-qnilateralis (liaw-), J, M. Black, ''Angnlav P»g*^- 
face'' (S}"'!"!' Messinbryanthnyium aequilalercile, Haw.). 

Our largest *Tig's-tace", ciice coriiiuon in all Jistriotb cxce|>l 
narth-eastcni Victoria anc^ Mdliournc, where it is nrnv met with as 
u cultivated .]ilant on emlxinkments and sey.shorf.s. It m;ike-= 4i 
spleiifliVl .show where growti. especially in the Melbourne Rotanlc 

A. stout, compact, prostrate, creeping perennial 6-12 inches high 
with opposite triangular leaves fused at the Ixise. , llie prctp.' 
:5Tcyish leaves are one to rliree inches long snd under hall' an iiKh 
broad The glistening large red flowers two to three inches ai.TOS-"^ 
make an attractive sliow in bng,ljt sunlight when they arc fnllv 
awake. The purplish fniit, borne on it short thick i^talk. is e.dihle- 
It rnaiures in March. 

The increase in wheat <iTid sheep firming did niiicli to preveiU 
it.s increase, it is one of the plants that i would reconitneml ioi* 
the ch'iiting sands of the wheat belt^ where it ori^i(ini»lly grew 40 
s\x\\. The expressed juice can be taken intern.illv ]\\ d^'Senlery and 
uscti ;ib a gargle in sore ihroats, or in the funn oi a loti<!tn 3ot 
burns or scalds. 

30 MoRKrSj 4Nativc n'ld fniyQciifccii Ako(KCit^* L Vol. U* " 

Known to the aborigines as *Mkruduv'* and *'Canajol■^^." 
Carpobrotux ,rdiilts (L.) N. E. Brown. "Hottentot Fig" — 
Much like llip- forn^er species, l)Ut <jiff(!:r.s in having yellow flowers 

over three inches in (hameter, borne on stalks one inch long; 

broader leavci? halt to three-quarters of an, inch across, dotlcs-s. 

isliyhtly channelled, a.ttennated at both ends. 

Grown extcnsivelv. with the fonner native species, on railway 

embankments and in ninnicipv^l gardens for rock covering Die 

innt is edible, 


Disphyma imMnjlc (Solander) J. M. Blnck. '*Rotmdcd Pi^jV 
facc" or "Anstral Disphvma.*' I'Syn. Mexembrycinilicnmni nns- 
tralc Col). 

Mr. J. M. Black, of Adelaide, has recently published ihe above 
new combiimtion. 

This widely spread specie5 favours the sandy and saline sods 
(•f Victoria, and ic has been found exceedingly useful as ?tn orna» 
jnental plant for sea-shores aJid embankments Foe soil binding, ll 
has attractive pink or p^lrplc flowers about one inch acros-iri. with 
five stvles anil seed, Tt is a cieepJng perennial, steins dose 
to the groimd. rooting' at joints. The leaves opposite, flatcened 
on one side and rounded on the other one and a hal^ to (wo inches 
loni,', war-boat grey and often purplish in colour. 

Flowers from October to March, according to situation, and 
ottcn twice in the period. 


(Creek. Mesemhria. midday, artthemon> flower FJower;^ OiW» 
tuJly in strong sunlight). 

McscmbryanthemuuL cordifoiinm, L. "Hcart-lcavctI Fig;*s-face" 
or *'Fig-marigo]d/' 

One of the commonest adtivated species native to South Africa, 
and often found wild in Victoria. It is a very dense-growing, 
long-lived plant with trailing or creeping stems. Leaves grey- 
green, heart-shaped, rather papulose, half to three-quarters 
of an incn lonj^* and broad. Flowers puri)le borne on 
short, termmal i)eduncles or rather lateral on e.longated peduncles. 
Petals short. Excellent for rockeries, for grovying under trees. 
and as a pot plant. I use it as a garden border, where ic is kept 

A'lc£c}nbry<tnthcmum biconic, Sonder. "I'wo-horned Pic's- 

A smooth, many-branched plartt with crowded^ erect, subterete, 
pale green leaves, attenuated at both ends. Flowers white, about 
two lanes tong^ on a short stalk, generally three together Ripe 
tnnt globular five-valved. h $and-binder, 

^osir. J MoKRis, Nafiifc omi Infrodtued Ahoaccae, JO." 

M^SCTUbr\ laxn-m. "Locise Pig's-iace." 
A ver}' lirilliant and -showy garden planf, exrensively fultiva(ecl 
and found growing wild ;is an introdnct^on from Soitth Africa, It 
ha.s a loose stem, diffuse, shrubby; branches creepingf, slender; 
leaves one to one and a half inches lon^, cylindrical or slightly 
thrcc-angled, niorc green than the other species^ dotted, usually 
shnrter diaii ilie nilernodes- Flowers on long stalks wilh reddish 
t>ctals. Grown on railway embankments and seashores. 

SpelHnrj the Gentirk Name 

The c-uiTcct Spelling ol the iiamc is M<*stmh-ya-nihe-mii'iU, iiot 
MfiSiVum-ianihi'mitm. Ilais matter ib fully dc^it with by Dr. 
T. A -Sprague in tke Btillcfisi of Mi\i:i'M.ayieot4\ fv for mat ion, Kcw^ 
BotiUtical Uarden?;, Kii;;^land, pages 115-1 15, 1^28. 

Lampranthus, 4 

Latnpnmthus tcfjcns JS!. IL Brown. ^*Small-L;mi|iranthus" ur 
'' Pig's- facf*" (Syn- h-fc^f*->i'iln'\.nrAiheniu'iii tegen\' V.vSl.) 

A very sUowy niiiive f>lant, snitablc tor tockwork, baskets and 
edges of gardens- A compact creeping perennial, throwing up- 
right shoots one to three inches high, with small, opposite rounded. 
sonvtimi;? aug-ular, greyish leaves half to three-quarters of an 
MicJi long. Flowers small, but very numerous, tcrininal, and soli- 
lary. The 25-30 pale rose staminodia and bright ydluw anthers 
anrj pinlc petals make, "ihe plant attractive, especially on bright 

Lamp7'aufli.ns fakif&rnm (Haw.) K. E- Rrown. "'Sickle- 
Jeaved PigVface" (Syn. M. falcijo}inis Haw.)- 

A South Africai^ plant, found growing wild as an escapee from 
g'ardens where it is often cultivated- A sub-erect plant with flexu- 
ose slcins one to two icet long\ with ihicl-:. I'alcdlc, dcinadlomi, 
gjaucoiis, large dotted, clustered leaves., half to threc-quaners of 
an inch lon^i^. Flower^ i>ink. terminal oolitary or ternate, c.Ki>and- 
mg .at nii<lrlay, one and a halt inches In diamefer. 


(KyrOn, ice; phylrnit a plant). 

Leaves fl^ivhy. flat, with wavy mar^in-^, conKpicaously covered 
with whitish green tuherA:lc> (papilUej, Flowers iii cj'jnes; cap- 
Miles witfi 4-5 reflcxcd val-ves, 

CryaphyUvm crystoUinum (LJ N. £. Brown. "'Icf-plant." 
(Syn. ^^<\'icmbryanthcim<in. ciystalltnum L.). 

\ Tem5irk?ible South African speri^.s, oft^n thought to be r/ahvr 
on account ot hs spread on the arid -and good soils oi the Wiin- 
nier^i aud Mal!ee. where it becomes an attractive feature of the 
landscape, k is exceHent for binding drift .sand, a fine pot plant, 

32 MoRiits^ ^athe and i utr^ifMr.i'.d 4isonr.C{ii>» i vVt 1..' " 

unique in a han.^'-in^' basket or in a rock ^ardeii. It Ims been culii- 
vaied as spiiiacli jn Europe, and luu a medicinal value. Aij u;ucli 
;iri 4-3 per cent, of aalts of potassium and sudiiiin h;ive betn pan 
tiacted from the dried leave?\. 

'\hi% handsome blemiiat piant favours dry soil?. It first appears 
with a rosette of bro;id, fleshy, whitish-green kavcs L-overtd witli 
ivarty tubercuies (papilhie) like a coat oi ice whidi scinlillntps 
in the sun. A thickei'K;d tap-roav. with special storage reservoirs. 
marks the next &(age oi it« growth: then the elongated nowerinu 
branched, wirh altcvnalc IcavtrB. wavy so as tci cast shade ou some 
portion of the leaf Kuvfacc, and thus relieve the piant from rhc 
fierce he?Lr of the sun. The divi.^on and .subdivision ajjain and 
agiiui of (he hratiches ni^irks the second period, which closes with 
fluwcnng aud seeding. Flowers white or light rose. 

Cryophytum Aitoms ( Jacq., N. E. B, ''Angular Ice plant." 
(^yn. M csvtnbr-^onihcfntmt. nnguiatum Thunh.) . 

A South ATtican pUuf, souicwhat Hke C. cryjtkdliKnnh but 
smaller and not so robust. Steniij and branches anc^ulose. liorlv 
aceuu-b, procumbent as well as the leaves, \vhich are opposite., one 
to tv/n inches long o,^^d half to rhiee-quatters oi an inch broad. 
streniiated m a broad-hnean channelled pcUole. The plant :>pre;ul5 
over an area oi' one to three squiire tcct, while M. cry^tallhittni 
spi*eads over three to eifc'ht leiiC. The whole plant papillose, not 
!so ice-like as the tormcr ; flowers didl white. Found wild al Ccodc 
island. GeeFong, and Snirf^nto. Useful for sand-biudipg <iud rock 
gardens neur the coast. 

Tetk.'VCONIa, 6 
(Grtxk. lulra. fonr^ gonia. angle). 

Out" two native species are worthy representatives urthe genus 
which contains about fifty species, mainly irom South Africa ^nc\ 
Suutii America. Flowers smalL solitary or two together, in the 
axils of the leaves. Stamens 4-25, free, no petals or pelaloid 
$taminodia: ovary halt inferior, two to eight ceiled, with y. puudu- 
lous ovule in each cell. ' Ic has a somewhat succulent i:rtiit witU 
a bony covering. Leaves aUernalc. 

Key to Speciks 

1. P^fl:^t^atr ]>lidii'.., wilh a hard, i-jb*i!|oliUl4r, 4lUiijUr UC 

horned iniit _.- ; j, ; ; <; v-^-c- T. %'xpavsa 

i^. Clinibiiig plflnt. vrXh a bcrry-likc fruit ., ,i'. -'.' .'. '. T. uupCA'uwnny 

I. i', icxf^nm Murr. **New Zealand Spinach'' or "NiUive 
Spuiadi,"" "WarrigrtI Cabbage/' or ".South Australian Cibbage." 

Thij. species is widely cultivated as spinach and has been greaHv 
allered by culti%titctrs ; when neglected it soon reverts to tts native 
torm. The small greenish- yelloxv flowers, without petals, are 


MoRKis. Xafki- and Juinuhiccd Aicoaccac. 


borne on short 
solitarv or twin 

talks or almost sessile in the axils of the leaves. 
Leaves petiolate. the larf^^er ones (n-ate. trians^u- 
lar or broacily hastate, tw(j to four 
inches lon^-. entire, fleshy, some- 
what papilUjse or scah'. Fruit, 
i^reen. a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, Aery variable, becom- 
iui^^ hard with three or four erect 
horns. It is a nutritious and 
Iiealthy vei;etal)Ie. It extends 
yi from Japan to Xcw Zealand, and 

^J^ ^ is c{jmm()n alon,^' our sea-coasts 

and the sand areas inland. 


i-rc. 1 
I'ciraqoma xmplcxxcoma 
Plant ^ 
riower enlarged 

3. T . 'implcx'ii'oma Hk. 
"IJower Spinach". 

L'suallv found ^^rowini^ amoni;" 
■^Tea-tree" alon^ the coast, where 
it is useful as an ornamental and 
for bindiui^" sand. A trailing;" 
climber from two to twelve feet 
hii^h witli petiolate leaves, three- 
rpiartcrs to one and a hall inches 
loni;". flesh}'. ])apillose. ovate or 
lanceolate. Flowers )ellow in- 
side, screen outside, borne on 
slender stalks about half inch 
ItiUi^-. Stamens 15-25 ; fruit 
globular, blackish and berry-like, 
a ([uarter of an inch in diameter. 
Well worth}- of attention by 
horticulturists for coastal plant- 

Galen I A, 7 

Gale Ilia sccitnda Sond. '*Galenia"'. 

This South African plant is spreadinj^ in parts of X'ictoria. 
especially at (ieeIoni.,^ Williamstown, and Coode Island. Its at- 
tractive greyish-green and compact foliage makes it use f til for 
small rock formations and hanging baskets. Flowers small, hairy 
and sessile, with ten stamens in five pairs, alternating with the 
petals. Ovarv superior, five-celled with one ovule in each cell. 
Fruit opening in five valves, the ribbed seed hanging from the 
central cohuun. Leaves obovate-si)athulate. a (piarter to three- 
quarters of an inch long. 


^loRRis. Xniix'c and hit rod id' cd Ai.zi>acciU\ 

L Vol. 


Glints. S 

A small i^^enus of six s])ecies. two bein|^- native to X'ictoria. 
SlaiiK'ns three or five, or in Imnciles up to twenty, with small i)etal- 
like stamens. Ovary stiperior three or five celled with several 
ovnles in each cell. Styles three 
to fi\e. and the memhranous ca])- 
sule s])littinL( locuHcidallv. The 
seeds have a j^rotiiherance at the 

Kkv to Sfi:cii:s 

Plant hair\- ; styles, five. (;. 
lafoidcs L. "Hairy Carpet-weed." 

riant slender, nearly smooth : 
.St vies. 3. (/. Si'cri/ithi Pax. 
*'Cnrled Cari)et-weed.'" 

(/. lotoiiics is a jirostrate or 
slightly trailini^ i)lant six inches 
to <tne foot lon^. vvitli hairy. 
greyi>h leaves ahoui hal f inch 
lorii.^". Flowers two to 4 in auxil- 
iar\' clusters, willi lance-shape<l 
Ijcrianth sci^nients. Stamens six 
to twent\' and al)t»ut ti\"e l)ifid 
.staniinodia. Ca])su]e tlve-\a]ved. 
I'oimd north of tlie Dividing;' 
Ran^^e : fl(»wers after liea\\ rains. 

(/", s/^CFi/itla is almost smooth 
with hroadl}' lanceolate-stalked 
leaw's uj) to half incli Ion,*;. Peri- 
anth segments hlimt. Stamens 
three to four, with three styles on the summit (tl the three-valved 
capsule. Found in north-west \'ictoria and in all States except 
Tasmania; also Flurope. Asia and Ainca. 

Gliints liUidcs 
C. Plant 
J), l-^lowcr enlaro'L'd 

Hairy Carpet Weed 


On the hanks nf the .Nk-rri Creek, in the suhiirh of Cohurii. are the rem- 
nants nt an encampment of the ahcjrigines — so far as I know, the only one 
recognizahle in the district. H is located on the western hank of a deep 
pool, about midway between GalTney Street and tlie well-known hasaU 
tables behind Pentridge .Stockade. 

hi a small excavation can be seen a very small midden of freshwater 
mussel shells ( liyndclla Ausfralis ) . I collected, from round ab(mt. a 
variety of small chippings and a few worked ttjols. some of which are nf 
flint, but in the majority of cases they are of local stone and include quartz, 
quartzite. jasper, ironstone, and indurated mndstone., and a few bone scrap,". 
There probably are basaltic chippinjis. but these were not collected on 
account of the Stockade wall, which is of basalt, crossing the spot. There 
is no doubt that the main portion of the camp was situated on a smalt 
outlier of Silurian rock, just inside Pentridge wall. 

^^^ Haxks. 


Plate II 

\0I.. L 

June, 1933 

Vh.Ao l.y D. H. Fleay. 

General appearance of young female Yellow-beUieti Phalanger 

By David Fi.ka^', B.Sc, Dip. Kd. 

Several weeks have passed liy sincft ih^ nieniorjible, j-et wcary 

^iikT fref^?ing nij^lit. when 1 saw my first living specij^^ens of 
Fctau^us Ltustralis. the ytlltnv-hclliecl Fl^.nng Ptialanger. This rare 
^i^d rather ina[>propriuiely iiaiiitiil iVtarsi^Mal wiis ihe cjosc <il an 
iinuiiua! scnes ot incicloit^ and wliiJe the memory of rhe chase i$ 
^till fresh it may he of inttire.Ht, \o .set forch ihc ^loi'y- 

Early on the evening of April 14, 193.^^. 4,8U0 feci u|> on the 
slopes of Ml WiHs, a party, consisting oi Mr- Hunter, of Talla"»- 
^atla. Mr. Hraxenorj of the National Museum. :ir\<i inv>cl(, was 
scarchnig the wuany-ljuct (li. loncjifoUii) and Maima Gum loresr 
for signs of GymiwbftU.iir.ux — I .e^flbeater's 'Pos5UJ». The himi 
lv;is in ihe viriniry of rh^i la^il aipnire of this species by Arilnir 
Wflson. who, lifncc- his remarkable hiid in 1909, has hecome as 
coinpfciely lo^<: as the little p()^;:^unl. 

Tht half-nioon hliouc dhnh' at lntcr\''als liu^ougU th« hifcy tO|jS. 
of the trees when the Hoatini^ sea oi niist cleared momenlarily, aad 
even nur stronjr torch heajiis; wcxc vt^disccd to short. ilicOocuia' 
pailis of ligliL Lhidcr these checrlcsi a^ dirficuh condiliuns wc 
continued alonji' an old mining track tci a pOini heyond an ancienr 
cl^artng- m rhe wei'S- — the nne-rime )iome ot a lonjj-dcad mhier 
frietid of l^'iv, HiiTder. 

Suddenly, iJic faint, bni munislakablc, sound of daws on blHi'k. 
arrested attention. A steahhy advance towards the tree> i:i queix 
tii>n wni? rewarded by the sight of a shr^dowy. hody, with ion«", 
sircditiiiig tail, shooUnp: down llirouj^'h space Irom ihe ht^ii hmb?. 
There followed <i clear* wcll-ddincd "clop'\ and, running forward. 
we were amazed to isce, nut one, but two ^tran.^e ;mf] heautjfid 
Flying Fhalangers perched ahout 20 up on the white rrunK of 
a A'TannaGnm {F-,vrmi^iali-^)^ 

With Jong", narrow ear? turned towards us, they uttered several 
Cunversational snuffijati calLi, one to tht? othtr —sounds which were 
remmiscent of the soft talking notes of a male opossum {TrkUo- 
surtw t^ilpcctila). The sirong torches \'nk/.ch:^\ the Piialaugers Iv 
such an extent that they remained ix*rfcctly sull, with their eyc*f 
reHecring the. heanis in the <lini fashion of the .smaller Lesser Fl}*- 
ing Fhalanger i. Fffa'-trus hrmnrcpx) . (Inc missed the hi,i7.iTi!.^ 
orlj& So chir;icferistic oi Fclo^uroidos- — die largest ^pedei^ oi Hic 
glidinii Phalangcsfs, 

At least hve or six thiics Ub large as the Lester FJying Fhulangcr 
or ''Sugar Srjmrrel/' ir wa-s evidetit ^.ha( Oiese y^yy ha-ndsomc. 
inng- furred auimali> rcsembkd the -imallet sprcie^/ in Hic pre^eiice 
ni" a dark line down the middle of the dor:iul snrfacc. The hands. 
t^t and Lhc termmal fhree-inurihs '*t the fail, which posticsscd a 
avmarkaijiv biishv base. Were hluck. 

However, th^ extremely long ears uppearcd to indicate that* 
though these animals were a inarfel <ieparture ftDm the rich 
brOwn of the typical Ydlovv-bellkcl Flying Phalanger. they were 
unL\snally grey specimens of that unconimoa species. Suhsequctu 
events prnveJ ttiis to he the case. 

In or<)er to attempt the oiptine o£ thes*^ marsupials, it inrii^ 
necessary to tliscovcr the honie-lrec Brazenor and I decided to 
iolkiw an animal each, a^ they pursued their nocturnal Wv^ndering^ 
m quest of food. Thus we hrid rwo chtinces of success iu track- 
ing our respective Phaliiiigers to the home-tree l>e{ove the dawn. 

Suddenly, one of the auimalf ran to the end ni a hi^h hranch* 
tuiidc several i^rchminary launching movements, and shot (\oya\ 
into the darkness. I" followed irainediately. 

She Phalanger had now he^un nn active journ<;y, and several 
iimes I lo-it sl^ht of it. and only picked u|) the. direction ag^aiu by 
intently listeningr for the "clop" of the landing, and the famt 
scrambling noise on the yrcat trunks of the trees. 

Each time the ^animal ''took off", a low. Inn utimistakahlc. whir- 
titi^ moan \^'3^ uttered. mo5t ciuions and interesting^ to hear, and 
several limes heiore volplaning it uttered a fairly loud shnek^ 
which though not as piercing as thai oi th«i large Taguau or 
Greater Flying Phalanger (PctauroidcSi vo(cins) resembled it very 

The "flights'* from tree to tree ax^eraged aoiTie thirty-five yards 
to forty yards in length, and. ^tnuige. to say. ivhen the animal 
aliglitcd oil the straight white hodv of one of the tree? (E. z-uuin' 
aUs) .growing: in a gully into which we had <lescendcd, it showed 
itseh" to lie a remarkably poor climber. Instead of prngresying 
rapidly upwards in ilie effective, though queer, galloping motion of 
the large Taguan Phalanger. each time, after struggling a few feet 
up in a helpless spread-eagled fashion, it reached oirt and seized 
the lon^ ropes of bark hanging down From Ihe upper f,)ranche->. 
Up these it climbed with marked a|?i!ity. occasionally poising hcid 
dowii to view the puzzling: beam of light. 

bieveral times smaller *'Sugar Squirrel*^" (P. brcticeffy) ap- 
peared in their impudent fashion from nowhere, scampered in- 
quisitively up lu the larger Phalanger jn:st as- I had seen them do 
when 'A^tchin^ a Brush-railed Phascogalc (P. feniallMa) by 
spotlight in the Flowerdale district, <ind then they disappeared <i& 
mysteriously as they had come. 

The larger Phalanger wa^ apparently making defictitc tracks 
by means of its "flights" to some [avoured feeding ground, and 
at one stage, just eight feet v\bovc my head, it appeared to eat 
the finer tips of some tender "suckers'* growing Out from the 
inam u unk pf a eucalypt. 

The cracking of dead sticks and the gleam <Jl a small torch 
gradual^); "fcatcriahV^d into Tom Hunter, who joined nic in Ihe 

IHI-: VICTORIAN XA'ITJRAMST Vot . i Jwic, 193;; 

IMatc III 

I'll, It, , liy II. H. i'"l<';iv. 

Adult mnlc "^'cIio\v-bclliL'^^ Phalangcr, sliowing iiltcniivc nttiludc of the 


] .RraV. a Bcantiint Phaimnicr. 37 

pursuit. About midiugbt ihe Plialatiger's eig^hteenth or nai^tteiuh 
fli.i^hl took »t imo a slender Manna Gum. r<:ally a ^'sister'" tree, and 
here evidenily was its goal. FlaVi.g;ing in a cliftracieristic lic-ad- 
dowu position, and regardless of qlu presence, the Plulanger 
began a methodical licking of the I>ark which was niainU»ine«:l \»nth- 
out incerrujnion for necirly three-quarters of hp hour. The reason 
tor ?his was appareni when k was s^tn that sap had exuded in 
small pusruJes all the way up the trunk. Here it had dried off 
into small sugary masses. 

Down, and even further dowii, the tree camt that long-eared 
creature utitil it was wirhiii six fe-ec of us. and stil! unafraid. The 
inniinKrable fine cross-scratches on the bark indicated that this 
spot was indeed a ]3t>pulaj resort duriii>^ the nocturnal feeding 
lime. Steadily and ji^rcedily the piak tongue worked on che sugary 
white spots until wc thought it would surely become worn i>iit. 
The nearne>t: oi the Fhalan^er tempted us to trv to capture ?t 
without further delay, hat tortunarely we hcki nurseh'cs in check. 

Then the animal appeared to become suspicious, and. whh Io«f 
e^iis uirncd eo'iuirinftly towards us. it suddenly ceased feeding, 
scampered up the rree aud volplaned la another. 

T^i-azenovs light gleamed through the trees, and we learned 
that his Phrdanevi had disappeartnl. So die ]>aily noW turued Us 
undivide<.l aUcniion on the rcjviaiuing ammal. 

.After several gliding jumps, begun in each with the wht'r- 
TJiijf moan, tlic »t:rive Phalanger atij^hlcrl in -a large Manna Gnnrij 
Avhich was heavy in flower, like many others of the species in tht 
guMy. In the dense upper branches it was by no means an easy 
iHarler to kee]j iiur elui^ive t[u.iiTV in sight, but liotweeri the driit- 
ing clouds \Vf. caughc occasional glimpses of the long-tailed tiark 
form against the fethlc moon. 

A fire was lit, and., awaiting the Phalan.£;ev's pleasure, resettled 
down to a long vi.(*il.. at hutrvals lyinjv Jlat on our Ivacks to «ise 
the strain on our aching necks; but how bitterly cold it was away 
from the little fire 

.And so the longf hours dragged by in the quiet of the tall tjm])er. 
OjKe a JSoobuok Owl uttered one of the lesser known caUs ot its 
species, sounding cat-like and clear in the, while occasFon- 
ally we heard the far-ofr crackling sounds made by a wandering 
Hereford bcabt. 

Stdl the active PliaJaavger jnoved through the finer branches 
above and greedily i'e<5 nn the j^ectar in the hlo.^.*«oms. It scurried 
alony the limbs from one side of the tree to the other, xrequently 
hanging ujiside down, until we des]>aired of Weeping it in view in 
the masre of fohage. Suddenly, however., at about 4,30 am., the 
Phalanger apparent!}- decided that it was time to retire, aud we 
traded ooce more in jIs wake Within 23 yards it aSighlcd well 
up on a big eucalypt. crawled a few feet higher and neatly 

rolling itii long, bushy tail, disappeiirtd. Small wondec it h-icl fed 
contentedly for %o long in the iHighbouring tree. 

Hardly hud this occurred when a bubbling shriek rang out dose 
by, and wvrhin a few moments onf>ther Phalanger. evidently the 
elusive mate, descended ami crawled into the same hole. The long. 
dr€Hi7 <'-o\t^ \-'igil on the Moimc Wills slopes Iiad ended with the 
firsi streaks ot dawn. 

The interne interest of watching the ways of thi< beautiful 
animni during its nucttirocd ivnnbie?; passed with the night, but* 
rh« task cd capturing the crefttnre^; wns :stitl to hr. considertni. in 
th<: vnftei'noon the effect ot the first axe blows was to cause the 
hurried en^^r^enee ot Cine of the Phabnj:ers. and it wasted tittle 
time ux volplaning to another cLicalyiJt. }'ortnti;itely. we. were able 
to cut down <i leafy sapling and rear it Co the rc<tuircd height. 
Then vlgoious shaking flurried the cre^itnre lo ?ui.h an cNtent that 
it misjudge<l a leap* and pranacally foil into our hands. 

Thus, <imid tnthusiasm at The unexpected stroke oi fortune, a 
fine adult male was placed in n box. Ihe iftcond animal r;»n ti> 
the top of the tree as the axe thuds continued, and there it re 
mainefl. motionless. 

Two hours later strenuous cffortn on the Cough old butt of the 
big tree were rewarded by faint ''calking*', growing louder auo 
louder i\s the giant slowly fieeled over. Then a rending roar- 
echoed through the bush and, rushing in to peer through the dust, 
we were amazed to tind no sigi: whatsoever of the Phalangcr 
wfiich had been perched in thn upper branches when the tree fell. 

It had disiijjpeared completely having evidently volplaned to a 
neighbouring trunk as the lji«i tree. swuTig over to its hnal ]*lunf^e, 
for we saw a lone :>pecJmen ncaf this <;pot on the following ni^lic. 
It was appaiently the mother Phalanger. for on cutting into ^he 
fallen truulc well below rhc nesting entrance a small immature 
iemale was discovered below a fairly large- ha^in-slmped nesr 
conJtnicte<l entirely ot leaver. This was something we had not 
reclroncd on (hiring the vfgfjl of the previous night. What <m enr- 
splttting scream the litcie female uttered when handled! First 
came the ''Cha-roo-ka** notes resembling the preliminary '"self- 
starter" Tinist of the smaller ''Sugs-r Squirrel" (P bm^iceps). Fol- 
lowed by a shiill ringing scream like a sharp blast on a postman's 

Though this animal made a great deal of noise, it did not use 
ics teeth, but the male PhaFanger drove bx& long, powerful incisors 
into the b?5e of my thimib. showing that the painful bite of Jhe 
M^Uller "Sugar Squirrel" is only a tnfle by comparison. The 
strongly curved shsrp claws also Lend to make one careful in the 
method of handluig- 

This large <»nd beautiful species of Peiat^^ms which cou1<l have 
hccu far jDore appropriately named Che Long-eared Flying PliaU 

•-3 7S 

Photo l)y I). H. Fleay 

In sleepy mood the long ears of P. austraHs fall forward over the face 


Fi.KA'i-. .-/ Beautiful Phalaiuicr. 


an,ucr. is credited by Le Soiicf and Hurrell with a likini,^ for open 
forest cnuntr}-; and in its ran.t,a' from Xorthern Queensland t(» 
Southern X'ictoria it is apparently more common in the northern 
U>calities. However, it is not numerous anywhere and with only 
two mammae in the pouch, evidently no more than a sini;le *'joe\" 
is reared each year in comparison with the two of P. brci'iccf's. li 
i-' a connnon occurrence — speakint;" of the smaller. widel\ -spread 

Phutu l.y I). H. I-ie;iy. 

Leaf nest ot the ^\■l]o\\■-i)^.-']lit■(l Plialanm.-r tcund in tlic "home" Imlloxv 

species — -to fnid that adult animals also show a dehniteh" \ellow 
colotir on the ventral surface. 

The Moimt \\ ills localit\' is a citntrast in the tyj^e of habitat to 
the o])en timber of I\ed Gum ( /:. roslrafus) and N'ellow I^tox (/:. 
inclliodoraij described b\- Le Souef and littrrell as the liaunt of 
P. aiisfralis. In man\' of its interesting ways, viewed at Motmt 
Wills and subse(juently here in my own collection, the immature 
female ^'ellow-l)ellied I'halanger suggests that its species possesses 
affinities in habits with both the large Greater Flying l*halanger 
( Pctauroidf-s z'olans ) and natin*all\' with the "Sugar S(|nirrer' 
{P. brc-z'icc/'s } of its own genus. Its nest-building, feeding habits 

i4fl Klkav. .7 ncoutifi.} Plmhjn;irr Vwoih'!^' 

and scolding notes arc very similar lo those of the small "Sugar 
Squirrel", hut the long tail, the rather loose huild. the screech, an<.l 
the rapidity with which the animal emerges from the nesting- 
holktw when the tree is tapped in daylight are characteristics cer- 
tainly shared hy the leaf-eating Greater Flying Phalanger. 

In captivity the young female /*. aitsfralis has settled d(»wn 
hap]Mly. and has become friendly with a young male of the smaller 
I\ brcz'iccps species. This little animal, which was horn and 
reared in captivity, actually '*camps*' in the same box, where it is 
quite lost in the long fur of its larger relative. 

The species a])])arently chews into the tender hark of the 
branches, seeking the sap in like manner to the "Sugar Squirrel", 
for a section of hark from £. viminaUs was thoroughly broken up 
after being in the cage overnight. The soft conversational 
"snuffing" sounds are uttered at times by this marsupial aj^par- 
ently for the benefit of the lively Lesser Flying Phalanger. I'^re- 
quently. while facing a light from one of these ui)side down ]Josi- 
tions on a limb, the animal utters also soft "huc-huc" ! or "hic- 
hic" sounds. 

The appended general description of the Yellow-bellied Flying 
Phalanger (British Museum CalaU)(jnc Mars, and Monot., I-e 
Souef and l?urrell, ]VUd Animals of Australia) is followed by a 
brief account of the female specimen from Blount Wills, 

Pctaurus australis Shaw. 

Rhinarium naked, large and finely granulated. Fur long, fine 
and silky. General colour above rich brown, more or less shaded 
amber or grey ; median line down dorsal area dark brown ; under 
surface orange or cream colour; chin, inner sides of wrists and 
ankles blackish; edges of parachutes orange, except near inser- 
tions, where they are broadly fringed black. I^ars long, narrow, 
naked inside and terminally outside. Hands, feet above black ; 
palms, soles naked, finely striated; pads broad, rounded ill-defined. 
Digital formula of manus 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Tail very long, l.iushy. 
brownish grey, darker at tip. Mammae, 2. Head and body. 300- 
315 mm. ; tail. 420-480 mm. : hind-foot. 37 mm. ; ear, 45 mm. 

The young female specimen captured at IMount Wills, which is 
in mv possession, and also the adtdt male kept by Mr. BrazencM* 
exhibit (piite a departure in colour, (ieneral colour, above grey 
with longer whitish hairs interspersed; face blackish; naked ears 
with lighter tips, median line down dorsal area black, extending 
t(.) tip of tail; the under surface creamy-white; chin, inner sides 
of wrists and ankles black; edges of parachute or gliding mem- 
brane white; near insertions broadly fringed black. Hands, arms, 
feet above black. Median streak down thigh black. Tail at ex- 
tremely bushy base, grey below. Terminal three-fourths and whole 
dorsal portion black. 


}'h<i(<) by I). H. Fleay. 

Walking along the limbs in an upside down position is a characteristic habit of the Yellow-bellied Phalanger 

CHYProSTYLrs SVBVLATA \.Labill.) Keiclilj. 

It Itas lieoi shown in previous issues oT The Victoyian Nintimlhi 
that tour sjjeeies c( trrv/'/aT/3fc are encirelydepeudcnl forpollina- 
lion upon ilie whtius of lualt? )chiie;uiion-flie.s (Liwopunpla si>jifi- 
f>iincUit<t)> The flowcri oi this orchid whtch have no bright col- 
ours nor honey-perfunic. iiavc a powerful attraction for the inserts 
iti u ]jrobnb]i? rcycmblvUKt, and almost certainly iti u perttitne im- 
l>eiceptibte to u?., which ii doubiJess ^issociatai with the ienulcs of 
L. sonipmictata. 

Tc was suggested, following" my pa])erK on rhe .subject, thai fullt't* 
confirnuiion wc-uld be obtaiac'rl by witnessing tl'ie nvUing habits af 
ihc insects. This I was ahle to do by enclosing a ft^tnale 'dnd abouc 
eight males in a glass jar, Bv placing flowers of Cryptostylis in 
ibe Aanic jar, I noted also that ihe males even showed prefeitnice^ 
(or the flowers. This has Ijeen fully reponed. (Trans. Loud. Birt. 
Sac. 1931-2. Vol vi.) A ]iho»ogriph. taken by Mr. T Green, was 
pubh'ihcd ir^ Tfic Vidoriojx N'afuraJi.'ii (May, [927). It was sug- 
gcsTe<l ihiii I should, if pOF-sible, procure a .siniilar record of rlie 
:5umc male ichucnmonid in a flower of C. snbulata. the labellum of 
which, one inif^ht :supposc. is not nearly ^0 well adapted to facilitate 
siH'.li visits. 

This abcf I have donr. 1 have niaOv niauy .-ittompts during 
-Several s<.-afecms to i.ccurc thi:-; evi<lerice, but w;>a not successful 
until March IS. 1933. f^-tr the msect, duriiii^' iri visit, i.s actually 
upside down underneath the labelluni of the orc:hi<l. The use o{ 
rbkuoform appears to relax die hold of the feet, and the grip of 
tfie ekiNpers is mit -.ufHcit^nt supp^'ut for the liinp l)ndy, which con- 
sequently ialls from the flower. 

Four sticks of cyanide were cemented into lUe hoitom o( a Uu'K^tf, 
wide-munthed ^la>s jar. A ract?mc of C\ subiUota wa*^ placed in 
a ihori: v2tSe on the ground. As 5(>0n as the ichneuniontd Iwd 
entcretl a flower, the ojjen end of the jar wua lowered over ♦tit-m, 
and j:'re-5S<-,d ui>on liic ground Jn this \vay the jar was not. at* 
course air-tight cunseqtiently tlie aci;i(>n of the cyanide was insurti- 
ciciitly jxjwe.riiil to be entirely satisfactory. The insect wrj> n<Vt 
dead when photograplied. the antennae ,=^till showing luovementj 
but. as cyanide affects the flowers. I could not delay. V\'\iU rho 
use of c\iiutde the }egs hcrome distorfed so that ruv ph.otograpb 
does not ^how 1heir position (clasphi.i:j the sides of the labelliun) 
dnriny^ the vtsit, but that of the al)domeii i*cnKuncd unaltered. 
Jt$ curve is clearly seen. 

For the }HU |io-M? ot the phntO;ir;Lph £he raceme, wl'ih ihc uisetl 
tH sUu^ was ausijcoded iu an inverted position, as 1 liad fomul, in 
previous instances, that the weight of tlie insect's body relcase<l thr 

'Ami OcioLEftiAK, Ff\lliiwtiou o! ^rvt'''(i^tvli\ \iii>.ilnhh [_ Vol'. 1.!*",s Uy wlifrh h appear^i in lie supported .lUtr distortion of the 
liookcil feci. In C. tufytoclula Ihc labcllum acts as a support; the 
hx^cci photngraphfxl hy Mr. Grep-n is srill in situ alter six 3t:ais 
in for^ialui soluticai. The recent specimen was ^justcd lo Mr 
J<(rv]s fur cntical <:xaTninaliOn 

On i\iaich 18 these male lehneumon-flics were particularly e/v<e.r, 
eukriiig die Rowers two and three at a time. Atthotigh oii& of 
them was taken Ironi x (lower tlirec tin>e.>, it returned iindauiitccl. 
My conippnian actiuilly held it by die wings while it remnined, 
with Cjuivfci'ing antwinae ii^ the same position, 

The eagerness of the inseeis is riwrly shown in the driiwine;, 
by Mr. Jarvi^^ of a nitre tlwarf. whoso abdomen bore no tcwcr 
lh?iii 5€veii rtwnplete piMlinaria. This specimen vvas taken on 
January 7. Already burdened with six polUnaria. eviJejice of AS 
many visits, it. with two other coinpeiiior?. pushed its way hach- 
-nuiyfls, inzo yet anuther flLrvver, and vvii> even then withdrawn only 
with cHfficulty. The tncal length ot its body was no more Ihan 
8-50 mm. 

A diagraniiuatic sketch of tl>e end of its Abdomen (Fig;. B) en- 
btged to thirteen times, bears evidetice oi. keen competuion, for 
cbe %d^nnd^ do not adhtct 60 symi'netri<ally on the fifth and sixth 
abdominal segments as when the visits are made uiider less stress. 
This ]lhistration <ihows how exactly the abdomen is able to loaite 
the desired pcisibop. which is again .sboAvn. in the sketch iif the 
piled up glandb after the pollen had been removed. (Fij?. K). 

Such nn instance as this arouses a fechng of wonder as to the 
actual nature of rhe myMexioui^ foree whieh lures the small insect 
into flower ofter fiower. One does not doubt that it is a conipnJ- 
sory action, a luechanical response to 5.nme powerful Atinudus, milIti 
as might influence the sense-organ.*^ of touch and smt^ll. The insect 
ij^noreb all other oicluds. Moreover, jt \5 able to single out the 
only Hower oi C rypto.'i-tyUs hidden in a buru.-h Ot ai^iOrled flowers, 
If soeill be ivahy the. attraction, it is one which man's imperfect 
scuie itj unable to perceive, yec so poweriul that it is able to in- 
fJuenec jOicets at a distavirc- 

Jt has been tpieytiuiiL-d w3tetlier perfume, could have power to 
■Aitracr the inocct to an iiiatiimalc structure 5uch as a flower. Mr. 
Jarvis rrlates ;i rem^rkaljle in^lanee eonternlntj the inalei of ii 
COiitmon Qneenslnnd scoliid wasp-paraiitc, whidi. emerging earlie'r 
than the females, had hppu c^iven thetr lihe-rty- The-.y w^fre sooii 
cl>^ervcd knock luc^ apamst the window-pane in a vain endeavour 
til retmn to the laboratory where the females were svored The 
fcDiale. cocoons were m a cluSe<i tin bnx. Some probably coulained 
•wasps fully formed and ready to emerge. Was it nicxclv vM:lo«t 
or some other stvn■!ulu^:. which coiild pass ttu-Ongh the tough walls 
ol the- cocnoti.s, throu^^h the tm box., across the room and tlirniigh 
a closed window, to mtlwence the eager males •* 


Plate VI 


Lissopifupla sctfiipiindura. showing poilinia attached to abdomen 

aosv ] C'oi-fcifAx, Piillnutiiott af Cvyptosfyih subntata. 43 

One noie5 in the pollination of Cry^fo^tyiis that insects ace 
attracted to the orchids a moment after th^ir exposure in the 
garden, and this in a localiiy in which x\\v, orchids have not beejv 
rerordcd. How. one asks, are they abk to perceive so quK^ly the 
auhtlc .Nccnt^ f-s It Nfi highly volanle tha** its particle-* can he 
waited dm? swiflly to distant insects? 

F.xpcrls have shown thjit the antennae of insects are marvellous 
organ*, the scat of smclJ and tonch. and aimo?>t certainly of other 
senses; but ix ii the o^ t\ie inserts' response which is so 

Hiihcr. nearly 120 years ago, was undecided as to whether ihc 
aniLinme an: organs a£ touch nr of snu'll. He >Tjg^c;jlcd lIw( Ihcy 
fulfil hotli functions, and alfio that ihey are instrumeiits of ft 
pcnihar sense of thet nature of which wc liavc no conceprion. He 
WAS tnicei'lain as lo how hec$ become aware of the presence oi 
Iheir queen, vvhcthcr by >ight <ir touch, ur soim^ liuiino'in} sense 
x^'huii he bcluwcd to be loaned tu tks antcnv/i^. Froni their nsc 
i the antennat: in rhe dark h« helieved that ihey might also he a fuL- 
stitutc for the ^jensc of sight. 

r^tcr wrueni have conhrmcd and extended Ilu-ber^n most iiu- 
[«)r<anr .sUtPmLnD* By numlarion. or by coating the antennae 
wich an impervious material, and ViV tneaj\s of many ft.Kperi»i)t^nts, 
*hey have -s.hown them to be ncialy endowed with sensory orj^ans. 

MucJi of whal has been written concerning the antennae of bee.s 
"Will apply to ihosti ot cither hyrnenoptiii'a. includini^ uur ichncumo- 
md- Many questions remain unanswered, bur whatever con- 
<In.sions wf* have drawn, the earnest natn»^hst who explores every 
pliaSc ui ctaturc in his search fur InKh, aJid ihoic of Ui, who striv«r 
CO see life whole, will not regard with distaste the acDtms of an 
t)ibect which arc di>iihtleHS an instinctive response to some Jrresiiit- 
ible stinnilus. 

ATr Jarvis has knKlty made ait exammation of portion oi an 
antenna of L. scmif^unchfo. Ih^ notes are su iiueresting tJm I 
quote them in full. 

Notes on the anieimae of L. ^etiupunriata (by K. Jarvis) '. — 

"Autcnna actsiceous. with from ""f to 47 joints (txj far as exain- 
ined): che first joint Lurhinatt, second cylindrical, thicker an»! 
shorter rhati fnurrh. which is longest of all ; tlijrd johit sniallest, 
aljC'Mt quarter length of fonrth. The remaniinj^ joints decrea5C 
successively tu length and width towards the tip. Each juint tx,ct*]K 
the* first three, is covered wjth o?>tuseiy-ovate olfactory pori. vary- 
ing in size from 007 to 10 mm. hy 003 to 06 : the number on 
a jomc may be I'roni about 80 to 300. Joint -28, for hislanr^e, of a 
47-joinrcd antenna, is 025 long l>y 0' 16 mm. in diu*nctei% and pas- 
.^H'^se.s about 220 port". J-.ach olfactory pit in the antenna of this 
ichneumnntd, probably ;ihonr I.TOOf), is arched above with a pale, 
iCiMi.-transparcnt baud-hke, flattened otpan, 01 wide and frOTii 

44 CoLF.MAN, PolUnaiivn of Cr.v/''c^.Wv/i'* \uhuhtiU [ v<ji £,. 

0-21 lo 25 mm. ia length, runniug paiallel with the antennal 
joints, and situated centrally Across each pit. 

The roiimlcd cncly of these curious bands (possibly olfactory 
hairs) appear to enter the chititious surface near the eilge oi tlur 
pit. The entire surface of the antenna is clothed widi pointed 
hairs, about 009 mm. m length, which arise from the spaces be- 
tween the pori." 

Measurements taken from five specimens sent to Mr, Jarvis. 

1. Leuj^ih of body, 17 SO mm.: number of anteunal joints. 58. 

2. LctiJjth of body, 16 mm, ; number of <inteiir!al joints. 54. 

3. length of bodA", 8 50 mm. , number of antennal joints. 47. 

4. Le7i|,Th ot body, 17-50 mm ; number of antennal joints. 58. 

5. Length of hody. 14 mm. ; length of antenna, 10 mm. 

These measurements were kindly made Uy'Mr. Jarvis. as t did 
not wi:^h to disturb the pollini^i They show titat small insects 
such ay No. 3, indicated at Fig. D on the plate, arc able to remove 
the poUinia t|uitc as et¥eetively as the specimen illujitralc<l in the 
photograph, which is nf average SJze. It is interesting to compare 
the figures Mr. Jarvis ^dves concerning- the number of olfactory 
pits, with (hose of bees, as given by Maeterlinck, Ouoiing Cheshire. 
he .'states that each antenna of a; male bee is provided with 37,SOO 
olfactory cavities, while the worker (infertile female) has only 
5,000 in both. It would be interestmg to know whether those of 
the fanale ichncumonid are as poorly equipped in comparison 
with th«^ male's. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Jarvis for the time and tivuhle he 
has spent in making these drawings and measurenicnts. 1 am also 
indebted to Mr. T. Green, whose kmd help enabled mc to secure 
the photo^Taph of L semiptiiictaia, 

A. LijsoSiimHa icviifnuuittht (niftle) X H. sbowiiifi- ^cvcn poUjniina ^vUtl- 

drasvii from seven flower!? of Crypiosfyli's. 
U. Dia4;Tarnrn?iic aketcit of Hinlcmien of saiitt; showing puIiiiMM attiithcd til 

tlorsal surface of fihh aiul t-ixUi ^tgmeiiCs. X H, 

C. Portion o\ di^trtl c»iO ot Kvciiiy-eighth aiUemial ioiiil of saxiie. shovving a 
few oS the oUactory pori arul other sensory orgaiifi. X 350* 

D. Tht <»acac iiiscct, life size ' 

E. Afpearance of acllicnng piled up mas?; of glanfis after removal iran\ 
the abdomen. X 12 

Note contorlion of glands after itryiiig. 

Jits^t as this issue of The h'ofitnjtisi was going In press. cani6 

(he new; that Mr. Charles French, senr . had died. He wa.s .h 
loimder oi the Club and an honorary hte member. Naturalists 
and nature lovers in Victoria owe much tx> this pioneer, whose 
Tiame and works will always I>e rememl>ered. A memoir wjU 
appear in the July Nainraifst. 


Plate VII 

The pollination of Cryptostylis subu-ata by the male ichneumonid Lissopimpla 
i^cniipinictata. Note that the insect is inverted under the labellum 

By Dk. Ljcon aAiOJ Lidjl>iW(;kr (Hamljurg") 

Reci^oHy tlicrc appeared in The. Victoruin NahmiUst (Vol. 4S), 
1932, iOi) the description of an interesting, almost entirety snbtcr- 
fineously livinj-i orchid. Cryjytafithemis Sl-*itefi ]<u]>\>. Afrer a clos^e 
e.sammation oE the descnptinn and ilUistmtiosi, I cauuct agree with 
i.hc view ihat a new kind is conc^, 1 rather iliink that the few 
hith^rtti futiuil SjiKcimp-ns art: al>nnrni;illy clevflope.d shnoi.s uf 
ihpodixcm punctatuin, The following reasons speak for ihis. 
Firstly, (he plants have always been found in close conipany with 
Dipodkun (Rupp, on page l<34 . *'All the specimens were found in 
close a>y.idafion with roots of Dipodhtin puncia/um.''} Then, and 
before all. the structure of the flower is the ^auie in both "species." 
In DipoHnwi the pollinia arc .sessile singly on two outgrowths 
Icandiclusj of the ro'^tellnni (eonipHie PfJtzer, ()rt'luikH't:oc, in 
H-vglcr-Fmntf. Die. Nntiirlichcyi Ffhiv^senfamiucn, 11. 6. \ jcipr.^^ 
ISiiv. p, 183i; these uulgrowLhs [anidides] are "the Iwu curious 
^ilHiendagei" of the alleged Cryl^tanlhcfuis Skil-cri Kupp (ie , p. 
10.3). Whether a repressed hfrm is concerned or a normal occur- 
rence will liave yet to be inquired into. 

lintircly snbcerruneun shoots iuve already beconie known of a 
Palaearctic uiohi^L I'oliowing an ol).sel"V';ilion ol JJernnrd ( Ktudes 
iur la luherjsation. Rcz-', Gen dc Bot.. M, 1902) A, Arber wnics 
■nboul it: "'The Jjird's Net-r Orchid, Niuili'm nidns-ains Rich., fre- 
quently iurrijs axes, vvhicli instead of rising vertically jnlu the air» 
show a growth-curvature which prcvcnti their reaching the surface 
Of^ the :ioil. These ^nbternmean inflorescences ;ue self-fenilized 
in tht' humus und the beeds, have wo opjiortunily of eicaping, 
!ijerii»iiiate whei'e they are formed" iMonacoiylcdons. Cambridge, 
1925, p. 197). 

Asi to Dipodixim pmwlaimn^ there arc slill various points that 
rc'ijuirc explanation. According to ific dcterniiiutlioni. uf Pesc-ott 
^\\i\ French. Jxinr. {l^icl. Nat,. 32. 1915, 77) and Williami^on (tbid. 
37. J920. 81 ) the i)|;int is n^>t a ]i;iru>ice. Is it dien [i^'rliiips a 
-Vciprophyte? f^r must it he considered plant hke the pakieare- 
lic L'cnirons (iborHva (L.^ Uv.. which, whdsc showing sderophytiC 
ada|)tation features, sustains itself antotrophieally ; in which the 
chlorophyll is merely cloaked hy another colauring niarter? Tbe. 
wholc itiorphulogical siructure of the plant needs an-exact dcbcrip- 
lion.— ( JTansIation by Mr. E. Nubbng). 

[1 biN comniuiiicatiyn hum Dr Lind]»;gcr, udiln.'S3itril lu ihe htliior. was 

itftumpwiii'.'d b.v <\ IrUci*, iJi VvMicii Ihe writer" 

■'Wlieiiever a iinnihcr of your ftiu-. ]uurna3 ^ets riUu tiiy lumls il alwayi^ 
;;ivL'S me= ;;:rcat plKasiirt."] 

^6 Eui'«'> ficjoindt-.j hi D/, Lhtdincfcy- [^VoL t*^ 

By THE Rfiv. II- M. R. Rl;pp. B.A, 

By the courtcs}* of ihc editor, I liavc been permitted to* sec the 
"challcng-e'*- ii I may sc* term it. of Dr. Leonard Lindtngcr*. oi 
Hamburg (kiucjlv^ rr:inslated £iom the German hy Mr. K. Kuhling, 
nf Sydney) to U>c validity of the new nrchi<l genus and -species 
clcticribc<( by i»"i.* vmclcr the Tian>c Crypkiathcmis Slateri, in the Pro- 
cccdmtfs (if Ihc Lhincivn .Koi-iciy of Nciv Soiifh IValcs, Ivii- 
1-2, W62. I e/jnrrihutc<l ;i hrief acxoimt of this plant, avoiding 
teclmicalities h^ far as possible, to I'hc ^^'tctonan NaUivaiist 
for Axigus-t, 1932. ;in<t Dt. LintUngcr'ii criticism ii>., based upon 
this. May I s\v a.t ouce. thfin, that the hLtlc article in ihi.s 
jounuii was not. and was not intended! to be, a "description" 
of the new oichid M ail. Thi- dc-scnplion had br.'cn published: 
nn-*! Mr. Barrel! asked rnt if I wuuld contribute a nt^te on the new 
pinrc for The Victorian Naturalist, wlxich 1 did, with line-cirawinj».s 
to g^ive xy\ i<lea of i^s character .>o far (?.v it 'wax then kno'T.ini. 

At tlie f)re3eui stage I cannot t^o into lieiads of the plant 
wliich have become available suice the publication of the 
deicription and the note referred to tor they are em- 
bodied iTJ a papdr ucctipted by the >iew i>niith Wale^ 
Linne-an Socteiy for jtine. 193;^, and it would be a breach 
of iaith witiv the Society to disclose them here. I can onJy 
nviure Dr. Lindlngcc llial the ihojry oL "iibnurmally developed 
.shoots of Dipodimn punciatupn" is quite untenable in view of the 
known fnc:^^■ Iresh material, received m the sjning o^ 1932. indi- 
cates bevond doubt that, n& iugj^estcii in the origitial description 
and The i-'\ctonaH NatHrali^t note, the New South Wales plant has 
dehnite atiinitieb with Dr. Rogen;' Rhisanthdla Gardwjri (Jounia. 
of the Royal Soc. of W . Amiraiia, vol. XV,. 1928). which has no 
possible association with DipodunH. the latter genus not being 
rc-yTescule<l ^^ VVestein Australia. The **asaof:ia1io»^'* of the New 
Scuttti Wales plant with D. puiuuitim is probably due to symbi- 
otic iclatiou with identical niycDrThiv:a, ihough tliis hypothesis has 
vet tn he cunfirnxcd. The Structure of tlic flower is very far fron^ 
being 'The same in both 'species.' " 

Dr. l.indiuger has pcrhap;*. failcti to attach sufficitiut iniptirtance 
to my statement that nothmg hut a tew plaiita with ioutj xvitltcrcd 
fioivers was available For the original rlescription After snttcnhig 
the flowers. I drew ihi- t^erianth-set^nKnts- separately; ii was per- 
haps an uuhscretiun tu airange tlteni as f did in the sketch. But 1 
uiii only ^ay here that the Hving s^^^uierH^ artr not ^o arranged; 
and thai the living flower doeh not remotely resemble that of gi 
Dtpodium. Di" ilindinger's ne:<t point, that my two *'curiou5 
appendages" of the cohimn are the c^udicle-S to which the pollinia 
were attadied, 1^ ugaui a conjecture, which the living floivet* dis- 

^9^3* ] I'"kKxrn. Xcxk- Records of Ploftfs Attacked hy hisccls, 47 

proves. Final!}'. I would call attention to the fact that iti Dipodiuin 
the Ial)elhitn is sessile, whereas in Cryptanthcmis it is promincntl) 

I am i^lad to he ahle t(; say that, thanks tt) a *;rant for the pnr- 
l)cjse from the Australian and Xew Zealand Association for the 
.Advancement of Science. I ho])e to visit Bullahdelah in the cominj^;' 
spring and investigate the new orchid /';/ situ, so that a fuller and 
more adequate rei)ort of its character and hahits may hecome 

With regard to Dr. Ltn(hn*(er's inquiries re Dipodium puiir- 
tiituni. if the P}'occcdi}i</s of the Linncan Society of Xcii' 
South iralrs are accessible among the exchanges of German in- 
stitutes. I would refer him to a pai^er in Froc. xlvii. 3. 1Q22. 
by John AIcLuckie. M.A.. D.Sc. Lecturer in Plant Physiology. 
University' of Sydney, entitled "Studies in Symbitjsis : The 
Mycorrhiza of Dipodium punctatum R.Br." Dr. Mcl^ickie has 
fully established the character of this Dipodium as a liolosai)ro- 

Xi^W RI-X'ORDS ()!• IM.A.VrS ATTACKl-.D \\\ XATIX'i'. 


P)\' C". l^'uF.xcn, |i"XK., (iowrnment llinlogist 

Tii 1-: ii AKi.Kyri N FjI'i; 
\o. 5. ( Diiidymus z'rrsicolor Schon. ) 

This insect i)elongs to the fann'ly i'\rrhcorida'. and conmionh" 
is spoken of as a true plant bug. It Is one of the native insects 
whose attack on cultivated plants, particularly in recent years, has 
become very serious. Knowledge of the natural food habits of 
this species is meagre, but it is certain that very little damage is 
done when in that state. It is only since it has attacked cultivated 
plants. ])roviding, as they do. a wealth of suitable fond materials. 
that the insect has assumed epi<Iemic numbers and caused the large 
amount of damage that is evident every year. 

( )ne of the favoiu"ite breeding-places of this insect at the present 
time is the introduced weed. Marsh Mallow {Malvn roiuudifolia), 
while the common Hollyhock is also [oun<l suitable. 

'i'hese bugs now attack a])])les. f\^^^, pears, almonds, raspberry. 
red currant, gooseberry, ajiricots and peaches, wliile grapes are 
severely attacked. Xumerous flower and vegetable plants are also 
attacked, most severely tomatoes, potatoes, lettuce. <lahlia^. chrys- 
anthemums, marigolds, and hollyhocks. 

Adult HarkMjuin P>ugs. lately, were seen actuallx' feeding on 
the dead larvae of the Painte<l A])i)le Mr»ih {Tcia anartoidcs). 
Thev are often found in large numbers (tn (ild bones. At times 
the\' enter bee-hives and cause apiarists niuch worry. 


Gabriel, The I'ictorian ''Umbrella Shell.* 

rVict. Nat, 
L Vol. L. 



On a recent excursion of the Mornin^ton League of Nature 
Lovers, a perfect example of this rare species was collected. It 
contained the animal, and was adherinj^ to a rock under the Morn- 
ington pier, and the opportunity is here taken of recording at 
this locality the interesting find. 

^tore than forty years ago in ''seven to sixteen" fathoms, the 
t\])e was ohtained at the lower end of the south channel of ]"*ort 
I'hilli]) hy the late Mr. J. B. Wilson; it is also recorded from St. 

"Umbrella Shell' 

Interior (figure on left) ^nd exterittr. 

Vincent Gulf, South .Australia. Li life, almost covered hy an 
epidermis, the shell may he easily overlooked, and the accompany- 
ing figures are presented as a help in the identifying of this 

The author, in his description, notes: — ''Shell orhicular in out- 
hue. moderately elevated, with the ai)ex ])rominent. somewhat in- 
curved ; covered, excej^t apex, with a well-developed epidermis, 
which extends ahont half as far again as the shell. The e])idermis is 
raised into ahout twent\' hroad rays, diverging from the apex, and 
is concentricallv lamellose. It is very tough and can he readily 
removed in one piece. The shell is of a ])rimrose-yellow colour, 
thin, concentrically striated, and with a few ol)scure radial ridges. 

'*The animal is of a dee]) ])ort-wine colour. The dimensions of 
the tvpe are. transverse diameters. 19 and \S ; height. 4 millimetres, 
while those of the present s])ecimen arc 2S and 20. height 7 mm." 

The Victotian Naturalist «= 

Vol. L. — No. 3 July io> 1933 No. 595 


Ttio annual mccring of the Club was held in the Koyai 5ocicty"'i 
B'rili on M()n<ky, June 12, ig.l'^, at S p.m. The Pfcsultnt. I\ir. 
J. A. Ivf't'shaw, presided over an attendance at about eighty niem- 
bcr5 and friends. 


Tlie Chairman reported the death of Mr. Cha*^. Fi*ench. %tnt'.. 
and gave an outline ot his activities in^ connection with tlic>. 
The Chairman's remai-ks were supported by Mr. Cu>>hill ;ind Mr 
Daley. Members then stood in silence a& a mark of fespt^ct to (iiu^ 
lale member. The Chairman expressed rcgixt at the* death of Mrs. 
A. D. Harvey, the wile or one of our members. I1 was dectdftd 
chat a letter <jf amdolence he sent ro Mr. Harvev. 

A IcUcr JTOrn Miss C. C. Cnrric. <d' Lardner amtainipi*^ v»mc 
Jntcresiing nutes on the wild life of that distj-icr- 

Re.poTts of excursions were as ioHows; — Kalorania, Mr. C. 
Freneh, junr, St. Kilda GarUcus, Mr. V. H. Miller; Eitham and 
Warraudyte. Mr. W- H. Ingram. 


On a show of hands the following were duly elected:^ — A^ 
C>rdtijary Members: Mr. C. In^'rarn Cux, Mr. D.'O. Caffin, Mr. 
A. II. Chisholm. As Country Members: Mr. Alaii Coulson, Mr. 
K> Jarvis, Mrs. M. Carter. As Associate Member: W\^$ E>. K» 


The Annual Report was read by the Hon> Sccrctar}\ Tlicre wait 
nn <liseussion on it, and it was adopted on the motion of Mr V. H. 
Millef, seconded by Mr. W.'Ramra. 

The balance sheet was read and explamed^by Mr. A. S. ChalK, 
and the statement wab. received on (he motion of I\Jr. G. N. Hyarn, 
<.eoonded by Mr. V. II. Miller. A discussion followed, and several 
members took p^trt, inclnding Air. Geo. Coghill, Mr. W. Ramm 
and Mr. A- T. Swaby- 'I'he statement was then adopted on the 
motion ut Mr. V. H. Miller, seconded by Mr.. .A, S. Kenyon. The 
Chairman expressed the Ciubs thanks to the Auditors. 

^ Pirtd Vtinti-niuii' l%(> F^'vicc^m^ij [M'/,* u 


^Z^mlm OF Ol'FlCrvKEAkERS -^'^- 


elecLioii rosniti gave the foHowirif;^ offtce-bearers:: foil 1953- 
.Vk— Piesidait. Mr. V. ^tl. Millar; Vice-Pre5ideiu^'^Mh-^\^^ 
fvcn^OT*. Mr. G. N. Hyrmi : 'rreit&urcr. Mv. J. Ingram": Librmian. 
Oi*. C S. Softer ;.,A^ssisUnt Lihrarwin. Mr. VV. H., Ingram ; J|JtlUoi. 
Mr. Chas. E^irretl; Secretary. Mr. K. S. CoUiver : Assistant l:?c:crc- 
tnry. Mr. L". "Wi 'Gu^^pef; 'CoinmiUr*\ Messrs. ^Cfii^sJ-'OiVdV-'Qw^ 
a^ghill. K. ri'^Croll S'."R" , ^4^(clldl. E E. Pcscok.' '; ;• .* ^ ' 

The r<*iii'i*itr'*l'*'resicii:*ilt.'b*:'forc rolinqmshmg th'^"'chSll\''e>i(>Veiisetl 
thanks to ofHccTS ;vii<l in incmNcrs for tiupporhng'liiti^' VKtri'np^ "his 
term ot office. lie thdiV Wckomerl Mr. V. H. Miller and retir^'d 
ill Ills fuvonr. .._.'_ 

Mciuhers presein expressed by hearty acclamation their warm 
Jipprcciatiori of the lutvaryuig courtesy, ability, and eHicicncy with 
which the rtMinng PresiOcnt h;^d performed the duties of the oflice 
toi two yturs Mr. Kerf.hjw"y term is speciaMy notable ris bcin^ 
the only instance o\ occiipyin«^ the PrebicleiUial olfice (or a -^cctnid 
p^rior! aUer the of many years. 


iVIr. A. f. Swaby moved, "That the committee furnish to tt»ft^ 
NafJtra/ist each month, tor tire benefit oi coimtry members, a &hort 
.s^nnmary o( bii.^iness trans^icted''* : and also *'That members l>e re- 
qucstutl to rsubrait ideas as to improvements, and a sub-commiitcc 
be termed to report on .same." These were rckrre^t to the next 
<:onin>it»ee mee.linjf. 

Mr. A. H K. MatlJiitjlcy moved. ''That this Chib asic the Fed- 
eral GovcrnmcTit lo at>po^nl a CoTornon wealth Mantie Htolo^isi " 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel a^kcd for iuforniation about the irtvasiim of 
<:niT)s. Mr. 11. P. t>i<:kcrib antl Mr. (. A. Kershaw contributed 
information. Mr Kttrshaw bugji^eiited t\vM it wois hi [>arc at least 
fine ro ihe recent killing* of their natiual enemies, as the so-called 
Gnn-tmy Shark. 

Mr. J. A. Kershaw moved a special vote of thanks to Mr. (ieo. 
Coijhill, who had for the la«;t ihirly year.s pUred his oflice, tree ol 
vhargc. at the diiiposal oi ihe commitlee I'or I heir ineetini^s. 


Mts5 .Ruth G'»uls<:ti\. — Minerals t rem Give Hill Qvarries. Lily- 
dale iitcinding^ Malachite and limestone, Rhomhohcdral calcite. 
ibmmilary calcitc, Fcrro calcite. Calc sinter (white and pink). 
Calcite (dog tooth :>par). 

Mr. H. Stewart. — Acadit lifuuns, A. f*o{faiynm folia, A. Hts- 
(ohr (all i^.irden grown). 

Mt. F. S. Col.liver_ — A scries nf fossils iroin the lower be<!s at 
Ruyal Park culling. con.s3sting oi Mollusca.. Poiy?Joa corals, sea 

Iiij3. J /fmuMf Ni*lff}vt- " - SI 

iircj»;i^. etc. 'J"he ag'e ui tlicsc arc Balcoiubiuu. Ocudvite* Irtmv 
Cnve Hiil, Lijyucile. Specimens oi ihu. Sngc omng'e (Mai'lclo*ii 
tiufmifhca). ■ J. 

iNr<iblcr Geuvgu C. Wa<lc. — A colleclion of iiiJicctn, iiiduJ'iiii;^: — 
]'J<!pluiU Beetle, Cinj^^lese and Auslrutian Scorpions, together with 
ii niiiuber i>f Ix-'ctles, spiders, \va^i]->.s and niuthN, Also a niarino 
^helf, hiUdlana ausindis. einlH'.ddc<l in the tointium i^ysu^.i . 

Mr. T. S. Jlurt.— .HtkiisU'ilcr'ri Gc(tlogical Atlu>^ of New Zir^i- 
IuihI. iSCi4, 'I'hc mai> u{ Atiekland nIiow^^- .several (jxtincl vol- 
I'Wiiaes witli lakts ;uid eeiiLnd cone.T. nn»re or leys rci-tiMiiblinj^ 
Tower Hilt. Flowers oi Atacia puUJiclUh \^^\\nin\^. W.C. coll., 
1913. Leaves nnd fluwers of some Western Au^t^alian IDrosera:^. 

Mr. Geo. Coghili. — ^Ftessed flowers from a rectal Sydiiey inu. 
A flasket made from Ca.suarina needles: (inyintii'a- rosvurrndfoliii 
(^iardeii ^rown) ; ^iundry bpednieus of mineral^, 

Mr. vhas. Daley. — Queensland beari (Ilnfmh! scumlrns), (Jiti'd- 
\\nt\\ VuKY. Scrapers, chips. eU:.. innn nnd<lcn ac Poinl Co(»k. 

M\\ C ) C.wdiriiiJ. — Rntx ^■'"ictonan ^<}w\] (UmbnuuhHu vnf'fu 
('{)\is'\'-A\'j) from M<irninj;1mi . a'.^o ;i series of fJiiiiH (";.nnH (foil) 
vaiioii>: localities. 

Mr, H J-*. j;iiel%et>s — .A Spider Crah {J.cNotnithra.v ijhtliihr^y) 
fioiu 3''ovi \A\'lsh)Jool, 

ftl^.:$v K. Jifitchcll. — Artifails. and tneteorUe of new type. 

To the Vlembcr-s \>f the iMcId N'atnraJiyls' Clv.b of Victoria. 
Toadies and Gentlemen, 

Vom- Coimnitiee ha^ ))learture in submiuiii^- the 53r<l Annual 
Keport. The membership is ab follows: — Life jncinberN;, '6\ (,>rdin- 
ary member«5. 280; eomitrv iviembers, 75; aK=>oeiale mtn'^bersi, 2*A 
Tt.'lal 3^^-. Tlii.s^ is an iitcrcai^ie of nineteen \^\\ the fissures kjI la^t 
report (1932). 

We record with ^;reat sorrow die lo>h of several vidued mem- 
ber.s ami fricncLs. Mr. Gn^stav Wcintlorfcr, of Cradle Mouniain. 
Tuhmania. a very well-'tcnown naun-alist and a Club member ot 
mauy years' standing: Mr F, C, \. BarnanI, one of the foundadon 
meiuberK of the Club, He held oftice continuously for over forJy 
years. He wa-s Hdiior lor thirty-two yeans, and also served the 
Club a-a a member of the Coininittee. Secretary. Librarian, Viee- 
l-'residaU, and XVe.sidenl. (\ fnll account of hi.s associaiion with 
our CInb is I--, lie found in the iWthtruJUtj Vol 49, No- 3), Mr- 
F- }. Sloane, ;d.S(f one o( the CUd>'i foinidaiion members, and a 
verA' well-knitwn enU>niotogisl, Mr. C. I'Tencb. Sen., ont: of tile 
ftnindcTs of (he Club. ;n'id one i»i ifb t)ni;tual members. Mr. W, 
Thta-n, a member -d' diiiay years siandhig. Lie aUo wa.s a nicmbei 
of the Town Phuminfj;' Ar^Wintion, die Si Kilda Foreshore Com- 

tiii'Uct'. iOMi Hie CoiiinitUcc of IVInr.Ht»<!iU(;ni ux itu- VVi.MinV- Vvo~ 
niotnnry .\"atioi,ial I^^trk. Mr. Jaints Hill, of Mtnloa (1916-1932); 
Mr. K. VVhiiniuvr. ( l*-il.M*-.U2) ; aiici Dv. ilcljcr Grccu, m the 
-Uui^'-crsity Muff (1^24-1933). ft \s with ckcp re^nxt wc record 
Ihe c.kjul) ot' three v.diitxl fn*riuis — Jfis. Kcnnlarul. wkluw. 
uf oiir 'late Dtcinljcr: Mrs. Antun Violanrl. wbu 'idpLvl ai Ihc VVikI 
Nature ShowH. ;tn(l Mr DoitaUl .M;icl)(n'a1il. the wclUkm^wn 

Thtt alU'iiilAiiee at luccliugh hns htvu rtiiwirkaljlv f.vMii, rlie Avtr- 

fully taxed on almost <:very oixa.sioii. "I'hc cxhiliits i»rc .'>till being 
stHj^e-:? uy the afijoiniof^ worn, <im\ \he. miinher. variety, and st-i^Hi- 
tiUc. vviliu? of these has hccn well sUvStamcd. 

Lectures uiid pajiers, aril iilii-siiniexl hy !ij]>eniiiciis. lauleni j?(idcH, 
)»:a[>s and other aids, \m\vc >cei) cimtributcd In- Dr. li, (). Tciilc, 
llessrs. Arthrii- (otics. C. French. ]Unr.. Cha^- Dalcv. J. VV. Audfib. 
J. A. Kershaw. A. S. Kcuyoji, C, M. l.hv;mr \<. A. "Kchk. A. ff. 
E. Mattinglcy, and Ji. \V. Jewell. 

A very cuinpreliiensivf .v-ri^K of cxcursiiOT^^ wa*;- arntn^'crl tunl 
W:re well atKM^fded. Several r)um.t;e.s in leader^hiii niid )>rnt;r;niinu* 
Vft-re ncces.Vtry. and. a.s in the t-irovioii>i list, novice evcursiuiis vveru 
hicluded and proved very poijular. « 

Volume 49 at the Nuimulist is. we l)eliHv"«;, ahead of it.-- toiu- 
runncrs. 'i'he colnur^d p late '^ at various sulijt:ct5 have increased The 
value of our pul)!ie;iii<in con.^idet*J^bIv. and i. numltpj vi* |>aperv— 
to mentlou only one. ''The Spiders cd Melhoui ne." — of fjreal ^cko- 
lifie interest., have .i;ivcn W' it a hfgh value. 

Fav'juruhic LOMimentb have Ijci-ii uianv. luul llie Quoiiiiliec h\.»5Je, 
li-i circuni-jtaiicch pcrniil, to still lurl'-er uacrcasc ks- iiit<:r4:st to 
nicinhers generally. 

The Cluh ha.s rx»nrinuecl its jurrivity in i>re.serving the yn](\ liui 
c*f Australia Through <iiu rnen>licrs a vigilant eyf* ha^ been kc^il 
urr dealer:^ m planti:; and aninud^ in the various inarket:!, and pn 
the various propu::^als relating Uj wild life that have cou^e torward 
frt^ni time tu time. Lhe foUowiuy maUers have been inquired ^viro 
^tM\ repoi'ted to the proper tuithoritiei : — Sale ot 5ea|,^uns. siauiihter 
ijf Emus hy jiiacliine ^n\'^. poirituim^. or hird^ by Ir.uts laid iov 
ral.ihiltj. and th.e prupo^ed tlirowini: ujk-u td" lurc^t latkls tor stfvtlc- 
luent we have iwii ulway> gained wh;Ll wr ;t.bkc;t!. .^till we knvW 
nnr represe^tutio^.^ have imjl heeii iu vaitr Slnte and Federal 
juUhuritieri have shoxvii uppreeiauon of our f.lToris. aud duough 
iTptesentation l*y tlie Lluh several .il)t.'tii'S e>J (inches h<»ve l»OfU 
added to the protefted li>T. 

Increased co-operation with kmdrt-d auektieji luts huen .^ecu^'ed. 
VVf Iiave co-operaled with the. K..\.0,L*. in matters peytaiiiiug to 
the estahlishiuen( of a vniciuarv fur l.vrt'lm<|< iu Slu'rhrnnki 

\t^!l. J ittmihtt f\>Mt. ^^ 

tliMiglKiin, Cairns. ;nul Smidi Atisn-uliii wiih Howcr vhovvh. t;U'. 

The Fores hr. re -N^lvi^-^'jry CcniniKitt: has, ihiout^^h lavk of mtci*- 
\:<t in its wnrk. <;iisijenilc».? it.s o[XTntionv lOr the prc->ciit. 

The Vicioviuo Advisory Council i'or iht Protection <>t F]ur;i and 
Faun;i. wilh Mr, Cha.i. Dak'\ n9 S«!en:tary. is nlfrl and ticrivc- 
Vour Commutes u'^uw votc-d i4/4/- fownrds Iheir expense^.. 

Several 01 onr mcinlu'rs h:.xvo hocri instrumental m keepini^' up 
the puWic's interest in rh<* Aquarium, and w<^ are jileased to state 
thai rln3 interest m this dcpavrnwnr ^ippLiurs ui hi:, gruwin^;. 

The Lihiunan. rL*]i(>rtj> tliat nunK-rotis books and )>alX'i*s havt; 
|ici-Mi bound. ih\is iM'e>crvin'p; Uivm for fnrnre members" use. Me 
Sllso Mates thai niemhtr:'s hav'o mara* ;.;ihiiI nf tlie lilirarv. 
a?though ,^(Mne of. tl'.em have a iv:nd<mcy (<■ retain hookf^ overlook'. 

IMic \^''ild ,Vatu(<- Show. iu'Jil la.'^: ()eio))(r. was very Ancce.'=isfui. 
^md iVf^A'm t'nlly .ni-^lih'i^d ihi* cxtcusi<in lo the second diy. The 
■work oi (tr^ani,<aii*Mi wa"^ m ihr han^l^ ^-S Mr. V. .W! Millar 
(l.^ireclnr and TiVnisptni' ^ )(Vieei'_) : Mr W I' Ingram ( Sccrc- 
lary); .Mr. K. I:'.. Pesemi f» >n'iei.;j Dfmrinsira'.or). an<l Mr. C- 
liarvetl (Pul;Heii> A^aaii). 'J'hc net ;.tn)ceeds txcteded il30. 

The <:ducalitr."1 vaUie (jf iKcki; sIkjiw^ i*^ widely reoi^'jii/.ed. Al'. 
leaders a)-»in-eHated this, aitd the vnricais t'xlnhiH were ru'ranmcl as 
i;ir as possible to sh'»\v ih<: relarionslujis on wliieh ihcir ela.-^sifico- 
lion was hase<(. As h(;i'nrt'. heljx'rs wtrire so ori<an?;;cfi ihar .m 
enntiunal i-xi»l;;na|i'iM <;f exhihit*. was nvadahie lo vasilors. 

tjvattiud ackoowled;;iucntft are ten(k're<l to the t'ollrtwin^- hene- 
faclors ■ — Casli donations. Mr V, Jil. l^ixun and Mr. Alorton : 
gifts of hnnL-s. :\n>s Kaff, Mr. A. S. iilake. Mr. l\. Whicmorit. 
Mr. F. Cndniore, Mc>?rs. Angus Jn: Kobenson. and vhe Vicloriar. 
(iovcrnmer.T. lUticr <l<>naliiMis : Mr C'hns, C)U<; presented to Hie 
Cluh a ]ihnlo ivf a vcrv ^'arlv convt'i.^'>axitHH- hnU'. in the Masonic 

'Voiir Commil.ieo very hernaily appn ciaios the k'oncinual free um.- 
of Mr. Co:L;Inl)*s iifriee for f.^)nvmii/ee if>ec(in;;"S. Tlia?!^.^ is a).->o 
due to ih( da-.'y |nvss und the Jv'adways Pub'ieitv 
I-\t*aid foi j^cnerous assistance in lninL;ii',i:; the i.'hib's aeiivifitw 
lieTorc the piil>1ic. 

A fomprtdK.'nsivo rxpresnion t,0 thanks i;i [sO'l lO da: rr^V;od 
Tor all thr UKMOlaJs ;nKl vrlends. exhibitors. si)ea'M*rs. le.'tders ot 
excursion:;. co)'.ti'iituV'U's. to die XtiJnmli.s'f. laniernisis, ludpt'rs in 
show work, and all who have cheei'i'uHy •;ivcn then* tinn* ;nvi 
oncrf^y i<i \\'.<i advancemcid of the interest^ rit the Club The major 
part of theii revS'Urd hi:S ni IhC ^<now1e<'.tie that their elToi'Ss hav«' 
been uscffd. ^ 

XhwiW^ the eavb. pari (0 ihc s'eur Mr. A j, Swahy. whu wn> 
ifoncn-arv Seert'tary, wa> forced to r.;si!i;n from ihi> po.-ittoii 
ihriJiujli dl-bcahb. Ihs mnviniiaixe in j^uinl iK-alth is In-pcd b'V 

in the fiituru. Td fill in ihc viLcnucy auLsc<l hy his rtjsij;:ii;Ltii>ii, 
Mr. ,F. S. Colhver (fionorcU-y A^sislant Secretary ) wab clcclccl 
to the Secretaryship. Mr, L. VV. Cooper hciny' elected later as 
Honorary Assiscaut Sceretary. 

In the latter part of the year one ot our earliest moiiihers. Mr. 
F. Piteher, cclehrated his golden wedding-. The Ckil) wished him 
and Mrs. Pitcher lon.s." life ar.d happiness, to which Mr. Pitcher 
very suitably replied. 

During,* the year eleven ordinaiy and two special comniitroe 
ineeting.s were held, and attendances ot olTicer*^ was a^ iJoHows: — 
Mr. V. IT. Miller. 13: Messr.s. J. A. Kershaw, J. VV, Andas. and 
F. S. Colhver, 12; Mr. VV. H. Ingram. ]i; Messrs. G. N. Kyam. 
f. Tngram. A. S/Kenvon. Dr. Sutton. 10: Messr.^. [.. \V, Cooper 
and Clias:- Daley. 9 : M'iss RalT, 8 ; Mr, Ciec. Coghill, 6 : Mr. C, Rar- 
relt, 3; Mr. Swahy, 2 (rccned) 

j. A. KF:KSHAW, President. 

l'\ S. CC>Li;iVl£R. i-lon. Secretary. 



T\Vf<:LVE MONTHS ENDED 30th APRlf.. vm 


To Balance at Raaks lit May, 1932— 

Eiifflish^ Scottisli and. Austral iaii 

Bank .. ,. . .. 




State Savings Haiit^ ,; . i,x ,; ; 




£^6\ 16 


Sl1*v<;criptions — Arrqarj^ 







In Advance 






272 10 



Wild Nature Fil.schihicion Receipt.^ . . 


18 in 

Cash Sales of— 

Vtcforian hit\ii\r{\l\st »> , • > • 




Badges , . . ^ . . , = . 



Plant Census 











""" ^"^ 






Advertiseincnt.s m I' icioriaa Nulut'' 






RxchAHigcs .-■,■■ 

Use of Block m S^fi i'ich\rk\i . 



Interest — 

Best )'\inci . . , . - . - , . . . . . 





Savings Bank DeheiUnrcs .. .- 



.Savings Rank Current Account . 




Comnrtonvvealth Loan .... . , 







f.2J 16 


£985 13 


j^gg^ J Srolcjiicut of Kc4:cif>h <ind ExpcndUnre. 


By yicfoiian NaiujaHsf — 

Prinfmg iX72 12 4 

Jllnstrating 96 y 2 

Wrai)ping and Despatching .... 22 3 

" ' Sales Tax 7 9 9 

29H 11 6 

„ Wild ISTsturc Exhibition £.^1)015^^ .. ]]5 4 

,. Library ^..^ ., IS 10 7 

., General Prinling: and Stationery .. 24 6 3 

,, "Ri^iit and Caretaker . }3 10 

,. Ucpnnts iNainraiisi and Census) , 4 9 H 

,. Postage, Potty Cash, and Bank 

Charges 16 9 

,, Donations to — 

Advii-orv Ccinn;il for Fanna and 

Flora' _ 4 4 U 

Council for Scientific and Indus- 
trial .'-0 

9 4 

i50o 1 

.. -J5aJani;c at Hanks, ,iOt[i April, 19.\> — 
Jinglisli. Scotiiah and Au.'straliai; 

Bank' 67 IS i) 

Statu Scu'ingi; Ba.ik ..... 414 6 10 

■■ ■ ■ 482 j 10 

To balance on lit \<)32 

By .fjalancc on 30th April 19,>3 -> - 

30th APRIL, 19^3 
Arrears of SubiCriytiOi.^, i\G':/\3/-, ciliniatc-d to 

reaiize. say t.<>«. .^ .,•> i»:0 

Rank Cnrreni .Accounts — 

English, Scottish and Anstraliaii Bank 167 15 

.State Savings Bank -- -- - - 414 6 10 










482 1 10 

Savings Bank, Special Trust Account _ .. , 12 15 3 

liivcstmenls — 

Knj;lish, ScoUisfi and .Australian Bank, Fixed 

Deijosil 50 

Stale Savings Batik Deb<fUtgri^.=; .......... 200 

Commonwealth Bonds - 350 


Lihrary and Fiiniitwre, Lisurance Values =± .t ^. 400 () 

St*.>ck on Hand of — 

PUnt Census, at vHluation .. .. . 22 2 9 

Ouh Badat^s, at valuation 2 4 ^S 

24 7 2 
£[S69 4 3 

56 Frevch, New Records of Platitx Attacked {>y huccfx. [ ^^^ l ' 


Late Mr. Dudley Best Fund .. -. ... ... .- „. .-, £50 

Char-a-banc Fund ...-,, , a-— .-■ 2 15 

Special Trust Account .. .. .. .« -•« .*. ;'•-•'• !> 12 15 3 

StJbscriptions Paid in Advance .^ ;;'.'. *i;M.^.. 13 7 3 

OutstandtKg Accounts — ■• 

Rent of Han -. -- '. r- - ^12 

Caretaker .. ... ., ;zt> r * ., .*.:;■ .♦ .-%,?> «.■ .. 1 10 

* 13 ID 

£92 7 6 
(Sgd.) J. INGRAM, ^ 

Hoti. Treasurer. 

Audited aud found corr^t ou 25th May, 1933. ' 

(Sfid.) A. S. CHALK 1 ^^ ^^ ^. 

A. a HOOKF. S ^^^"- -^"dttors- 



By C. Fre?^ch, Goveiiiment Biologist 

The Cherry Green Beetle 
No. 6. (Diphuccphala colaspidoidf^s GylL) 

My late father, in his book, Destructive hisccts of Victoria. 
F*t. II. p. 28, states: ^'How long^ it is since this beetle first made 
its appearance here (Victoria) as an orchard pest I cannot say; 
but I well recollect the great damage which, in the years 1855-S. 
they did to the trees in the Cheltenham and other districts near 
the coast.** 

These insects gradually spread from the sandy districts of 
Oakleigh, Mulgrave. Cheltenham, inland to many of the leading 
fruitgrowers' districts where the insects caused much damage to 
the foliage of Apple^ Peach, Cherry. Pkmi and Quince. They 
also atttick Roses, Hawthorn, Tea Tree, Wattles. 

In the sandy districts it is no vmusual thing to sec shrnbs, prin- 
cipally Tea Tree, Lcptospeynuwi la-cvigntum, L. scoparlum, and 
Other species for miles m extent swarming Avith these handsome, 
though destructive, httle uisects, their brigVit-greeu wmg cases on a 
sunny day (;littering like gems. 

The larv-al stage of this Ix;et1e — one of the Cockchafers— has 
become, in the last few years, a serious pest of strawberries in 
certain districts, in many cases completely destroying the roots 
cf the plants, with their resultant death. 

The Committee of the Fictd Naturalists' i31t)b of Victoria invites members 
or kindred societies, who may be visiting ^tclboiirne, to attend the Club's 




J Charles hrt'iich. ST 


In the early fifties a small boy might have been seen chasinj? 
butterflies and gathering wildflowers on the moors and hills of 
Cheltenham, where he and his family lived. This v^^as Charles 
French, one of the founders of the Field Naturalists' Club of 
V^ictoria. Eighty years afterwards, now a man of ninety-three. 
L'harles French died, and was buried on the hill where he hatl 
])layed and collected as a boy. 

Charles French was born in Lewisham, Kent, on 10th Septem- 
ber, 1840. His father died when the boy was quite young, and his 
mother again married^ the step-father being Mr. Weatherall. The 
family came to Australia and settled at Cheltenham in 185i. 
J'here was little settlement in those days, and the road to the farm 
was kn(jwn as Weatherall's Road. The name remains to-day as 
\Veatherall Road. 

Charles French was born with the naturalist's instinct, for he 
collected butterflies in ]*1ngland as a boy. At Cheltenham he re- 
ceived much discouragement in his lient. for farm work and land 
clearing were to be considered long before natural history. When 
*|iiite a young lad he was sent on several tri])s to the goldhelds, 
assisting in the loading of l>ullock drays going to Bendigo. 

However, in 1858, his bent asserting itself, he was apprenticed 
TO a nurseryman at Hawthorn, James Scott. Scott's nursery was 
in Burwood Road, most of the original site being now occupied 
by the Hawthorn railway station. Scott's brick house is still 
standing, next to the station. From this nursery Charles French 
wheeled a large number of elm trees in a wheelbarrow, along 
Burwood Road, Bridge Road, and Wellington Parade to the Fitz- 
roy Gardens, where Mr, Bickford was Curator. These are the 
famous elms which now give so much shade in those lovely gar- 
dens. Again, he wheeled many trees to the Burnley Horticultural 
(hardens, and he himself planted from a small pot what is now 
(me of the finest specimens of the Calif ornian Redwood. Scquahi 
!/iqijiitcif. in the State. 

It was here that he first saw Baron von Mueller, then Dr. 
-Mueller, who was riding his white pony, setting out on one of his 
long botanical journeys into the mountains. Mr. French retains 
with pride the testimonial given to the young man by James 
Scott, after he had served his apprenticeship. From Scott's nur- 
sery he went to Alex. PiOgie's nursery in South Yarra. and then 
to that i)f Joseph Harris, which was situated on the east side o1 
what is now the South >"arra railway station. Here ht^ again nici 
Dr. Mueller, and formed a life friendship with the l)otani<;t. 

In 1864 French was appointed by Dr. Mueller to take charge 
ni propagating work and the management of the glass-houses 
at the Melbourne Botanic Gardens, taking tip his residence in the 
L^ardens honse in Anderson Street. 

At the Gardens he had full scope for his natural history inclina- 


C'hurlrs I-rriicJi. 

rVict. Nat. 
L Vol. L. 

tioii. for hv often told nic thai lie was afraid that lu- >\yr]M a ' >t 
of his time nettin.ii- hiitterflie.--. iiis after life shows that the time 
was not wasted. In hSSl he was advanced to the nuire important 
]>ositi(>n of custodian of the I'otanical Mtiseuni. under llaron \' 'U 

J'A'en in the early days, as now. the ([uestion of timi)er-l)or;:"ii' 
insects was a vital one. and (. harles l-'rench was requested to 
contri])Ute an article to the Anntial Report of the Department wf 

Charles French, Senior 

Agriculture in 1S74. This he did. the article hein^ well-illusirai d 
with wood cuts of man\' native heetles. 'rhi> is prnhahlx' the Ir.'^t 
entomolof^'ical article puhlished in X'ictoria. 

Jn ISS*^ the (iovernmeiit decided to a])])oinl an entomnjooist. to 
deal with ruid advise ahttut insect pests, rmd I'rench was a])])ointed. 
He soon i4"ot to work, and in 1S*)1 ]>ul)lished X'olume I of !us 
Dcsfi'Kcfii'c Insects of I'icioriii. ICii^ht thoitsand copies were 
issued, and this volume is ni)w out of i)rint. h'oiu' 
volumes were issue<l. the last appearini; in V)\\. This is a moiiLi- 


;5. J Charhs hrHiuh .Jjt^, 

ineiital work, andUw tolinil^d iJlutest.rof wJjich there a:e several 
ilozcMi. were iiH executed uinier his siipf i-vision He wrote a sixth 
voluiiii:. iilso wirli colotn<^i-i |>i;jtc-s. •^If-almg w»tli ba^ef'cial m^ecTb. 
Tlii-':- volimv"' was \\cvt^\- poblfslied, iiviO now I suggest rliat the 
Chib consiilcr Llic qneaiiou oi liavjug tliis volume puhUslied, lo 
com)>]^rc I'liy Jhc work. 

Al. Krrach*--b ^tigycstiou an hiteiswfc coiifecvnce Uj ai.scus'i a 
uivfonii Veg'etaLinn Diseases An waslield ni :Vlcll)OUriic, icsuking- 
I'l Mutcli pc-rmatient K^'od, .He laiO llic (ouYuIation ut -•ici<.in'ific 
ii'wit tree iiuu other pliiit Spraying: in Yicturia. In IVOi lie inih.-ited 
rhr nj':st tunrigacion o1 citrus treeH for red scrde wilh irydi*of.yA>iic. 
•»H-. n trf^ntiVn'tnt now in ccmmon i"ir;ict»c<*:. Vu 1907 he attended 
-un ]oiern;^rionnl Gnnferenc.e oC EnlOTnologJi^l-S in London; anci in 
19QS he rcnrod. full of honours, a great public scm'ant, being ^ne 
cct<Jc<l by hl^. bOTi. Charles Freneh the second. 

} firsT nit*! Chailt-.s French in 1H91. whcii he gave nm a copy Of 
lr*s tirsf vninuie. J cr)lleeled for him when Vivuv^ m the MuiJee and 
in East Gipnsl;ui<l In 1902 I joined his -^tcttT as a iield officer, and 
eniOyml li..-> (ntrdslni'^ uH ehif^f fur hii\ reiirs. when he retired. ]-Jc 
w;-r .1 splendid elnel. ulway^ hvrlptiil and :ull ol iricndly atlvic<i. 
He w;i$ u Wtdeonie V'i^irnr .nmt»ni^ rhi: /ircliiirdi^^Si ancj as <nn econo- 
mic tntumi:;!oi>i:^i. lie wj-? iiui5iaudin^'. 

lie NVM£ iL Fellow of ilie Uoyal Soriciy of JIngland. Fellow of 
the /.ranean Soeiccy u' Lundou, iUKi Felluw oi the SgcJctjr' ot Isis 

^^5 hive iii 'inrnctecl lo like. Charles I'gench soon found kindred 
-sp'-ritS in the natural hi^»ur\' worUI. 'J''hu.-; ihiue Rnlbprt^d logeth^n* 
Willi hiui 1} nundjcr of younir nien, notably Dudley Kest. j. t".. 
OixLin, David Kershaw, -iml Francis Banuird. These I'rkMiO!:^ met 
li-i*(jn»?iUly 'At llu^ hunjp; in tlic BoUtuie Gardens fi'otn the .si.xtiti.s 
to the eigluies, discussnv^ rheii hoh?>fes, and ^etfim; rorth on, thdr 
rambles together. TKeii* rambles nudnded ton^^ wnik'i into ;he 
scrub at Ori^hton, the bush at Sandringliau)^ £\nd the trcti eomurv 
:n l\ew. 

Uno d;i^' a L'lub was siii;gested ; the matter waci fre(|nently dia 
cU'-rired. itnd at last U was decided to advertise a mt*!iui*i-, invitinv; 
nature lovctrs tn meet (ur ibe v^ of lorminc: Ihe Chih. While 
ihe "conspir.itors" were ]jroeecduig to the nieetin.i^^ Ihey v^erc nfiakt 
ihvU i.l>erc would be no one there, uiid when they arrived at the 
appointed pUiee. t!iev were nfraid of the whole project J'jr :i lar*^c 
numhpr wfis uttr.ieted b)' rhx: sn^|^"esTicm_ Ihns on rhi' l7rh Mny. 
]8i!f.K at a nieetm|^ in the Aihenaeum, in Collin?, Ihe Ouh — 
u«r Club — was iiic*ui,an»ied, and Aviih Professor XcCa^v a<. l-'re^- 
iknt, Dudley Best as Secretary, Charies French bein;;; d nieuihur 
6t Counnittec. 

in his Hotanif Tiardens days, French was an enthusiastic and 
successful eullivalot of native terns and orchids.. He was thu5 
well <<Uiiliiied {u write on ^h^se .subjects. The iiist |>aper lead :ii 

6a Charter Prtixth. [^^X ^'"• 

the Club meetings was one by French on V^ictorian ferns. Thiri 
Ts published in the Soufhem Scu^vce Record from ISSO to 1SS2. 
Tlus was followed by The Lycopcnlia^Cci of Vktorln, ulsd puh- 
hshed m the Southern Science Record of 1882. 

His papers on Victorian Orchids were reaH from ?S84 to 1.88?. 
Ihc first appearing in Vulume 1, No. 1. of the yiciormt I\lfUuralisi- 
He wrote and puhlishM many arHc?es in the NaiufvHst^ on botany 
and entomolog}". he issued taany DepaTtrncntul Bulletins when 
Government Entomologist; and tims he undoubtedly laid the foun- 
dations of t'Tilonwlogy in ihis State. 

The interest o£ the Chib was always in tli^ heart of our friend, 
atid t>Ti ever}' occasion that we met, be would ask. ^'And Iiow is 
the Club getting on?" It should be looted that il was always "tlic" 
Club^it was the only Club so (ar as lit was concerned. It waf 
an unfailing pleasure to him co note for fiftj'-tbree years the pro- 
g^rc^5 of the CJub, the jubilee of which he was permitted to see. 
His last ilUicss was only ot" a tew hours' duration, and on 2Ist May 
l;!st. full of honoi!r and respect, he fvassecl quietly awav from us. 




There is ju>.t to hand number one of ten Nature hooks by recog"- 
nized authorities dealing with Australian fauna and flora in n. 
siinpre. popidar way. and designecl as an mtroduction in Nalxire 
study for childri^n iirid b^inners. The /'Shakespeare Head Aus- 
tralian Nature Books" are published by "The SliakespKirc Head 
Press Ltd.." Sydney, under the general editorship of David C 
Stead, F.L.S., an experienced naturalist and author of many book^ 
on scientific subjects. 

The first nf the series, TPtc Insect Book, is by oiu' Forenio3< 
Auslrahan entomolof^ist, Walter W. Froggatt. F.I,.S., K.E.S., 
F.R.G.S,. formerly Government Knioinolo^ist and Special Forest 
Entomologist of New South Wales. The hook is welt printed, 
fully illustrated, written in siniple language, and should be a vala- 
?lble guide to any beginners in the attractive study of nisccls. Tech- 
nical names are avoided as rnueli as possibio. and vcniacidar n&incs 
used for rh^ insects det^cribed. This handy work, price twti 
shiUingSj i5 a promising forerunner of the uencs. 

Mr. Stead is to be congratulated un btb undertaking, and wc 
wi5h hiiti success in his ventnre. His Excellency, Sir PhUlip 
Gansc. iu a pertinent foreword to the t-eries, writes; — 

'T feel that the number of potential students in Australia k 
legion, and that a great many people, young and old, simply await 
the advent of the necessary keys to enable them to unlock Nature'ss 
storehouse and etijoy chc treasures. . . N'ature handbook'^ of 
this type are a very certain means of aiding in the preservation of 
wild life and beautiful flora. * 

1933. J CoLF.MAX. Polliuatiofi of Spirouthcs stucHsis ( Pcrs.) yUitcs. 61 


By Editii Coleman 

It has been shown (Victorian NaturaUsf, Aj)ril, 1931) that 
Spirtnithcs sinensis (australis) is wonderfully adapted to faciHtatc 
ponination of the most beneficial type, for as anther anrl stigma 
mature at different periods, an interchange of pollen between 
flowers of individual plants is assured. 

In the same paper I mentioned having taken, on three occa- 
sions, a small bee bearing^ pollinia which had been with<lrawn from 
flowers of Spiranfhcs sinensis. The bee was identifit'<l by ^Ir. 
T. Rayment as an Halictiis sp. 

In January of this year I again witnessed -visits of this bee to 
Spiranthcs, but was not successful in capturing them. I did, how- 
ever, take four honey-bees (identified by Mr. H. Hacker as Apis 
mellifcra) , all of which carried pollinia. One of these is figure<l 
in the accompanying illustration, drawn by Mr. E. Jarvis. It bore 
h\'c complete pollinaria attached to the basal maxillary ])ortion of 
its i)roboscis. In Fig. C four of these are shown protruding from 
the oral cavity. 

Mr. Jarvis tells me that the honey bee, Apis mellifcra, does not 
belong to any definite race, but there are hybrids between the 
Italian and black bees. A pure bred Italian bee has at least three 
yellow bands, while the pure Ligurian bee is buff, or leather- 
coloured, without any bands. The specinien illustrated is very 
beautifull}- and symmetrically banded. 

I had previously received from Miss J. Henderson, of Ilolbrook. 
New South Wales, a specimen which confirmed my opinion that 
there are no structural differences between the Victorian and 
southern New South Wales forms of Spiranthcs sinensis, and that 
one might expect them to be pollinated by the same insects. I 
wrote to Miss Henderson, asking her to keep her plants under 
observation, and. if possible, to capture any visiting insects. 

To my very great pleasure she responded shortly afterwards 
with a small bee bearing six complete pollinaria attached to its 
pro1)oscis. taken, by a strange coincidence, on the same day when 
I had observed two of the Halictus sp. visiting our Healesville 
patches of Spiranthcs. Four out of five flowers on the spike 
enclosed with Miss Henderson's bee. had their pollinaria removed. 
A portion of a pollinium adhered to one stigma. In the fifth flower 
the i^ollinia were intact. 

Miss Henderson wrote (January 10) : "I am sending \'ou the 
only insect I have seen visiting Spiranthcs. It darted to the flower 
without a moment's hesitation, and ])ut its proboscis into it. There 
arc several dozen of the orchids g^rowing closely together. The 
whole patch is not more than two to three yards square. The only 

L Vol. Jj^ 

Sl>ir(iiiihrs sinensis ( Fers. ) Ames 

orh^r SpiroJtI/tcx 1 Ixave seen were iwo or thi c-c growing in a soak 

on aaother bank. Tlicy do not s'cein to be vcrv common here. 
] liope 1 have fouml the right insect for run." 

Althoui;li Miss Hendtniun's in^^ect wa.-. nttl ihe hec i ii>;pectc;d 
to sec, it g^avf^ me an even pleasantcr surprise, for. ;ii ihe-yrI)ow 
prillinia, it bore eviilence thai (here are at Ica^t tfircc tsj)ecic5 *>} bee 
tiigitifeii in pnlhnatinij our Ausit'uli.'tn Spiyo-ntlti\\\ 

Misi }.i'.-ndc-rsoti's Ik-c w:is idfntifir:d by Vir H. f-iaclv<;r as 
COi'/iory\ alholiiicaid- Cockerell. I'ig. h' on Iho ptaie 

Mr. jarvi-s tcHs mc that thii- spccios iva.>5 been collecied at Mac- 
*ca}*, Kf.rancia and RriBb;in".\ All the members of Corlio-xys ai*c 
pfirasicic oit species of Mcgac/tifr-. 

UjilDrtunatcJy, ovcr-clcimp conditions. »'.uirin|>' their Transit to 
OiK*<:-n->la;id, had canse<I a fi,in^u>> lu dtH'<;l<ii.) on the* bct-S Th<' 
unccluim had s^jrt-ad over portions of. l!ic bud,v and the vcnirul 
anmc<:' ov the hiv-JnV Jn rcnxn-in.^- ihc ftingn;i the form oi Ihc 
pollcv-iijiiss wu?^ \oM. ;in6 is only indicated m Figs D and E. Tlu: 
glandi, liuwcvcr, remained intact on tlie proboscis (Imjli:. C) and 
;irc J think, fmihcr evi*1cnce that vhc Tjc.^i type of cvoss-pollina- 
lioii is sccuvo<l, fur. wcru the bi.c to visit tiowci after ftower on 
thir .sanu* .'^piJ-:*.'. tt-ni<(vini/ tlic [»'llinia intm t-ach, one mi^ht rpison- 
;d)Iy fxiit'Cl to litid oi: :i -ut^nn. or some oilier nCgm<*iil of th*.-: 
Howcr, an occasional pollinarmm (rhis indn/les the gland), wlntlti 
owlnjsi t(» ;hrt <"toscnc-^s of tV.t:: \-isils, had bcrii ridjlied off a proljofloi,*^ 
N-M.<irc the -^iancl had sev. 

■Jt'his ,f have iiov<;r *:u'cn The jjtilhnia arc always deiacht-d from 
:lu-; gland wlicn depo.Mtcd. The :5wiitnL:'5S of Miss i-Jender- 
soii's bee agrees witli that ol the Ifnlictits sp. which I liave tnUc.n 
in i\vo vvitlely .separated lfjC(-diti^.s. The lar>*"t'.i bcu, on the -orhei' 
h;nKl. works the flowt'r> in a less luuTied nianner, and one has 
i:u diflicnlty in takini^ l\ 1 hav*- even seen fvvo '^( rhom on the: 
same fiowL-nnii bpikr. In J-Ifalesvil!c w<' noticed that they i^'iiorctf 
rlio abundant flowers oi Austral Centatiry (flryflmico oitsfrdjij*,)^ 
which Ere of tlie wime colourm;; ah Spinntthvs. 

l*rom ihe large pcrcentai^^c of pollen-rcmovai^ it ^eem.s .strange 
that the hce^art nm, mort* often .seen. J havo sat among hnndred.-; 
01 floweting' p]i*nts. only lo wiinci-'s three vihits within an hour. 
Thih suiyi^a'sts either that one bee is rcs]»ou,sd.»le. tor the polh'iiatimi 
of many flo^ver^i, ov tliat the bees wru'k ;i.t a time when tew 
butanists are afield. 

1 noted that the beets do not visit iIk^ ilowers ir. ihe .S]>iral nian- 
n*;!- ot^c iniglit aniicipatc from their arrangement on Ihe spike. 
Id observmg the polHnation of another orchid 1 accidentally 
stnmbkd on Ihe fact ihat the visits of the insects were made in 
"the very t^^irly morning hour^. Ihrs vcar T have seev^ j'ipis mrJli 
f\?r(T working m the garden before 7 :i:m... <?v«fn on rokl. dull mom- 

As one or two capsules wcro set on spikes of Spimnlhes which 
1 exposed <it night only. I assumed that they bad been visited by 
night-flying insects, hut I think I may Stifdy &a.y that these, tco^ 
were pollinated by bees in the early hours, for I did iu>t think it 
ntcesj^ry to prokct the flowers until 6.30 each morning. 

It is interesting to compare the pi^lhnary mech;*Tii5m in Sf>ir- 
anthes with that of other orchids, in nwny of wliich one notes an 
altered angle in ihe position of the poKinia aft<:r removal, due to 
the contr^jctjon, in drying, of eitfier c-taditle or gland. 

This dcpresiton of the polhnia facilitates their reception on the 
siigm-j of the next flower visited. (Victorian Naturalist, April. 
1931, for illustration.) 

In Spiranthej tlie pollinia undergo no movement of depression, 
but remain, as withdrawn, pnraliel with the proboscis oS the bee. 
A receding and rising movement of the cohimn, in older flowers, 
hririgii the stiyitia into the receptive position. This receding of the 
column from the labclhim is the mast remarkable feature: in the 
pollinary mechanism of Spiranthes. It enlarges the passage into 
older flowers to allow the insertion of *Vi.sittng" pollen — with- 
dra\^ai from younger flowers. 

Only m a young flower can the polUnin he leailily withdrawn, 
and this is beautifully performed without aiiy possibihty of their 
touching itJ5 own s-tignia : for. at this stage, tile column is hori- 
!£ontal, and Ues close co the labellmn, with botii stigma and anther 
T^-5iing on its keel, and the polUnia well for^vard, quite beyond 
reach of the stigma. To ensure pollination, pollinia withdrawn 
from a youn^ flower muyt be carried to an older one, in which 
tlu: receded column lias enlarged t]\c opening sufficiently to allow 
their entrance. 

Nature shuns monotony as consistently as she is said to abhor a 
vacmrm. Nor does she permit us to lose our curiosity by dis- 
covering all of her .secrets. By withholding something ti> reward 
our eagerness round cacl) bend fu th<! road she keeps xv» ever 

And so, to-day, we find the polhnia of orchids removed on the 
head, or the end of an mscct's abdomen, or, as in the present in- 
stance, on its proboscis To-morrow . what may we find ? 

I am greatly indebted to Miss licnderaon for the interesting 
specimen of Cocihxys' to Mr, H- Flacker for identifying the 
spctrimens, and to Mr. E. Jatvis, who so kmdly sup])lted the beau- 
tiful plate. 

A. Apijf fncUilctCt Lin. X S. 
8. Dorsal view of anal segment of ^airt \ 15. 
C Ventral aspect of head of jAine, showing pollhiaria in crat cavity. X II. 

D. .interior view of pollirtSPia. X 25. 

E. Posterior view of same. X 25. 

F. Cociioxys albolitiefita C<>cl<ercl(. X 5. 

G. Face and prolwscis of sanit, showing polL«n discs. X 9. 

H. Maxillary portion of proboscis wilh viscid discs -^dlicrmg. X 20, 


Plate VIII 

Two Pollinating Agents of Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames 

uly I 
933. J 


Daley. Rock-shrftcrs at Gitdqcnhx Rive 





By Chas. Daley, B.A., F.L.S. 

About eighteen months ago it was reported to the authorities 
at Canberra that two caves or rock-shelters, in which were de- 
picted crude aboriginal paintings, were located at Gudgenby in 
the south-west of the Territory. 

An officer of the Geological Department was sent to inspect 
them. By the courtesy of officials, the opportunity was afforded 
me. when visiting Canberra last year, to visit these remote objects 
of interest at Gudgenby. 

The route is over good roads past the old station of Tuggera- 
nong to the Murrumbidgee River. At the farther extremity of a 


' 4»A 


T^jTf^ a 1 

- <^ p 


-. \ 

No. 1 Rock Shelter 

fine l)ridge spanning the stream is the peaceful and picturesque 
village of Tharwa, with the i)rominent peak of Mt. Tcnnant in 
the ranges behind. The road turns to the left past the comfort- 
able homestead of the station Cupancumbelong prettily situated 
amid sheltering trees on the river. 

Some miles farther through the foothills, the clear sparkling 
Naas River is crossed, its valley being sparsely cultivated. From 
here the track rises rapidly on a stony, jagged road amid granite 
boulders, with stiff pinches and steep inclines to negotiate, where 
the control of the steering-wheel needs the skilful hand and steady 
nerve of an efficient driver. The thrice-repeated legend, "Closed 
for all ]Motor Traffic" seemed a very appropriate and precautionary 
one as we crossed the formidable granite range above steep, rocky 

However, forty-two miles from Canberra we ran safely down 

fA I).\lJ■■.^ . h'oi k-slttitt'rs tif (iiirlf/riihy Nh'rt. |_ y^^^ j^"' ' 

lu our .li'iKil. a sheep station situated in the ( iudi^rnl)} valley in 
its rirde of li.^litly-timhered liills. TIk* niountain stivani is lini])i(I 
and (|iiickly-flowini^-. (iracefnlly (Iroopiiii; willows, vi^^orous ]Mnc 
trees and stately ]j(tplars mark disiinctiveK , as is nsuallv the case. 
the site of a homestead of verv Iohl;" stan(hng. 

After lunch in the opcu, we were gtiided for ahoiil a mile to 
the first rock-shelter, a rounded ^i^Tanite monolith with a sloi)in,y 
shelter, formed ])y the lireakinj; away or clcavaj^e of a^e fraj^- 
ment from the mass, and 1)_\- suhsec|uent erosion of ex])osed siir- 
laces. ( )n tlie sheltered o\'erhan<(in,^ surface, ajiproximatolv 
about twelve feet in hei;:;-ht hy sixteen feet in leni^th. are fairly 
'lepicted in red ochre or white clay. /oonior])hic fij^itres — -Kaui^a- 
roos. luntis. ( )possunis. Koalas f?) and Tortoises. 'I'hose in a 
white me'Iimn were more <:listincl than others in red ])i^'ment. 
wliieh blurs with the surface. 

Action was sliown in one or two fi,L;"Ure>. With the exception (tf 
a few^ indeterminate (juartz chips, there were no other siccus to 
indicate castial visitation hv aborii^ines. 

Half an hom-'s walk hrotij^ht us to the secoiid shelter on the 
lower slope of a steej) hill — a commodiou^. shapely cave in a hu^e. 
semi-oval, .granite rock about thirty feet in diameter. Disinte.^ra- 
lion from within seemed t(i have been extensive and lon^-con- 
tinued. ])roducini^" in time a hij^h concave interior with a flat stone 
fl(M)r. Tlu* cave was quite dry, and would ])rovide a secure shelter 
ai^ainst severe weather. ( )n the wall the re])resentations of animals 
were sinn'lar to. hut rather better, than in the first shelter. There 
were no sii^ns of stencilled hands, tribal marks, or other emhlems. 

S()me fij^ures, on account of a^'e. wx^atherinj^". and ])robably from 
smoke, were indistinct : and as at the other shelter, when super- 
inii>osed on earlier outlines, were difficult to determine. As 1)efore. 
there were no |;round indications of occui)ation such as chips, etc. 
This work of a vanished race nnist be of j^reat age. \o aliorij^^ine 
^ur\i\es in []k- district. In this wild and lonely district it is not 
im])r<>bable that other rock shelters, similarly flccorated with jjrinri- 
live art. may yet be found. 

Subse(|uentl\'. in a conversation with the Minister concerned. 
1 sni^*".iieste<l. f()r the i>reservation of these easilv-deface<l paintin*;^. 
that they should be caret ullv covered with wire netting as a ijre- 
vention (tf vandalism and thoughtles^ destruction. 

This area of the 1\-rritory. mostly granitic in character, is sheep 
conntrv. with gttod patches in the valleys. l)Ut the boulder-strewn 
hills look very bare and barren. Casitarittn stn'cta. Aciuia sicuU- 
fonins and Pultcmica fasciculata were seen in crossing the ranges. 
The Austral ISlue-bell. Jf'alilciibcr(/ia f/ntcilis, and the Trigger- 
plant. Stxlitfiuni scn'ulatuni, were in full hloom in the moist valley, 
the former, with tmusually large flowers, being very numerous, 
and pn>fuse!y tingeing the sward with its ex(|uisite blue. Pimclca 
mn-i flora, a rice-flower, was also in bloom, but the season was 
too far a<hanced for a profusion of flower.-^. 

.^3 J Taoceu^ }fautin flh 

Jjy A J TAiJui'-U- 

On ?h<' slopes al M(-. A!c\;iiiclifv rh«fiv alioiintl splendkl .sj>et*i- 
nk'iiA of Ma»))ia (Juin^, liutalypliis ■2-mlitali.<. TUi^ ^luii tvec pcf- 
MBts CO rhe vciy ilatontxl summit oi 2.400 iV^i Mr Alexander, 
in <he contily of Talbot, is Ihit'c nule-S from llu* n;irvf>urt railway 
siattoii ; it is about 400 feet [ny;her th<ni M* Ddiuicivjng .nnd 3*- 
easily accessible unless ihe ven- grAirfte bnultUny hloi>t;s ;i,ve at- 
tucW'(i> which make ihe ascent hibottous, iiiiich like the )-l.ingini^' 
Kock sloi^es near Mt. Miiccdon. 

Mosl city folks know il)c Mt. Altxumlcr r(»;»(l. one of Mel- 
buiirau's grcai: nitciuil roadw;iy:-t, buf no» all I»av^; .isccudcd tlic 
inount. It \va^, bcucr known to ^randr'uthci's parents, in iht old 
dij^gin*!^ duys ol Castiemalnv,. Tt is ;i iironnncnt leatuvi: from the 
J3en<ligo railway hne irom ]\li>hinstonf: on. Ahhonfrh. in anmmn 
tUf.Tf i.s TT(i slrjlcitt^ veiij<*t;ifi/>ii on ihc ^/oTjnl. one y):^fllv mis.sfs tin* 
prevailing* C<is\-iiriui anfiata ^^i: Casrlemai no —there are nniny :»pccie.> 
ai EuculyjK^, at IrosT a <Io7en. nv*ar-l»y. and tlie luwer slopes htiil 
DoJr/tttn tiit'Utfioftf .>nd ^he W't*t places C\'/.hvn.\- cnujroslu. Un<lfr 
\\w. .icr**inue bonklers an^ we rise rfcrWylis orclii<ls ure nntonchetl 
by the rabbits: nt-iiher da (be rodents interteie witb the three 
.species of ntek-ierns Miimd on ihe Vou Yanj^ji. Very wonderful 
iind i'xtensive views are ubi^ujied on all sides from the sunuuit, 
when.' (be pli^r. ]>lan^;^Iiotl^» id the .Stau> Rivers und Waters C'wn- 
mission dwarf to the sue of tree-terns, and ihc sniitou.-j course of 
(he aqnednct o! c oliban water fs scar':<'ly di'Hei'nd)le a^ i\ wiuil- 
j>abt ihe orchards U) Barker'^! Creek re^ietvoir. 

Although I was alone nn vhe Mu».ni(. there was no sense of 
lunesomeness, but J looked in vsiin aiiuni^ granite for ;iiitumn 
orchids. Deep, watt.'r-worn gLdltes attest the tael ol a heav% 
.>ea.snnal ranifall. Harcourl i.s famed for its apples ^md j^rfmilp. 
perlvips laihcr srrangc coiutai-t.s. Untorttinately. it was noi nmil 
ihe d^iy wa& elosin^^ when ;> snn sv>on to set warned nie tlnn 1 W9< 
well off ibe rOa*l with six l>arl>ed-wire fences tt> get ihiOniih jn 
(he ;:;r'iwiiig darkness, ibat I took the double warnmj* to ircs- 
pussevs Uke myselt • 

The beynitifn) umbrfij^eous trees Lioie niitsses of manna, {he 
"iJnnmlMinl" of sume of our aI>ori*iine*i, in shape like pieces of 
lapioca, not flaked or rounded, irregnlar and serrated, larger than 
i\M' ftize of a [jca, even die si/e of a J-'rencb becin. It was as rluuiyh 
conijfcalcd snow lay on the btuks of the trees wtiich 5-;pread their 
hranrhcj towar<l< the gronnd nn higher rlun a man, Alt roimd 
Ort the trees Wa-i the abinidant ^npply of eongea!e<I eMulation. 
t\o insects, not even d^iM-s, frnuhlL'd the snj>p]y which was eoniinei) 
to jHe bnds and not ihc Iiark or branches, and l;iv i^'^ently upon 
ihem so that a lonch of the liand can^d it to falL jlow one 

6ft TAricfti, Af(jwtirt. ^ y^^ j^ 

longed for the umbrella of the insert coUerfror to let it fall inter! 

But enovigh wa^ soon coUected, and raided in the Lin coTiiaioer. 

In (]\Ci ihzUxim of tli« b«id was to be found iHc mscct respon- 
sible for the sweet secrelion, an burrowed In us i>nly to expose 
some of The portions of the body not easily hidden. Thtre did not 
appear any gbnd from which the fluid exuded, so it wa^ appar . 
eiitiy caused by the inherent iastiact of the insect seeking the 
Sweetness ru the gnm sn well known to natiu'alhts and not common 
alone to this species of Eucalypf. hut also to several olhers. IF 
the rnanna W3s easily caused to fall, the pupa case of the insect 
^vas secHjrdv glned lo ihe thalmus, but mostly to the footstalk of 
the bud, ami alwavs lying along in an upright position with open- 
ing of the case at the top rei^Jily to allow the escape at emcrge- 
nient. The trees weri=. fine ^petimeiiK, f>erhap5 twenty feet high^ as 
manv teet m the spread, and perhaps two feet to thi ec in djamerer. 
ti.irou vot^ Alueller has fully de-scnbed the exudation in the tenth 
decade of hi> EucaiypUfgmphia. 

One asks several cjtiestiors : Why arc nol atl trees in the neigh- 
bourhood 50 alTeclcd? Why have 1 found the manna on the ttces 
iti December and May at the end of each month? Is this caused 
by the productiveness uf the insect in frequently l)rct:ding {ort!»? 
Are trees of only a certain age capable at producing it in abund- 
ance^ Would seasonal dryness for any len^^h of time*- cau^e 
operations ^ 

A nice sheltererl pojtitinn i?. certainly advantageous, ami not n 
hij;h or dry one. The ease of the pupa is iti .shape not irnlike the 
little brick-makerV of rhe yooJogi.^t. bnt instead of being fixed at 
flight angles to the attache<l material is ijatallel with vhe footstalk 
as mentioned. 


Ov/irtg" to the uuscttlerf out1cK»k of the weather on Saturday mornii^g. May 
6. only twelve nvembei^ took part in tlie evcur&inn. On arriving at Kalor^ma 
a start was made for Lvre l^ird GiiUy. We thoroughly tKpIored this hoe 
^ully and njdny m«>:-'scs aitd lichens (Ik:(\v*:uii thirty and fort^' specie? J were 
tfpiind. ThcNC wiy he sent to sptcialints in America and elsewhere and 
when »M»iite*.i duplicates will he returned and placed in t>ie Naiional Her- 
harium \\.^tt (or future workers oti these inos-t interesting plaals. 

[fifcects were scarce, only a few Carabs being collcctetl — two .sperimen? 
of die ratlinr rare tVofonomns Bcsiti beir^ amontjat them. Quite a nice lot 
of The rather scarce CrernUood, Pterosfyiix dccu-n^. were noticed fuUy iu 

Aher hutch we decided to visit the Arboretum to inspect the trees but 
raw; comnienced w fall and so we decided to mikr. iox the slicUer shed ai 
the Obsorv-^ttOTV. It r.uncd all the afternoon siid. torninately, i?ie nwCor proprietor brou^jht his conveyance to the Obset^v^^iory tor %t% and wc 
^ftived at tkt Croydon sutiuu dry. 

A few honri. ol 6ne weathtr enabled ns, ti> thoroughly cnioy ■i:Jiir rawbte. 

<4- Fiir,sCi.t. 

By W TI. N1CH0LL& 

(8) p7\u;of?hylfuiH Snifomi Rogers and Rees (Stittrtn*s T.*--cl%« 
Orchid )- 

Pras. Sitttonii is r^strirted lo ;^Jpine ^t^non.s. in Vlctnri>i, l^evc 
Souib Wii]e^i and Tiistnania. Il honours I7r. C. S. Siitron (our 
^ibrartan), who discovered ii on the now famous RufFalo ]ilarcau, 
in north-<.'astern Victoria, in Dcccmher. 1?K!*2, 

Jlie original figures ( from dii«<l maf'frial) h^'^ Mi.s.s Rerthrx Rees, 
which accompany Ihe <lescription of the plant in the Froc. Koy. 
Soc, of Viciori(i, VoJ XXV (1912), p, 112, give a very poor 3<Jea 
o{ tliL beauty ci this rathtr allraclivt; orcliid. 

In gi.-ncral particularb Pr. Suttoml approaches somewhat closely 
Pr. QiioraiiAin Rogers (in its sturdier fi>nns) ;. Init the slill-Jvlurdicr 
blooms of Pr. SHtiouii are produced in a shorter spike: the lateral 
sepaK — in the fr4:shly-**->^pandc*l flower— arc cnnnate. hut unitntl 
by a thin ftlamcnt only. Iheae seijmenls oitew diKMnue ut>on ex- 
)iOSU'"e to dryipj* windi^ or the snn*5 rays. 

J have collened this specie* on Talbot i>cak oi Mt Erica, Baw 
Haw Range, at 5.000 feet altitude, where they appear To favoair 
the blac^:, pcaiy soil ot th^ morass. The flowers arc fragrant 
only during the. warmer hours of th^ day, ' 

In Victoria, Pr, ^uttonit occurs a]«o on iMt. Weflinglon (D. 
Mattbew-s A. J.TadRell); l^i^on^ High Plains (\, J. Tadgdl) ; 
Ml. Feathertop (A. |. Tad^eJI). In New South Walcb it is fouiifd 
ot Blue I.aire, Ml Koscnisko anc) Barrington Top:^; and in Tas- 
ntani;t at Cradle MoiinUim (Dr. SuUou), Ben Lomond, etc. 
Flowering period: December to March. 

A hrief de.seription nj the sptciti> Pr. Siilfon'ii Rogers an<1 Rec-s; 

A .stnrdy plant abont 13-30 cm. high; leaf cylindrical, .shorifj 
^th^n the spike; fioweri ahont 9-25, greenish-white, with dark- 
jiilrpliih or mauve marking.*ij ^nd tints; dorsal sepal ovate, shortly- 
ucuminatc or acute, incurved ; petals long^ and rather l>rcad, 
widely 'Spread, white with a purplish or re^l centrat Jine, tips broad, 
triaagiifar-obtuse; lateial sepals miited hy a thin filament or quitr 
free, greenish-purple., concave on ihc inner side, tips obtuse or 
slightly bident.ate; lubeUnm on a short daw, obovatc, recnwecl 
ubruptlv about lite middle; membranous jxiri while, broad with 
crenulate margins : callous part narrow witfi entire margins^ not 
markedly- raise^l, chanriell«'<l. an(T entbug aliruptly just Ijeyond the 
hend; aniher much .shortei* than njstellum, dark red; column ap- 
pe.ndagcs rather hroad, liHlca*e. ahont as high ns rostelhnn , rus- 
telluni purplish ; .siig]n<i prominent; pollinia with a uiCKlerately- 
long cai\dicle; ovary ovate, on a very short pedicel. 

Note — ^-An undoubted sixfciuieti of Pr. SiHionii l^ in the National 
Herbarium, Melbourne., f.abcllcd *'Pr. purpuros-ms F.v M., coll 
C. Stuart, reniittetl from herb. W' Sonders". The Baron, how- 
e\^i, did not a description. 


"NiCiiOLLS, Oi(r Rarer Onhids.. 

rvtct. V.t^ 
L vpi. l. . 

FrasophyUum Suiiotui Rogers aiuJ Rccs- 

J I'll' 1 
I'lJ.'t J 

(""•(.Lniir-:. SiOtti' hiit'ti'sihuj f"n.utfk yi 

liy K S. Coi.i.JVKit 

On ;.i rccciir tiii> [o ilv llamilrun flir%iricl, my frit-iitl (Mr. A. C 
Frostick) and ntyself spent some rime in collectintV along iht 
Grange li^unt. Wc weie iortunal<! ni (uicling soint*, K'try Jiitcrcit- 
Jng ^pcciJiicns. and this '.lotc H In record thrm. Mui^t '/( iiur e»i]- 
Ictiunp; wa^ done at the \oi:n\}ty gcncralh' known, as ''F(.ii'syth's'*. 
from the "trict that thciL dt:ijo.Nit> iiccur t>n land.onre own^d l)y ;i 
x;v*iidet\>an oi dm* mime. 

At tliis locality, the <1rTinj><» Bnrn. .nn insigiiificant srreani cc- 
cepfi^nj^ at flood inrie. lt;Vs curved dir()ugll an oiit-Or(»j> ol' Gtatuie 
rVrphry ami cut into the* Inll-sidc. ilins exposing a very rich dirposil 
OT marine shells and a nodidc lK<i .sinidar lo that ai JJeaiimaris. 

The nodule bed occurs .u \Vti<cr level, atui rhrouj^h iiiceiv.t^nia- 
lion <his dejjosit is very liard. an<l it is difficult to obtain i;^ood speci- 
mtn*j From il:. I^ut a s^ood variety of Fish tccth» etc., have l>t?ou ri^- 
cordfd from h<^nj. Ahoiii one lo iwo feet nhovc ihi^ there Occuif; ii 
»hiii layer containing bniall niulhisca. corak. stem joints of Jhis etc. ; 
rbt'n hi^'hcr up llir hank tlie sholl (]'q>risii l)l•nlr^:. Nalicn, Ostrfn. 
I.imopsis, Glydnierih. etc.. are wry alunulan? ; IhiI. with patience, 
nfhcr rarei" Vornis may ht* colliU'ted- Prom these lirfls we caMe-Ctr<1 
several specimens ihar ate [Xt.s^ihly recorded for rhe fitM lime. 

TJic ]»iost mterc-Stni^; .sperunen was collected hy Mr. FrostirL. 
und is a portion of iht Nif/ln nn)ius nf a u^aUaby {HnIiniHnrtiSi). 
This IS apj^roximately two inches inng ?ui(i centaurs one perfect 
molar cooth, 1t was obtained in silu in the midsL i)i ihc she'! Uit*', 
untl aliout two feet from tlie :aurfacc of the deposit. 

The interest of this ^periuien liijs in the fact that it records this 
aninigl from oldfi lietli^ tlum ])reviou.^ reciiids. TliercWirr- if ^itliw 
nicauiS ihat ihi.s animal ^"oes hack farther than a: pre.seni a(bnitte<l ; 
or. the bc<1s it was fotnid in are oi* ;i yolin.l^vr .if;*- Ihail U Ui^i^ncd 
to them. 

As to the a^c itf \W>o. i»ods, \\uty ftrc referred to as Lower 
i'liiicene tn* Kalimnao hy Chapman.^ and l\:ilnniian by Smylelon.- 
H:dl and l-*nrciiard.'' an<i Tate and DeniKmr."' refer vothe Kulimnun 
an Mtrtccne. 

Hall and Prttchatd^ have reconled a tmtth of the e.^iiiici Kaikj^^a- 
run, P<tloyi'lu\stcs. from licanmaris. IJnforrnnarfH-. ihi.s tooih 
was not fomid ut sifn, hn: p.mou.e,- i>e:hhlps nu tlie heaeh llonr- Tire 
Bi^anmaris lied«; aru regarded as hemg low ni chtr K.dininan l/V 
C-hap>'i:in An<i *^'in:y;lctou (2, ,/c)^. cil , p. ,"^1)2). 

rite Bcainnaris lAii.svth's and McDoualdV; beds aic td/ referred 
to ;(rt KallmuAi). T\w. nodule bed fornK the ^>asc of liie scries-. 
Iiul \vlielher the upper iHirlj\Mis cf tl^e bud art? of the same ))ori?.cin 
i.> tipcii lo Cjiiesii'Mi. I personally l)elu.'ve liu* shell hank ai \u\y- 

*vth*A K> |j^ «»nfnRer. Imt f have not vcl tnlly prnv^d :hi^ to l^r 
liie case. 

In the Cniiiftc Uiirii c;c|)r>5its ihcm appear to b;i niiMx oi (Ik; 
Ifviiii,' siJcric--^ cban ;iL cithtr <•.( die other Ivvn. AUhmiirh niti: con- 
Uiisivo t^'vitlunct^, jheff^ js a ^a-t:;itt'.r niinilKT n»' ^Uelts with the 
(irigiuiii c<>l<ntrin(;t tivm at cither ut the other places uioil'irti\ccl ; 
Mill. Icick (.it colourhi^ may l;o clue to action ut ^fun'»lc acitlf?.,HW 
"n the case oT Ihc McDon^ildV l)c<l.s atuJ ihronj;;h .salt S|jra.y ;it 

^^^.riupial I'Oae.s have Lcen i'oiukI at otlu'r te^ti<l^^' Iccahtic.s 
i|jiit th<^ only rcconi ttiat T know of where the si)ecinion was col- 
Ir.'ctctl uf siin^ rrbtrs ro the Tnl>lc Cape si^ccniK^^'.. ^'VVyoyavxIi.'/'.f' 
;,iul these IrhIs are. T Iselievt*. a>nsicier;ihly oMnv thiMi Miocene, 

VVjssihIy rite cnditions at (""oi'syth's were estuarinc as I have nn 
t-Miniple of the lu-ackish wutei' shell, "\*critin;i" Thi', spCL-imen 
Ktilt hn^ a bright purj^lc colour, l-'arthcr evidence for shoi-e line 
ilepiiyjt is ioun^l in a specimen colkctc<l hy myself ami consisting 
t\i a nunibcL' of the burrowmt;' hkiIIiihc. "Phoia5'"( ?). in thdr 
rtVt^mal burrows. Thi^ jpccioioo c<urc \rum the <)ppo$icC' ^dc 
<i| the creek jU«vt ijckiw the: ^\vA\ Ik-vL 

Also collected ironi the shell JKink wen: several 5fjctjn>en5 oi 
"Cypului?", -?" "Haliotiii" (coll. A.C.F'*.) and ?.evcral lii^h vevtchnita. 
hath mincrali;ie<t ami unchanged to all appearance. This latter 
IX ( Uiiuk. fui'thcv i.'vidence fnv making tht? bedb high in the series. 

Fra^-mcnts ot star-tish. At(M-n haniacles (Hofafius). pieces oi 
wludc Inme. and iuuuvrou«s examples o( sliore Hne niollubca. ui- 
rludin^' Tttrho. Tfivhi and Nvrihi (/V. infkvuatra<fii.\ SmUh; it 
l^viny sp.). were ulsn collected. Ofcanional sharks.' teeth were 
tVrund iunoui;' the shclb:. 

The a:^senibla^e of moltu^ai difVers coiis(dend>ty \\\ the two do- 
pit.sil.s. MeDonaltl's ;ind For.svcll'>., c.i^.. Turbo ;ukI Ncrita do not 
i.'ccnr in the McDonald's beds, while C>yster.s and M yh\is are 
fairly rare. These four i;cncra ace common ;d Forsyth's C )u 
(he iKbcr hyn<i 7'nf/onia is connuon ;it McOona^d'^, bnt L have 
cuily seen one .s])ccnnen collected from K«>rs\'lh'-s. There are 
^Ktwever. numerous s])Ctios con)mon ro both ck-poi^its. 

The iKiflnlf: \)0.d jireviously nifutimu'd n>ay lie tfaecd ai'oii; ilie 
Ivank to behind Henty's pi^-- paddock, .^nd I luive collected leetli an<l 
palate^ nca.r the top cd the rise thure. Mr. Alex. Henty inlViiniccI 
nic that whilst plowmf; he frequently turned np sharks' teeth 
Characteristic norlnle?: Juay be 'onnd there, in' t!'.c Iit'<]H nt 
be veiv clotc to the surtace. 

Regurdinj; the other (nSsil btiis of tl-e distriet. tbc bcstdvuown 
arc the l.>ecti at Clifton bank, atul con:r;i<)ercd l.>y numy 
t<* be the base of the. ti*rtiary .-teries. For mstauce Parr' rcr'erw- 
it> tlteni as- the oklcr scries. Chapman'^ rejtards the lin)estone o[h 
pO!>il(' Ml- Mcnfy's hun.'<c us lirin^ of the JUitesf^n-diim hoti/On i>f 

tli(.' j.-miuKiiin, uml J^arr [he. Ci't., |>. US) .siiy:.ijV!>ty that the brown 
mari of Chft'>n brinl-; :iIso bel(,'Tig.-s lo this ]iori;'on. remarkir.y^ that 
thi.s Jejjusit iiccupies ;ai ir*lrrnir<lia(t: jinsiuou between the J\ahiii- 
ii;vn ami the Bakoiilbian. 

I'his givos rise tu rather an inlt^rc-i-ti ng .stule ot affairs, un Hu.ll 
and PriiehiircP ;;iv<? a ^^^(tliuaco lut" (he hjrtiaiv c|epo.'^\ts ut Vk> 
lorui, alKl tboiv. .;.f Spring Cn.vk arc placed .,is the idWv-:! in ih^; 
series. <tiati.^r;i]jhy j'layuij; hij iinpin-lant juu'l hi (his tlt.*tiLTunnaci')n. 

C'hapman (1, hn\ c'ft ^ \y. 47) ix'tt^rs the Sprniji;' Cn'.ek lii-ds in 
Hh" Janjnkian or MiycviK- If IHalJ and Pruehard ai\: correct, huw 
i.s U ihr\\ the older are ffnind btlween two \<>uii;:;t-.r Ik:<!js alon^ iIk* 
Grange l.k»rn? On the other hand, if Um|Mviun is conect. h(jw 
ji) the -seclio" alon;.; tlie Mui;r;)])iH>l"' t'.> t)e accounted ^or'^ ■ 

At idl events my ;;everal visits lo the Oranj^e linrn have i>roveil 
1.0 nic ti^at many inceresjiny ?;])cciinen.s are still to he fotmd there, 
and ])<?r!i.ips in (he future some ^ivsteni may he hronglit forward 
so that the vexed qne=i(inn of a.i^e for a deposit irnv lie sciilL-d with- 
out douhi. 

1. F C'lMpn'.Hi'. his/ruium }-n.-isil.^_ PJU. p. 14.^. ctr, 

Z 1^ A. S"ii);;'W(vj)i ; "■Suulic.-i in Aiviiriiliau M^.llnsc;! ' Pt, 1, |. ,i(i>. 

Pnh\ {k'ov.' Sm\ i'u- . V(.>l. bX|V, J-"!, J (iv;,^> ). 
X H-jM unci Pr:ich;irH: "Ktiiurkr: t»r. tht* Propojitd '-S^ilHtivi^^nii of tlic 

noc'jno KNH.ks <il Vnrturiit" /*. '"-. AVm-. ;3"..r I'u., Vol. 111. N.S., 

ji 15b 

4. Talc uiiU DciiiTiiut : "'Currcjalion *jf Hn: -M aniic 1 crturKa ol .'^u^•' 
tralia/^ -rcui/.v. /^^o•. Sor.Sflr Aust.. \Wjz. 

5. Hall «nd Pnicbarci ^ "Kote on a Tool!- o'* i-'ol-firhrith'S jVoni Brair-- 
maris." /-^rriir. h'oy. Soc. }'u\, Vol- X, \). 57. 

6. W'.iocbb^ocs : "A 3^e-c?tt^inirvation of M/i'invrn/i'^j ln'-^.'!iom\," /•'m*', 
A\m'. .Vjjr. y(r.r,. )930. 

7.. Varr: ^'Sonie AdcUlicu'a! Mieruaua Frum &k' lvc<i bintcMoltC ai GtMI^C 

Hum. \'kw\-iH." P'tV .V;;r. Vul. \ijn. No. b p. iS. 
^. CbypniAi'i: Mennjir Nat Mns.. Meib.. No. 5^ 1914, p. 47. 
9. Ifall ami Pritchard: "The 01<k'r 'Vcniarics ii( AUvub. with an bidua- 
uow (.r the ScqiKmcq oi thf hvoccnc Ro<:k^ of \'i;:li»ri;i " pivn. A'/tv. Soi. 
i/jV., Vol, VIb K.S.., p- 18CI, 
if^. i^yJJ aatl Pntc/rard . ■■Geokj;^v '.<f I'lv' ].o»vcr iMyorit^iK>b" f^rftf- /v'lH'. 

A*>c_ t'H\, Vub X, It, 43. 
Note. — For an HistoruaT Account of eUc Viuws ro^MtclinK AjiO of IVtUry 
IVpo^its sec: ''The Present Statt of Our KiKtwlcfljic of ttiii OWer Temnne^ 
oi' .Sv'UtlKrii Anstruliu.' bv <j. b, rmchanl. .b'/.v/. viA/(u\ .-I(/^'(ir». SiH'nct'. 
Bristrdno, IH95. 

'riveiily members anti Iriemls toulc part in iIk- al>ovc i-\i:itrsion on M«jii- 
day, ]\]iK 0, Favourrd v>i1h ulcal wcanicr. cvciyonv cnjoyetl iIk* t>u\itii;. 
which u'lts o.sM.-cdiigly t>li^<*^'i»H Inn i)ncvenifi;l. nie jirnu'iial iVatm'os beln.i; 
tho acquisi'mn uf a Clionnh'r. ncsl and ihe htitlin^ -if Oic iic^t o( a l"ir'etdil<.'iJ 
l-'inc!i C'tiiUinins; -^i?; Cte*;, HtiiVArcntly ifi'^r;-!. Jf this wv'rv- ^n, the cirf.iin 
iUiice IS iiileresting us tjeiuK rather out of 5«;usi.iii. Arriving \\t W;.*T'ritn<:tyK' 
at 4.'30 p.iu,, liv chwc-a-haiK puitccl in a few minutes later. ^^o ilui nietv.hrrs 
were .iMc in tttf.rn i.t tht ^ ity In .J^ottfl (iine 

Wm, b ' f^'i'^AM. 

Bv MhHvv.v \L. Bn.L 

\U vitrvci' uazuy in Octubur, 3932. wai. tstiibtiiiicJl it* tht ioothillR vi 
I ft'll's Gites, snritli of the Tarajjo River; ai^<l. frotrt t;irly niorn!i>J5\ all the 
t^iirili. in Iht bush. ni^^^ii£ ^»*oii' the iiiceSbAHf wlusilMiii unci ch:aUcri«i.;. 
t^ecircd to s<;uK" tl»^ adwiit ■;!£ ^-fvriiig'. 

fi H.m. After tniiig' f<ir three iiuufs cu >lepp .i>tati\. 1»n;*lly t *lei:idctl t<- ua 
<0»t ai;d .^hiirit the rjf?otrlcr — with my tanicra- Hc^nnj; the I>iTH abottt ■hlt^' 
var<|ci awrtv, 1 Tifst saw lilni as li?^ nut acri**^ a I-ttlt- clenrjn^ iiitii i Irgitt 
undergrowth 1 'I hraticeii icnt unionu thick .MlvtrttH' U-'ncutyplm jicbrriautr) 
r^ietW'mgs, H<fi tiitifitc had ccascH, iKtw. ;i5 Biiparo^tly there vvct some Oeli- 
Cacies Co he had lutreti' »op the acralthiiiji:. au<l hiv hruaL-fasl ijixuj>i«I liini 
h>r ahi^lit hjtU ahltrtor. until 10 a.fn. 

r hnd the bird in view pniUtcally aU the lir.ic. He rwxjninienccd ^if songhr 
H hlilc oijeii H's^ltf i*JKiut twtiityitv'c lett jiidiamttef ; aiit! with hi> wuiKlct/ii! 
uil ^e-Hth<:r5: rai?^ <;ver his (-"ac-k-, wciit iutn an tM:st.Lsy of riancc :),nd sour. 
vViiiic >,i.Htit£' at t-sy.r^i-y .^pe^J ihfoug'li ht:> rep^fto'fe of bird c-alls. >ie \\N>ukl 
prance and ji^ and thruw Kiv body (roni sklf lu .sitii.* ; and thc;ii. nuJ-:i:v^ a 
■(.iMrkmg ;iriis^. synLhrnniz!n;( with hiRswn>inj^ ntfivrc-Tnctils. wonM tbncc round 
and roiyid. keeping alv^a^s l:is head towards the ccr.tre of 'be circle L>esistn>^ 
(MJ^ti thv ("waH^. ht woa!(l (.oiMtiitMivC wgaiii Uk ohiiMit: tiMloi :niiIations of 
(he familiar i oiind? of the Imsh ,nd the. calls of other hfrds ; JPiJot-hird. 
Hutcli«r-bird. VVntUe-bird. Wha'-h' r<L uncliwl >- oi;:*kiii^ Ihc crack o[ the 
H-hii) nmch niurt* ottVctivc^y ihiiu the \Vhi]>-hird ilsciri ; rho sci'CLvhnit; of 
|.yrr(»rs Mud ijnk:iinm. ihr lai'Kh ot the Kci9k-ihtirra ; soMHit*ri>c5- nil J'urib^ed 
up, but more ofttn in pcrttict Micce?S!or.. Poc two hours he C\jniinued the 
jif;rU)rmai'.i;c, i>:iu:riiijj unly ior ;i (esv i*iiiaittb IrOin liiiic to tni-x- lo*. 
for food. 

T l»ave bccM, on two otrasionK, ^t PTAt ftiiw*yc4 'and Uieil DiinJsed. 10 
observe (liirouyh the theodoTile Itflescotje) inv '"T" dolug oerCaiu firld npera- 
tt:>n*s withuiit ih)^ nsual instrucltuus. 'Vhcy '!icAvcvr.r. sm-tq obcyinj^ ''nt- 
>lni;r"iyi&" from a ]_yrr.-hird io an adjacent Kwlly, whicJi was taiiUlesily 
iniiLitiit^ tiiy :slinll, c^laCClto rode C<f !>ilj;?»al5, 

The Lyrc-?iirrl at the c*^uip, i.u tlic iSiuulay niOnntiiy. ilnl nr^. at fivat 
fii^cn; my intniMon. t was alilc to crawl right -jp to him, in full View, oi* 
mv bancb and kn*es. y^c loulrj nol Itavt "pl.\ved lo Ihc g^^ncj-y" heittr 
?»a/l h^ neeu a tanit- l>ird uiUy coiitcir.'us of Kumar athniraliou itxceptit^jy 
when he was iJanciri; llie (.irLiilar vv^Itr, \v: v^onki < t/mc forward to williiu 
A few lect of inc. nnd then riatice l(;ickw?.rd for ten iejct or more-, tjine iind 
lime again, keeijiiiijl his <vo- fi\e'1 OU mt l>r Oii tny grCcU bliiircrj hll the 
while. Onco, when he apt>Tuaclied, 1 look a pholograph at a fi.air-ft<;t ranjic. 
I was then crouched he^iidc an f«ld vtunip in Uit ccntr<: ■!*" che iiUd^ .'ukI Ot^ 
to vbis he jtiriu>td, Rave ;* rental lor a tcu* niinutrN, wnhin reach oi" my wui- 
stretched hand, then fiew or, lo a 'ow bjiincli imfyiedlrttely abuve. ;iod re- 
ntainecl there, for sonte timei htiJrtJIy he ;urnpcd 10 the i;co«nd, rati aen>s» 
tt.< the spot where Ik; lia<L ohtaiucd hi.^ hrcaktu;t. aii<I c<MnmftncA-.d to scratth 
lor food aeaiti, 

At About 2 lliv b.rd o^mmentttu hit ccniccct a^hi. this tinie williii: 
twenty teet "f my tent, the Inghur nule> ul the vjifiuus. calls being so loud 
,ind piercin;^ that the rev^rbiTatirat ■>.hi the ears wotihJ Ixcmnc almost mtoler- 
able if uo( mcidu'iited by the ^otu-r tones. Qj>cn!y. hut slowly, I w.ilkcd np 
to withui si.N. feet oi Ihe bird, my Cyrt«;ro ready. He displayed his- lail and 
wci'it right throujch hiii repertoire ot song^. caJis and d-uiccs. altenutcly 
appi'oachnii^ to witlun ahtmt ^lur Itx-t anif leirtaiini; ybc«nl ten Icet. the 
while d/Tncir»>.', *.waytnc :uv*l vvaltsinR in cnvic-:. hcncliiit-' .incl (browing bis 
fiody from fii^tc tu :^:<le. Hc *Ikh jninpcrt t.)*\ .i tuw fifuneh. mu*!, sittiuic t>C»- 
fcctly iiill, with droopinjT tail tins timi:. tontttlelcd ^n^ i^rlorrnatice. Ometlj- 
Jte TMii|)«rt flnv^-ii 3uk\ disapiic3fcd into the biish. The time wa* J p.iu. - 

_- . .|N X-ATURE KOTtS 

' Thi.^ytinr. iKXVirdin^ to' a foVri(<?V hi^tii?>ei*of llle Ouh; a cki-sc 
biwl observer, the r<egent Hbnfrycaier- upjjcajsd u\ iinudreds in 
the n^igrhhoui'hoori of O'lritiella.' Wcsic^Tiport— a visitation \ni- 
kui^v'ii ' f^or fort.v-tw'M v^eaJ'a. ^ * '* ■ '"''' 
- "fLasi- soas'jn wa^ favourable^* [ot* all -k-mtls of -bird hfe Mr. S. R. 
^f jtctiol'i. n.'rctiTl*. ijii 'o vitsif north-east 'oP'AVinnii^n, coimtcd. ncui^ 
Liiktf Qnrnside, riity-fivc Xat^.ve-t'oi'fipiUiit+its dis)jorting them- 
selves in g:rae«fiil curytlmncs. It is'^lfddonv'thar this fine bird, 
gnc<» ^ niitiiL-rouii in Victoria, 'is ■•teei'i th".st*ch advantage. 
-'•The'Tivab'y for an approved *FaiiiiiVl ■l^'aVK- ■continues,' Monbulk 
iind K!adgi>l' Cr^eK Ijcin^*' luo-^t favorireil. ■ WJiy not nialcc l)nrh 
into reserves where uarive fauna can biV viewed under fairiy 
luniral conditions? 

SatiNl'iieiion ii. expresNeci at the subsianrial fine of iSO imposed 
cji convicrion ot a inarauibng" florist from C'^uiton for removing 
-^65 ferns, fi'oui a. forest re-Sewe ut ■rnrton's Creek, Gippsland. 
The Ion^-<lelayed ivpijouunieni of honorary inspectors wuidd be 
a grc^it .safeguard against ;-uch vandalism 

The Fiebl Natundi^ts' Chib. with kindn.d .M»c»etie.'i, should ht. 
looking' forwar<l to active participation in the Cent<'narv Cclebra- 
tion-;;. I934-.S 

The B<jurke patrol, onct io rare, has r-ecentiy been on ^ule ni 
Victoria, niiix>rted on permit (rom South AutJlralia. where it hns 
t;rearly increased in numl>er^. 

J'he followin{^^ note from a J-l'aniilton paper is of interest ' — 
Reeeiitly \fr, C K'ur(7e. of South Portland, and Mr Robert [ohn- 
.srouc, of West Portland, made a \d3it to the newly-found caves ut 
Strathdowme. in search cm anythin^^ of ]>rehisturic value, and xvert 
(writcsi our Porilan/.l eorrc.s|V;ndeni) rewarded by finding* Ix>ne.s 
o\ n niar^;|>ial (kansr^roo), which in bfe atood eighteen feet high. 
Tlta bones were examined by Professor Wood-Jones at Mr. 
]\nrire'> miiscupi la.M weelc^ an<i have since been scut co the Mf:l- 
bom'ne Univci-iity. ^Vhile be was here, ProfesTsoi* Wood*.) ones 
VHvsitcd Ihe cave< at liat^' Ridges, and secured ^tme specimens Ot' 
livm.!^ Ijtns k is worthy oi note that Messrs. Kurtzc and John- 
::tonc found lietwecn four hundred and five hundred bk«ckfcl1ow;s' 
implemenis. mosily stpne aNe>; ani\ flint knives. The Poil]un<J 
dinirici ofTt'.rs n fine beid (or the researches of antiquarians. bjo)g- 
5i<ts. and geologist^:. 

Miss C. C. Cnrrie. r-anbu't\ writes: "I ani greatly interested in 
D. Ficay'h article on the l^cniurus iittstralw, the Yellow-bellietl 
Hymg Phalangcr. We used to know rbeni in oiu' own hert: 
Iml i1 i>.(pittv tweuty-fis-e year.-^ since 1 Suw one and that one bad 
mci >vith an unfoi'tuniue end. Planini^ from a low Peppernlint 
ir<?c {F.uc: f>ip^vito). its long furry, t^il caught on the barbed wire 
on ryjj of a fence and tltcre it hUilg. • 

When vrc fw^ aime here to live there were die Fdui' — !lic hu^rc 
ELack, the- "Grey", of which Mr. FWhy writes. ih.c Lesser Sugur 
Sciiiiriel and the Pigmy Flying: Mouse. The Scjuirrcls were par- 
rirular^y miiorJutialc when the scnib was cut iinclcrneAth cl>ft 
house. Wt have fuund ihFiii imprjlcd on z siont (.-^ oVrir.'a) 
itiinip. Thia. of course, wcmkl be a tanlt in plrmirtt^', .is T think 
they try tci 'Manil*' on ihe truiik of a tree, alwavs. ihoujj;h near die 
ground. We have not i-.een thus ^rey one for so long Wc were 
very famihar WJth the "moaning" cry a« k ''planed". 

Sirange birds sre niakirig their appearance. A pair aV Black- 
shouldered X»te? [Eianhs a.v'illans) have hcen here tor the last- 
moiYth. and yesterciay there were seen, but not yet identified. ioUJ-" 
i;irg"e hi'own birds with a pecuUar whistle.' 


OwiitR ro imPavourAblc weatticr.r conditions, only six itiuinl>er> ^Uiended 
the excursion on March 20, Leaving the towTisIiip of Br.lRT.ive, wc prorrcdcd 
by iijorov cur t-O Kalli.sla. Here w't entered the lower yortiCui u( Ckaiatis 
Pern Oully, from nnr. oi tlio. iTacIc?; leading from rhr nia-in loafl. MeEi" iho 
Ijanki ot ttic creek vwerc growing some nice speuinieiis of Soft Tree E-'crn, 
Tjichsijuii ni\larr.ifca. \\iiU (rrmrl; Uf' to 10 f^cl in lentils, anrl -i inrij or more 
ifi i)rcadth; also Rough Trie Fern, Alsnphilu o.talroi;s, rearing iu luhy 
trunk- JO ieet in height ^nd }:<<iri:m a crawn of trwnsular-shaped fronds. 
C<ju»llina thai of ihf. pii-tfSvfhiii. 

.Some tiiTie wa.^v r-pc.n\ SRarchinK ior fern?, about twenty species IxinjE; noted. 
The most inttrcsving were Austral Filmy YtWi, Batswing ^'crn, Shidy Shield 
Forri. Fii^ger Fern, Vv''eepin;i Sp'e^riv/ort, Tancc Fern, and Kanp;-ai<K> Fern. 
Twining about every avait-dUlL support was the Ucautitul Wonga Vine; abo 
Clematis, with l»K>il »rreen leav^; nuny o( die ^eedli'"iK^/ had hroad. p>.Mallel 
:silv"ei' markings. 

After Hindi we ramblec' iurlher up the Riilly. wherr wc iiotcti hn.^e irunks 
of failen Mounuiii A^ih. Efuriu'^.^frti .*efjHa>ts, dtc*iyitig Urnler <)Vi_Thaiii:(iiu 
vccdftru On some oi the iTiiiiVs grew many Irind.'; of hepatics. fung-J, lidicii, 
nnisr.i. and .'.mall filmy IctUs. It wOu!d be iijlerestntji to have H)mpilcd a 
ftora cit one of these fallen pM\^ir,. Turning nur attention to ahrnb;? ajtd rreef. 
Ove^bend. wc noted many of theso plants Kitthig ior mastery oi sunligl'»t. the- 
moil ;»roTuinenl being^ Sdver W^itk. Southern S;*S'^iHir;i;.. H'f?el. MnsK. 
Biarket-Wonrf. Danyalla, Blackwood, and Austral Alulberry. About fifteen 
sncciTi of plknti were noticed in bloom, the most conspicuous beiojtf Saw 
Groundsel, .Srufc;n t'lij/i'.^ and Fireweed Grotindscl, .5' rlryinicnx. The EUlcr- 
herry Panax, 7 icghrmopannx -riiHf&ifritoffits, and Yellow F-Mcrherry, SofU- 
fuicu.s Gandii^handiar.a., were 5eeO tn fttnl- 

Wc returned v'3 Ml Dandenong- En route wft insvectpd tite .-VTborctum ar 
Olinda. J. W. AuCAi. 


It is hitere.«'.ting to nntf^ th^t among the ahofifi^insl stoiic arlifaLis culVtled 
Ironi N'cw Soiith Wales coaMal camps and exhibited hy Mr. P.. S. Mitchell 
Hi the la&t meeting of the Chib. we'e e.Nfln>p(ef c-f a ne^v lype. "iilouera". 
niadR frc-m fo^5ili;:cd wootl, also a fine scries of Oci-trnto and Point-, and 
S^nie unutual sandstotie fdes, etnployed pr&S«hIy m the inanuf.^finte of Vish 
hooki. AfMt^^fhci the cxhi'hit was very characlexistic of the aborigi'n<^i* 
skiirol virTorking in stone. 

The Victotiafx Naturalist 

Vol. L.— No. 4 August 7, 1933 " No, 596 


The ordinary meeting of the Onh was helcl ^t the-. Knyai 
Socictv-'s Hall on. Monday, July 10. 1933, at S p.m. The Pre-M- 
dent. Mr. V. H. Miller, presided over an attendance ot abuut 
eighty nieniber.s and friends. 


The Cha-iniian reported the deiith ot the following- meuil>ers : — 
Dr. W. MacCilhvriiv, of Broken Hill; Mr. F. H, Heubme. ot 
Tooborac; and also Mrs. F. Pitcher, the wif« of one ot out 
members. Members present stood in silence a.s a mark of respect 
Ip our late members. 


Letters expressing th^anks for sym])athy were received iroiu 
Mr. Harvey and Mr, Pitcher, 


Reports of excursioiis were as follow: — National Museum. 
Minerals, Mr. S. R-. Mitchell: Aquariiuu, Mr. V. H. Miller (lor 
Mr- Green). 


On a show of hands Mr. A. A. Brunton was duty clecicd lUX 
Ordinary Member. 


III reference to Mr. Swaby's motion from last meeting, the 
secretary reported that the Committee had decided *'That shonld 
anything oF interest to the members generally come before the 
Committee, it will be reported to the general meeting, and also 
mentioned iu the AUrfuraHst for the beneht of country jncmbers.'* 

Regarding the appoinlmeut of marine biologist,, it wa-5 reported 
that a letter had been sent and a reply received, stating that ihc 
matter had been referred to the Prime Minister. 

Mr. A. J. Swaby spoke on tlie formation of the '^Leagtle of 
Youth" in Melbourne, and moved that the Club heartilv endorse 
this action. Mr, G. N. Hyam seconded Mr. S^vaby's reinarks, 
and the motion was carried. 

Tfr f^icld Natnmlixtx* Club Frpcfcdmgs. [^yj,; tl*^' 


The Sccrettiiy ipcntione<^l that a letter ha^J hcen received Uom 
a country member, staling that Silver Gulls had been been an 
Uvo occasions at Colcraine. 

in answer to an inc|uirv\ the Chairman nicntionetl the fact Ihit. 
^lou^^tain Duck weie protected all the year. 

The! rrcsident rcportc<l the gift or a book, riauf Life in Maori- 
land, from Miss Florence Smith, ami expressed the thanks of the 
CliU) to bcr. 

A lecture on "Australian W'ild Flower Trails" was L^iven by 
Mr, E. Ji. PescoU, F,L.S. A hcantitui series of slides iJbistratKl 
ihe ieci Lire and the localilicsMiientioned r:inge<l all over Auslraha 
and Tasmania. 


Miss Kuth Coulsd. — A series of copvxT minerals, comprising 
Malachlic^ AswlU', BouniUc, Clialcopyritc, etc 

Mr C- J. Gabriel. — Moiton-fish or Eju- Shells of Vicluriu, com- 
prising HaUotis nacvosa Mart: //. annutc Reeve: H. laevigata 
Donovan, H. rod Gray; H. cyctobatcs Pcron i //. comcopora 
Perun; H cocorod^ota iWve. 

Mr. T- S. Hart. — Several spccie:= oS Loraiitltus, niohtly collected 
Tiy Mr. W. J. Zimmer at Milclura. 

Mr E. E Pcscntt. — Proposed colour place for Vol, I. No. I. of 
the NaturnliU. The artist was P Dottari. 

Mr. F- H- Salau. — A series of Sihirian fossils irom Mt- Ida. 
i-feathcotr. A Crab. Lcptonnifhrax ausfrnlicns^ts, iiom Morning- 
ton, Victoria, 

Mr. F. S. Colliver.— A series of Tertiary tossils trom the 
Cvange Burn., Hamilton, including (1) from the shell beds . 
Ostrea, Cafiuhis. Nerita, Tnvia, Hahoiis. Pcrna. Myttlus, Cyfuncit. 
Terebra, etc*; (2) from the nodule bed: Fossd Crabs, polatct oi 
DioiUm formosits, sliarks' teeth, etc 

Master G. C Wade. — A ]>air of Wedge-tailed Eagle'^ (alon^^ 
wio'^ and foot of a flying fox. Specimens trom Portland, com- 
prising Cow Fishi Leafy Sea Dragon.^, and Porcupine Ffsh 

At ihc meeting of the Committee great surprise was expressed 
at the continued inaction of the Forestry Department in ai.>poiri- 
ing honorary rangers, tlie most important provision m the Act 
for ensuring preservation of the native flora- 'j'he Comnmtec 
again nominated three rnemhers ot the Club ror appoincmem. 


\ 1 Dju.ev^ t'octoij Affe£tmtj the Flora of Easr Gipp-shud. 79 


J3y Chas. DaLIlY^ is. a., V.h.S. 

Undijubt^dly the ouistamling phyiiciil feature of Ausiratia is 
iheEas^i^rn Cordilkro. wl-uch. extending- from Cape Votk througK 
the Continent to the Southern Uce-in. practically determines the 
oiiitour of the <^astet'ii cofist Ihie. anrl in a ^^reac iMoasure is the 
sourcv from whivh the 'zxteiisive inland pUins ot the w<?Lteni slope 
havij hecn derivecl. 

The eastern slope to che sca3)oard is compararively narrow. 
Souihwardb the ranf>e reaches its highest elevation in a succession 
of loftv pjateaus and inonntciin peaks of considerable extent, ot'' 
which Mounc JvosctuskM, 7,040 feet in Iniight. is the culminating 
point, titany other pcaUs btfiny over G,000 feet in this aouth-e;iSreru 
corner of Australia. 

At 3 very remote time, before a period of subsidence eflected 
the sci>aratian, (hs.s iniporumt range was in connection with New 
Giun*?a in the r.orlh, and wiih Tasinania in the iouih, 

FroiM about Furcst Hill, at the source nf the Murrav l^ivcr. 
There is a trend of this main l>ivide !=<vuth-fcve5r and then wcivtward 
through Victoria, with ^■■radnally diminishnig height, umil froui 
the Pyrenees it almost mipercc|>i)hVy merge? imo the Westeru 

The Alpine massifs "wilh its rn^'^gcd spurs and weitterly con- 
tinuation, with many pt^aks ranging from ^,000 feet to ovcj 6,000 
feet, forms the northern jx-trt and boundary of Gippsland, gndiiij 
il ,(;entral)y a slope to the sonth thr<»ug!ioat the province. 

'I'his dominating rang<' ha.s necessarily hud a great influence 
on the Jistrihntion of !lie fauna and flora in eastern Au^lralia. 
Its position from north to south throughout the whole exteni of 
Australia, combined with its jiearne**s to the Pacific Ocean, has 
produced a marked contrast between the conditions affecimji: the 
eastern and the western slopes re-spectiveiy. much to die advantage 
of the former- 
First, in regar.i to rainfall the nwi-sture borne by the e^sietit 
winds IS soon condensed by the high mountain range, and before 
reaching" inland is deposited. ^reatK- to the benefit of the eastern 
sldije. The winds pasi^ing uvrr the range, being dry or nearly so, 
convey little or no refreshing r?n"ns lo the inland reg^ion. which, in 
consequence, has a scanty or uncertain rainfalh i.s of j^'reaier 
aridity, and suscajns much less vegetation, and that also c^uractet- 
istic of drier conditions 

SecontJly, the prolonged Dividing Range protects the eastern 
coa^L from the western winds, which are hot and dry in snmmer 
and cold in winter as Ihey blow over the great expanse of pk'iins. 

30 UaUY. Fitcivrs AScitm^ the l^hmtii Hnst C?j>^i(iW. \^y^\, XT 

Tlrirdlyi the e^istern nspect. provitle.s the mast gf.nini and favour- 
able ix>nditio»is for the protection and grdwth of plont lite, upon 
which primarily ammal life depends. 

Fourthly, the direction of the range, being parallel 1o liic coast. 
more readily allows plant and .injni?il liff; to ch:i{>er:^t: and extend 
in range fiTim the tropics to ibc south temperate :^oni':. whilst 
forming a* barrier againi^t such dispersion to any extent from ^au 
to vrest. In Yotlc Peninsula ihf? maiked at^inity of both plant 
rind ariiinal hte with diat <if New Guineu, iiuw scfiuratcd froi'ii 
the mainland, h evukiice of this dispersion, whilst in the sonth 
the Alpine flora has much in coinmcm with that of the Tasmauian 

One othen advantage pcrtrjiiiing to the east may be nolefl- Tht 
F qtiatoi"!?!! ocean r.nrrtnf. which set>. westward ncros> the Pacjfic. 
meeting the mass of islands lo the north of Aiistralin. has its 
course deflected and divided, one part moving northward pa9C 
Japan, the other beccfmin°[ an east Anstralian current. Coming 
Irom the torrid /:onc, its warmer wati.-rs assist m increasii^.c; humid- 
ity, ;Ln<J, raising the temperature further s-outh. make it more 

From thr- circumstances mentioned that portion of Australia 
laorderin^' on (he Pacific h^^s a more x*egular and abundant rainfall. 
a mr>i<=;ler atmosphere, cvcr-fluwing: as distinguished irom inter 
mittcTit streams, a favoured asjvect- a more genial and equable 
climate, with less ex-tremes Iw temperature. These oncUtinnH 
unite to give exceptional fertility and hixtrnance to the eaiitfrn 
area, whilst favouring extended migration of ^jpcdes over ii wide 
range of latitude. 

These advantagc^i pertain perliaps in an increased decree to 
Gippsland as t')€ing the southern limit ot their conjunction E>c- 
tending from the Hogong, Gihho. and Cohheras Mountaiius. with 
the Barkly and Baw Baw ranges westward, there is a fairly steep 
slope .south and south-east to the coastal plains, which, with the 
ever slowly dirrdmshing lacustrine area of Gijipsland. occupy in 
great part the ancient cstu?rry of considerable extent, whnsa waters 
laved the foothilU ntjrth uf the present lake avstcni. when the 
Thomson. Macali^rer, Aherfeldy, and Latrobc. each as a separate 
.stre^Trt. discharged into the estnary. 

In the lap^e of time the cStuary, nOw 50 contracted and shrunken, 
to the Takes, ha?; been not only subjected to altetrnate periods of 
rlcvation arid depression, but in more recent times has- been in 
>rreat part filled up by sedimentary deposllion from the niotmtain 
streams, and by the wind-blown sand of the constantly cncruachins; 
coastal dunes which fringe the southern limit of the region. Both 
processes are still in active operation to Hifnini?h the existin^f 
Uke surface. 

J9?a. ] n^UV. P^€h^rs Affc<.tiMO <Ar Plora of East Cif^psfanfi. 81 

Just as the Latiobe Kiver has in succession captured the uth^r 
streams mentioned, so the probability i^i tlial eventuality, with 
incviutlili* -shallnwing^ ni rlii=: biktr->. crjnsequent" rX-triision of the 
Hood plains, contraciioii of swai^ip), afc^is, and slow cmer^'ence of 
the land therefrom, the Latrube will evemuallv* ciiJiLue (hr 
Jlilchell, Nicholson, and (he Taniho iivei'.s. and form a main 
stream tliruugh the present Jak<! area. 

In rhe west aiid soiit*a-west of GippslaiKl, exrensive forests, 
densely vegetated, with lolly trees on high hills and in deep vallevi) 
foimecly had a wnndtir Fully protective influence. At the eoarein- 
ity o[ the contitier.l the prolongalion of ih^ rocky promontory 
partly diverts the prevailing ocean current from the avcsc, and a!so 
breaks the force ot the westerly svind:=. 

Thus tlie lofly northern learner, the densely i.lothed weslern 
forpsts. extending southwards, and Wilson.s Fromotilory, com- 
hined with an almost uttbroken coasi lino of' dunes., shut in Uipps- 
bmd, whibt they also niakc that part of it ca:-:c of the kkcb area 
peciilmrly snsr^pnble to flie inflnenre.s mentioTi^rl as ^itectmg the 
Pad Ik slope. 

I.itile- influenced by conditions m operation in ihe rest 0^* tbc 
State, Gippslaiid. llie garden of Victoria, has biid a distivxi tharae- 
ter of its own, and the eastern i>art es(>eeially shows in its fauna 
and flora the closet paniripaiion in xliosc featvires marking- the 
eastern slope of Australia, and proddrs evidence of that facility 
for uii.i.'i7itii)n and dispersal of species beyond, habitai.s whieli 
Other wise latitude might acem to deiermiuc or reslricl. 

lu regard ti:; t'auna^ mention may he made of the i^resence oi" 
';nch rype>: a*; the Lyre-bird, ibe Piower-bird^. Re1l-mmcrs, Woni^a 
Pigcoii. birdi; very characteristic of en^tern Australia, and now 
found throuL^dinut Gippsland with a tendency to mif;'rate slowly 
fUrLl\er westward in slieltcrcd valleys. The Dell-iniuerb in eoiri- 
munity occuputiim have dunng the hist twenh' years extended 
their tiinirs westwards Olher birds. Parrots from uortheru areas. 
Top-knnc Pigeons, etc-_ tempted l>y favnurin^ chmatic conditions, 
someiimes extend theii ranc^e ?k^ far a.s Mallac<jol«. The writer OH 
one uecjaion brought back fruiu the southern dm of that bk<* 
the skin of a bud previously unknown in Victoria, which proved 
CO be the Flinders Cuckoo, the largest o( its kuid. ivom northern 
C^ueensland. 'Jempted by genial climatic condiriona. "'lonr tvander- 
ini; but nol Iov»" the bird? had tanged perhaps ironi Torres Strail 
to ihc very extremity ui thf. euntincTit. Am^thtrr cu.>U3l faun»"il 
visitant, ranging from Queensland and New Sonih Wale^, i^ the 
Flying- Tox, whilst until recently the Carpet Snake was ^;umcfimcH 
found in eascem Gtppslnnd 

Iii insect life the ^louthward extension \>t range has also been 
<lT.stincrlr noted m ixfirain f^pecies. esiiccialfy oi bniterflies. 

ft !5. hawevp!'. in legarfl U> the flfirit, liiat the tuigraiion oi' 
ijieaes is most niarked iri Cistern Oii>|>^laml,, for there are. Ijctw.'cn 
thiee and lour hurnlred species of native pbnts in Gippslaiicl. tlie 
majority confined td the cast, whicli ale not touucl elsewhere in 

Aiuoug the Encalypts there are nearly fhjrry species, trti^st ol 
lUem New South Wales speiiies, which are rcstric.ied m Vicrofiv\ 
to eastern GippsUnd A no^a'ile example is th*^ Maliogany Gum, 
E batrxoiiUir, the western lutiat ai which is broadlv (.be chain 
of bKes. bill specimf^n? have exfended within these vviitcrs tu 
Kaymonti Island ai^i Sperir. Wl-irile Head. The t-l^oociwood. R. 
iorymboia. which i^ foun:! as far north ns Cu^je Vark. hns 
r-c;ichcd the Ocuoh Eivcr, and nearly twenty miles south-vve>l to 
tiK* Wingitn River. This is also apprnximrjieiv thp riejimitauon 
south wfivds o\ the Guin ^'^yl■rIe, An(j{>f>hom inu'-nncdiO; i\\t iiorLh- 
ern lumt of which is the Ouecnslan'.l border. Such churactcristic 
iNew South Wales species as the Spotted tilue Gum. t. Maidcmi. 
the Gully Gum. E. Simtkii, the Spoiled Gum. E. maritjafa. aud" Uic 
WouMy-Butt. E. lomjifi^lia. have also sparsely puieti'^recl eastern 

Black Sallce, E. stciliilaia, Blackbutt. E pihilans. Cut-tail, E. 
fashijata, and Due liut. E. Bridges imia.hw^-e well c;c.tablishe<I them- 
selves fTotii above ihe Suowy River basin. The Mealy-Strattgy- 
Bark, E. clutrca, has e,\tcivJed even as far as the Mne district. 
V'eliow Stiiugy-hark. E. MuelkriaHa, Brown Sttin^y-bark. E. 
copift^fhta, :i.n(] Ked Motmtaln A$h, £. gigantm. also occur. Other 
more dibtijictly Grpp^sland gums of the cast arc Fuzzy liox. £_ 
I^aucrmnu- GippsLaud Box, E. 8osisioa>i(i. Shining Gum. £ uitvnSp 
Peppermint Gum, E. mmeroui. Grey Troub;uik. £ pciftunlntQ, 
River White Gum. £. radmta. Dwarf Stringy bark. j^*. [it/tishina, 
an aistern species. AiTuvng 5;omp Alpine tjum.? speraally resiriclcd 
in habitat ;^re Snow Gum, E, cot'kicca vAf. Alpina, the Dargo Gum. 
£, Pcncn'tano- and the Omco Guru, E. jteglectn. fht lattet confined 
to the Cohungra highlands. Strange to say. a tew years af^o the 
writer discovered a .specimen of ihe Omeo Guu\ in irwt. and also 
one of E. Kiisoniau-a on the Ttdge bclwccn Scalers' Cove and 
Rctugc Cove at Wilson's Promontory, alxiut 100 miles dislauf from 
Tobuugra, the home of £. jtcghu-ia. 1"he GippslancL Malice, E, 
h'ilsouiiXtca, is found on heathy scrub land south of Koster and 
Pish Creek. 

Aman.t: other MyrUceous plants the Kanooka. THsfmii/i luurina, 
<md the I.jlly-pilly, Acmana STniihn, flourish well in junist gullies 
and along the sheltered streams. The lormer giuws as ia.r west 
as the Mitchell River, the latter ap]>roximatDeIy as far jis the 1-ukcs. 
The Grey Mvrtle, &nckhouua fnyrhfolia, the Swamp Sheoke, 
Ca^!^-iutrina pclmosir., with the Slender Te;i-tree. Lcf*lospcrnum 

J^' ] DalEV, FfirJ^rs Afrcfivg tiic fhnj vi Sasf CippiJoni} 85 

at(cHuah<mt arc. vasterty si>evics, as ulso is ibc restricted Tunglri 
Boctlc-lifusli, C. subuliihts. The JJraceJet Ikucy-Mmk, Mi^/o 
Icucci ormillitns, gruws iK:ir «lic Gcr>oa Kiver. Oi Heatli-Mvrtlcs, 
rbn Flax-leaf, haechhi ftmfolia, ani.1 }7 virgt^ta, arc also cjstero 
Another llc;ith- Myrtle. Thryptow^tiv tmqnriiana, is rnnlincd lu 
Spcini Whnle Hc.irl. south of L:ik^. Victt>ria; iht Yew Scfnl- 
Myrtk. DanviuHi ;u.rrA>.'.'<^.. to ta^ierrt GipiKbnd. 

Scvc^nl Pvotpric«*oits S|>ecJC£, rrtcluduig the Tali CoDtbmh, Isopo- 
ffnn nnesu oat { alius . the Saw Hanksia. B. serwla. the Alpine Orites. 
ihr^e or four Cicvillea^. the rare Finger Ilakca. H. doci^yloufcs. 
and the restnrre^J Gippsiand W^nitah. Tr.hipea orcades, readiing 
CO the SnaxvY Riv<;r. tlo nol e\ternl [leyond the eastern area. 

The Moiiurain Peppt^r. Driniys aromatica. iiiH .S''>uthern Sassa- 
fras. AiliCrospcnna moii fwtum, are pFentifiil bul liavo passed the 
boundary of Gippsland westward. A rare pUnt, Stcptfania her- 
Pondtfo/ia, i?. found at the Genoa River- BanyaJla. Ptffo.\pnntin 
bicofor 3^> fairly wid+^^ipread. Of Kosaceif, two spode-^^ i'»t' 
Molucca bramble, H. tnolHCicinus, and R rcuTfalias. occur nnlv in 
ihc eastern brushes. 

Smooth Ramliouran. Altctryon sHbamn'ous, V6 a rare eastern 
species The Fiparrnl family has ifs eastern rejire-^entatives. as 
ahio ha5 the Lahiat.*: and Cotuposiiea? Oi Lcgnminose^e about :.\ 
dozen ililtc.icnt \'ictoiian Ao'ici;L*> otv.ur only in Gippslaud. sono? 
of (Uun onl^ In ihc c-rsiward. The Mitla Acacia, A. Dan'sofiiam: 
the Sunshine Wattle. A. discoltyr, extending to tlie I^ke5.. the 
Shcky Wattle, A- Hoiviidl, the Flax Aracia. A- JinifolJo. the Hook 
Sallow .Acacia, A mucrou^ifi, the Ovens Acacia, A. prv-nj^ima^ 
the River Atacia. A. subporosa, and the Haiiy Acacia. A. vc.Uifu, 
are examples. 

The Southern Cassia. C ansfroHs, the Prickly Shap^y-pea. 
0,r3'/^''''wiit hilohahitn. the Broad Wedge -pea, Gornpftoloimint Uui- 
ffflitnu. and the rare Broom -pca^ Ja^-kstmiu Cfarkcii, of Bendoc, 
have eastern habitats. About st>: Hush-peas Pulreii,'ea-s, some of 
(hem Alpine, two Boss!acs. the Small Scurf-pca, Psi/rolta pannf, 
and the Dutiky Coral-pea. Kennedya rubwunda. and orhei* leg:u- 
iiiinous plants oi" the east- Two 7iertas and five Phelxtliiiins arc 
easfcru species A Itaflt-sa Tetrathe<:a. 7'. xubophyfUi, grows at 
the Caun Kivei- Among otlier aiboreons or shrubby plants arc 
the Yellow-wood. Acranyclao (czn:^, reachiag the limiling^ hordtr 
olt the Lakes, three species of Fomaderris. tv^x> Hla*'es"arpi. the Hlack 
ai>d the Rluc Olive-berry, the Muttonwood. Rapanva vanalnlu, 
the lar^c Mock Olive. Woteltrn to^tr/ifotw, and the maJiy-flowered 
iioobialla, M'sVponnit fioriifundum- 

Tlie Currajonj;. Brachyihiton piffiulturNS, frnm the noirh, has 
come CO Gippsland. ncarl,'» lo the l^kes, and is i'ouikI as tar west 
as the Mitchtll River 

Occasionally in parts 'of the continetit are found small colonics 

ot plants, which seem ro be rt^sidual of vanifili«I conditiotis, or arc 
solican-' miy^rant? from drsiaiit places. Thus, e.g., ttt Canberra 
<hcrc is a lone patch t>f Buloke, Casiiarma LneffHiami. lar away 
from Its nalijrai environment In Victoria lUere is imcNpect<:dly 
a Giyp-iland Malice. On the Rnrwcn Kivcr is ;i ^mjill numher of 
J/hirvay River Pines: in the VVenibte Gorj^e anoil'ier cliiivip of 
Madcc, etc.. etc. In C^nlMl Australia vve have tJic survival of 
Palms ijotn a period when ch'matic condicions favoured luxuriant 
tn.ipical growth. In Gipi>slatid the CnblxAgc-lrcc Palm (Livisiona 
Au.itralis), of CaLbagc-tree Creek, providp'i a fitmindrnm as U) its 
origin, '['here are perhaps a hundrsd or so of P^ilms oti 
the Cabbagc-trce Creek, and aUnit haU'-a-dozen on the Bradiibh 
River, a tew mile^ away, but no others elsewhere in Gippsland. 
and Iheir nearest relatives to the iiorth arc vcvy iar away in 
New South Wales ancl Queensland. Putting a^idp the rhftf>ry of 
the agency of bird.s as tiot fea^iible. it f\a.=. be^n thought tlmt 
abcnt^ines may have been in-atninieutal in conveying seeds tn 
Git»p6lan(.(. for the aborigines, h'ke the flora and fauna, tound 
inlgrafion eas^* southward along^ th^ I'criile eastern slope. X^vc 
Gippsland InbCB bcitig oi kin lu those uf cuast:il Xew Sotith 
Wales, wh{> were all member!:' of the Kurnai s^roup of "men": bttl 
nor in .such close artniry with the Western Port or Yarra Yarra 
trib^^ rneml.ieTs ut anuThcr group 

A chavaeteristie o« eastern Gippsland is the densf" jungle ve^ta- 
tion of jnoitntain valleys with lia^ies and creepers, rrsi'mF>lin^; 
those of die Pacific sloix. 

Amnrig these are the Gum Vint:, Aphunoprtaiuin ^:.c^R,or«m, 
rbp. Bi«-leaf Vine, SiV'Cof*et(tlum Harh-cyoMUm-, (he EreT."t Clcmati*;. 
C. <{lyiinoidi?s. the White Supple-jack, RhipogonwtH <ilbMm, Aus 
tral S;*rsaparilla.. Smihx austrahx. tlie Wombat l^erry. Huslrisphas 
itUifiVias ; the Staff Climbet, Cckixh'ux Austrn}^^, ihc T^cd PaSoion- 
flower. Passijtofa- cimwha-rhM, Ihc Scrambling Lilv, Gy.itono- 
ph^ium cy7nfjsum. the Twining Silk-pud. Lyonsta slrom-iHcn, and 
(hf* Sea Bindweed. Caly ricrjia SoldancliQ- The (ast-natned is 
peculiar to Wilson'.^ Promontory. 

Among the Orchids are noticeable the stih-iropkal Xtock Orchul 
Denxirohlnm spcclosnm, and the Streaked Rock Orchid, t). styio- 
latum, hnth epiphytes the latter exrendiTiq [o the MitcheM River. 
Then Ihere are ihc sniail Sarcochilu«i. 5. pnn'Uioyns, cind the 
Stiovvy Sarcochiius. -S". fakatus. also epiphytal. re.=tricted in range, 
and intpuslve migrants fTorn the northern gullies 

Space does not admit of the enumeration of many (vther species 
oi fcrus at>d lycopods. monocotyledons and dicutyleioris, whirli, 
Jik^! those mentiotied, are pn^rtically conhned to eastern Gippsland. 
rarely if at aR e.^wncUoK^ beyond fhe I ^kes and the MttchelE River. 

These two latter geographical fcttnrcs. with an area of swamp 
anii plant contiguous thereto, rnakc a definite break in the ficru 

t««- 3 DAteVf pQctors ABi^ctvig the i-hru of Bast (iippsh^d. 


of Gipyslaiid, FomMiigf a limM la (Jw westward extension Of the 
eastern species alinvemcntiuncd, wliicli, n^ lias liccii -le.f.n iinHer a 
similar favourable envitomnein, closely assiniilat*^ ro iho^e o\ the 
Pacific >e:il)*>ard. Iroai winch in grCv^r pari they havt: niigiaM 
.«?r extended. 

Ifci wtstcrn Gippsland — iiow, 3ilast sa coti>plcl<-ly altcrc<( in Ira 
character by thp. ruthk>s. waatPiul. nnO indiMiriTninate rlestmrrion 
ot its ni^guiiiceni forfsis, whil^ ilie proUfrc vf^entioit and the 
typical pJant associatioiis pcisi:^ted, the turest tiiiiber was noted 
for its grcAi height, density ol growrh and shelteiing power in 
preserving a iHoisl atmosphere suitable for i(s JuxurEant undcr- 
j^'rowth. from whirh. however-, thf- niaj'>rir\'^ of species referre^^ 
to in cuyteni GippsJanc! ui <*\h^\ tu liotrlitni types were absent. 

'.rhus in Gipi>slaud, east of the limiling geogiaj-ihicat factor of 
tlic I^lvCS and Mitchell River, we [lave the cotiibi»iatioii of natural 
oon<]itions conducive to the flora continuing the character ot that 
in larihules nearer llie trf)pi<:;il zone. 

In Central Gippsiand, ihe f-i^kes and low-lying adjacent flal$ 
and plains ul fluriatiJc origin, subject to inun<iation froiii the. 
streams flowing throu^q^h rhem to the lakes, have a flora character- 
istic of such toviditionv. 

Thir^ arei^ from b;*irnMbile to p;iM Rnsi^dale is. an effectual 
barrier to the dispersal of the e;isterii tvpes of flora, and de6niteiv 
interposes l>et\vcen ihe lonnerly densely forested ranges and 
valleys of west and sonih-we?.i Gippsland, and the easterly division 
of the province with its disiinctive flora. 

This division is acrenluated by inark*vl rljfferences in rainfall, 
which on the Sale and Maffra p(ains is -^Ivbut It'j inches annnal!> , 
as compared with 38 to ^0 inches in western Cippsland. and about 
Ihe same in eastern Gipp*^Iand. the central area bein;g in con- 
sequence a co)tiparatively dry one. 

In conHnsion, niention may be made of Wilson's J'romontory 
as a '^ood example ot contrasted flora proj.luccd by geogra]>hica I 
caiJSCii. On the. western side the pre.\railing westerly wind anil 
ilrifi current, combined with the less [eivonrablc aspect, produce 
a dwarfiul and limited vcgttatjon on the. cx]>osed surface; whilst 
in the sheUered valleys and on the steeper easrcrrn slope of the 
range, the vegetation, ov/ing to protectiuti from.4he wctiterly wind 
9nd coUK a h?t,^her temperatnie, more humidity, an easiern aspert, 
and prohabJv pariakmg, however faintly of some <*t the influence 
derived from the wann east Australian curreni. 15; most liJ>;nii;Hni 
and interesrin,^ in character. 

On tfie Protnoniory there arc over 400 si)ecies o( indigenous 
plants, und in the sheltered valleys grow the Lilly-pilly. Acmena 
Stftiihii, the Mynle-beech. NoHtofaijfcs Cmmin/jUmmi , all ol the 
Victorian Tree-ferns, including Blark Tree-fern. Cyaihca umitd- 
iari4, the j-are epiphyte. Fit^tdia Aitsfralis, eta. 

■8(f CoLEMAW, Cleanmgs from Marh j_ Vui. l 



By Edith Coleman 

Fr >>eeins strai^ge. in this age oi &pcciahAi1»on. for ,k botanist 
10 write alxjut fish, but nnture's interwoven pathij cross and rccross 
nntil ic becomes clilTicuit loi" t^ic uatnre-lovcr to keep to the .slraigbL 
and tiaiTOw way ui* the >; 

Then, too, natiue is so many-skied that he wn never hope trt 
knovv her intunateiv who stndks but cue sick- As naturalists. I 
ihink wc rnay soiely take del(^?it in explor^n^ every phase 0; 
nature, and this wirhoMt pr* on the prencrvcfr ot the special- 
ist. In Oliver WLudeJl ITulmes' wokIs: "The monn is- uo manV 
private property. Ixit is seen from a good tnany parlotir window^.*"' 
I qnntp rhe view o( this apany-sided niait in support of my opinion 
thut we Held naturalists may open our wmdows on all aspects oi 
nature, even thonj^h they m,ny sometimes abut on ttic pattu: oi the 

And so. when camping at Mario in Februai'y last, in order to 
study the botany of the locality, my daughter and I rambled confi- 
dently along any ot nature's byways, regardiue them all as leejitt- 
inate hunting-grounds ior our inbaliablc curiosity. We learned 
something: new ahont nxany thing.% --liirili; an<t insects, reptiles and 

Wc were especially interested in marine life, and th** tish that 
abound in the waters about Orbost and Mario. 

On (he oce^n shore wc iool< a ftne j-pecitncn oi ihe Tnimpetcr- 
pcrch, Tt-ral'on tpiadrtlinetu-s, which Mr. A. Earl tuld roe he had 
not known so far south as Mario. It is abumlant funhei nor|-h, 
and is oin^^idered a fine food fi^h. A curiously shaped, aiinosr 
scaleless fish^ it hcloti^'S ro the gruntcrs. or boar 6shes- 

On this same shore we eame upon the Vellow-bellied Sea Sn?ke. 
i^ciamis platuru-^. Its cohjurs, yellow and black with a touch uf 
^cgwn^ are tnost striking m living specimens. 

I am always interested in the eggs oi marine creatures, particu- 
larly of shell-tish, and was pleased to add lo my list those of thice 
Species of the latter. Theie was not a great varieiy cl shells. Few 
of the more delicate icrni!? appear to withstand the pounding 
waves that break oti dial section oi the Ninety-Mile Keach. JrSut 
we did find a number of the excjuisite violet snails, some of which 
h^d the bxibble-like e.xtrusion over the opening which probably 
serves as an egg-cradle, as well as a fl<:at- On fortunately the 
'violet colour soon fades, so tJiat those we earned home convey 
UUle of the beauty of the shell of the living molhisc. 

There were Dauntless numbers ot cockle-shells uf most delight- 
ful colouring. Nature is ever the ftmshed aitist, and on th^se 
af>undant shells she has lavished some of her most lutricalc. pal- 

19»3. J 

CoiJiM^v,. CUaiiwgs from Mafh. 


^^iiis. On several occasions we saw many hundreds of beauuhil 
blue vellela which had hetn left by ebbing tides ou the fringes of 
ihe Avavcb. They were exquisite, even as we saw them. Floatir>g 
in "^ho^ls on the bosom ot the ocean, tliey wmx be some of the 
lovcliciit things, in nature. We were pleased to see the dainty 
ct^U, and to lean* something of their history. Theie were many 
other interesting forms ai lifcv but perhaps our most treasured 
specimens were the httle Pipe-fish, in whose family the father 
accepts full responsibility for the care o£ the babies". He is pro- 
vided with a capacious hrood-pouch m which to cradle the eggs 
of his male. Our sjx^ciruens were bre*ught to us by Mr. Harold 
Swanson, who had taken them, among sea-weed, in his shrimp- 
net. They were identified by Mr. G. Mack, oi (he National 
Museum, as UrocamptiS canvorosfris Casteln. The small, eel- 

hke creatures, placed in a 


glass of clear water, en- 
abled us to w^aich what is 
surely one of the strangest 
happenings in nature-, the 
Ifirth of a baby Pi])e-fish 
from \h<! brood pouch of 
its father. For though 
only from 34 to 1 inches in 
length, well-developed egg- 
receptacles proved some of 
our Pipe-fish to be fully 
g ro wn males . in some 
innnafure specimeus there 
was little more than a nar- 
row ridge on the under'* 
surface ot the basal portion 
of the tail. In others the 
pouch was swollen with 
developing o\'a. On dis- 
secting a specimen, it was 
seen that the inside of the 
hrood-pouch was honey 
combed, like tnpe, with 
dozens of small cells, and 
in each one an embryo- 
Pipe-fish, with great, dark 
eyes, lay closely coiled 
about its yolk-sac. Later 
an undulating movement 
was noted in the bead-like 
swellings along each side 
of the [Kiuch, and st>oti its ]\ps |>arted, to allow the escape of the 

l*)pe'tislij L'ivcavipus ajrhiorostrii 

youni^ Pipe-fish. They seemed nothing T»ior€ than thin, iilver 
streaks, tiny phanCcm fish, in which ihc great cy^s were s^g-rt- 
lingly pTomhient They swam with a writhing', lashing mutioil 
of the tail, to the surface oi the watet* in the glass, then. dro\>^ 
ping quickly, lay on the bottcvni for a fdvy seconds be! ore rising 
again . ■ 

At the extreme tip oi tht tail was a miimte fan'ikc fin. which, 
doubtlcB*. served a9 a rvul<J»:t to steer the transparent crroture lo 
the top of h^ siTang:c new work]. Even at this iis^Q ihe dorsal fux 
v/HS citfirlv 3een. aiui undulated ceaselessly. The Hule Pipe-fish. 
as it leaver? us father'^ pouch, l>eiir% a striking resemblance tu a 
clcscJy related ^roup of fishes, the Sea-hor.seS- Their nianuer of 
swiminint;. however, differs, {or the Sc<vhor.>e ymni^ which 1 
have observed 5wam sy^irally, in an *ilin<?iit vertical position. Un- 
fortunately we had only fresh water in which to plrice our speci- 
mens, and they soon died, though, strange to s^^y. the young ones. 
Iive^:l longer than the adults, 

i^eaixhing aiiiong sea-gruss for these small fishes, one rcali/ed 
how vvoncierfully adapted they are to then' ^urronndings. Colour 
and Ime so closely follow those of the gm&s th;u it w<v!S' most 
difiicidt to. sec them in the shrimp-net. Under uatur;*! conditions. 
among- living plants, they are donbrlcss even mare remarkiihty 
cainoLirlriged. Thg Pipe-fish is certainly a curiously 6hap«t! 
creaciueu with its short iiody and extremely long tail, which, in 
mnlc specimens, include.^, the poitoli. Tt was described by Count 
F- de Ois:ehi<Ju^ Cousul-Gcncral io. France iPnn\ of (he ZooL 
and AcdiiM. Sot, of Fir., March. 1872. coninbntirm lo the Ichth)- 
o\o^y o\ .'\u&t.}. As lie nmkvs no mention of a pouch, he prolv 
iibly described a iemale specimen or an iminatin-e m;de. 


1. Mule Pipe-fiiili. shO'vinp closed pouch (Aide view) nearly iwkc uattirat 

II. The 5*^Mie, v<?iUTal vi-sw. Milb pouch pinned ope" to *;how OTllbryoi.. 
111. Yoimg Pipe-fis-h as it leaves its father'*; iJ'.'U'.'li. Ni^te \\s resemblance 

10 a .^eft-horsc- 
.IV and V. Embryos removed from lioiicli. fff. IV and V X 7- 

Unt vi t-l»e nUrkcu itatiuct- of modern times ia the rapid^chTttinAtiC'ri nf 
nn<ivc animals wiUi ih.e sorcaci of cotoniiatioiv the iacilitie.s tor travel And 
commuriicatioiu ami the increasing deadUne>!^ of appliance', used to destroy 
WJkl life, fi^ Au5tTAt(A many types ot fauna hav-e already disappeared. 
Through many aj^es- Australian aaimals. protected by open seas, isolating 
•herti Ironi powerful and rapaciQus aniniats found etsevvherc, had thriven 
ynder a shvliffed lii^'. iind deve)opc<l unique fciitures. With the advent of 
the white nun and his- domesticated anmial^, ana inter-relationship wiih 
every country. Ihe balance of nature vv;i5 inevitably disrurhed, Now. imless. 
very stf'in^ently protected by law, «rid by the force oi an a^vakcned pLihIic 
opinion, alive ko ics own interest in doing so> the reinaFodcr ot our mar* 
supial species, wilh the tnonotremcs are df>omc<i to extinction. 

liy W. H. NrcHOLLS 

PfcroxtylU Hittnihoftii n.sp. 

Phnfa ic.'rre!:trn\ .uth-f/raciHs, tjlabra, circa i^'13 cm. aUa: folia 
cauljxjcy 4'S lmcttn.^ia7urohiiii (ui oMovfjo-hrnvroiahi^ acwtmvaia, 
mb-piitentia, ulictiia, bast, amplex7ca-ulia. circa I 3 rra. ionf/i2: 
bnutcac 1-2 parvac, flosunicns, magmts, ruhT-stnatm ei albus; 
galea crecia circa 25'S2 cm, lonc/a^ opicc brcviici- aeummata ; 
Labiwhi infcriua cr^ectum, smus phwus, laciniis loufif-filiffirmihus, 
apicc faicaris: labcllum irritahilc imyukulaiufn, fintjultfiyi-^me fere 
strictiitn, iipicc fahaiuni, obtuaiim: hnmna circCt. l-S-2 ctn. lonc^a 
lUyfari-obJomja^ .mhito^cvniriUtHn} ^ appeiiJix curvaia, cwm seUs 
Imrbdhilatu , coiumna circn l-2'l 4 an. ioiif^a, lobi mpenores 
bp-cvis. Hneares, inferioycs dblcin<)i obHisi, biintitor-ciHaii ; stigwa 
obtonpo infrp columni tncdtHm. 

Folia riulicr.ha .stelhita sctpc mfmcrosa, pmiTfOsn, hie ovafu, 
br<n>i^cr pc-tioUita. 

A »ioclcrat<:ly slender, glahrous plant. ».linui 6-^5 cni hij^ , 
iilem IciLvcs 4-8. ]>ak ^'reeii, Imtiar-lanccolaie lu oblon*;-laJK.eolatc. 
acuminate, su!i-j>3te.iu, alrcniuit;, ^jiaspjng at the base, gradually 
increasing in It-ngth upwards tv .ibout 3 cm., x\\c basal ones (1-2) 
T<iduat<) to small clasping hracis, flower solitary. large, wiih longi- 
luclinal very nariow red striae on a white ground; galea erect, abnui 
2-5-3-Z cm. long, apex dccurvctj, <hOTtIy acurrtiniale; loM'ct lip 
erect, with a broa<l sinus, the very long tiJiforjii points embraanff 
the galea and far exceeding it, tips hooked iorv/ard (falcate) : 
labcllum on a shore irritable claw, almost whully rod, strap-like, 
almo5t straight, the ai>cx only slightl}' bent forward, ^v<\ rer^ching 
well beyond the sinus of the lower lip (when relaxed); lamina 
about 18-2 cm. long. oWong-lin^-ar, tajx-^ing^ to very hn/} obtuse 
point, the bcoud liasal jurt diiefvly channelled, with a narrow raiserl 
Jinc traversin'j the centre; basal appendage line;ir. much curved, 
the apctx Txset with short barbellatc sct.'e: column erect, about 
1 2-1-4 c-m long, almost wholly red, or very dark brown (sepia) ; 
upper lobes with a short erect stibulaic tooth; lower lobc& oblong, 
obtuse, jnar^ins with very short intumed rilia Radical Ieavt»s not 
prcbent during the flowering period, stellare, ofteji numerous, very 
pale preen, frosty, broadl^'-uvatfe, on very short petioles. 

Western Au^stralia- Bo}^ip Brook, 1927-30 (Miss. Er Corker). 
Flowering June -July- 

This plant approaches more closely Pt. Rogersii Coleman {The 
yic NcUHHihst, Vol. XLVl, September. 1029. p. 300) and Pt. 
robusia Rogers (Proc. Roy. Soc SA . Vol. LI, 1927, p. 2%) 
than other known forms Its affinities with Pt, constricta Sargent 
are obvious also, tl^refore. these three species are also figured 


NicHLU-T-s. Nni' SPi'des of drtufi PicrostyiU, R.Br. 

rvict. Ifat- 

L V«l. L. 

V^r-M.. J^ic-Mout- J an . 

Ptcrostylis Spccii?s 

A. Pf. Tobusta Roger!: (Sharp-leaf Grccnhood). Position of JabeUtiiu 
marked at X. H. Stigma Pi. robitShu C. T^abelluin-lnrnina Pf. robnsici; 
atfio curvature ot lahellum. O. Pt. IfiimiUojiii KtchollB (Red-veine<l Shell- 
Orchid). E. Stigma Ft. Hamiltonii Nicholls. F. .Labelluna-lamina Pt. 
haniiltonii Nicholls; also curvatnrc oi iabcllum. G. Apex ot (abcliunD-lani- 
ina Pl Ilatmitonn A^UkoHs. H. Pt Rugcn'^H Colenian ( Curled- tougiic 
Shell-Orchid). I. Stigma Pt. Rogasii Coleman- J. Labelhim-laniina Pl. 
Rogcrsi\ Coleman: aiso curvature of labellum, (Note variation at apex). 
K. Apeoc laheUiim-iamiiia Pt. Rcgcysn Coleman. L. Pt. constrict^ (Bronzy 
Greenlioood) Sargent. M. Sligma Pt. ccmsirivla Sar£.ent. N. I-abcllum 
Pt. cttmlrKf(.t Sar^fenr.. 

im J Ffte»<JrH. Nnu /?f^Ai^-» of Plants ^ttark^ef by liisn^ 91 

im convenience. The sinus ot the conjoined Bcpals, constituting rhc 
lower Hp, is very acute in Pi. RogcrsH; in the new species it.i.*^ 
flat, with a notch in the centrt, the labcthim also is of dift'ej'ent 
hhu^it — almost straighr and stt-af^rlihe. h\ Ft. J<ogcr.di more 
curved (often circniate) with a shorter pomt. In Pt. iolntsta w^ 
rind a comparatively hroad !abetlvim hanlly exceeding the co)uniu 
in Ifnglh: thus too short for ihe tip lo be seen beyoucl the sinns 
uf I he lower lip. 

i have niuiicd this atcractive ShdI-orchid (or Creenhood) after 
Mr. Alex, G. Haniilton, of Chaiswuod. New South Waleb, as a 
marls of appreciadun fur hib goucrons help to Others at all times. 
Mr, HaniiUoti is^ a v^.teran in the field of botanical research, and 
i>- particular!)- interested in the *;^cinis Plrrosiyhs, which li^ 
admi^res more than aiiy other terrestrial. 

Mr. Hatnihon visue*! Western Australia during )SW. and again 
in !926; liis stayi were uf Jimg duration, and extensive collection* 
of plant.s resulted, the ninjnrit}' of which are now in the .\;^tional 
HerhaTium, Svdnev 

Kor .specimens of Pt. Rogcra-ii Coleman I am mdcVaed lo Mj$i 
r. Maidmcnt at Capel. also Cofond B- T. Goadby. of Cotresloe. 
i'his maveiial was v.eeessar\ 10 definitely e.stablii;h the new spccjcs.. 

Tlic type material i^ in thft anihor's herbarium, jn addiiion i<* 
d CO-tvpe .specjm(^n in the jMationaL i-Ieibafinm, Melbourne, 


By C. FRH.NCjr. Government Biologist 

(7) The Pinara Ginh of the Apple. {Pwxtra amn- VVallcer). 

h\ Ihfiiv native state the larvae of this moth feed on the foliage 
of Wattles, particularly the Black WattJc {Avatia d(^cur rails')^ 
the Silver Wattle {A. dcalbata) and the Golden Wattle (A 
f>ycttaijlk{t). At the present time they are very destructive to Hie 
trui( spurs- and ]eave!5 of apple and pear trees. 

The larv^a i-s at most sinj^ular looking insect, lyin^ close to tiie 
barkj and. where the bark is {greyish-green, it is almost impossible, 
without a verv close examination, to detecv it. When fnlh' grown 
the caterpillar spiiu a white cocoon between the leaves, usually one- 
half of the leaf being drawn over the cocoou; Several ipecies of 
IcKuemuon Wasps (Lissofnmplu sp.) assist in keeping; the^e 
insects in check. The adult inp.erf 15 a yellow, drab-coloure^l 
moth, r!\e female meaj'uttn.c, Aboiii one inch acros.'^ che expanded 
wmgs. witii the male smaller. Both male and iirrnale^.s n 
snout-like appcorance on the frontal part uf the head, and Uiis 
^[\p.s ri-se <o the freqticntly used name. The Snotit Moth of the 

^Z 'WATTisrxfcV. Developing the Pt^kinff J^tdsirir^- [ Voi. I*. 



By Arthur H. E. Mattxkcley 

Tlie Commonwealth o( Australia pc5.<ic;>scs a rich harvest ftekl 
nf marine fish fauna which has not yet been thoroughly cxplorctl 
or comniertiia I ly developed. 

It:; resources in fish hfe arc unlimited since there are hundreds 
of species which may he dajrsified as of value lor hurimn fonct 
whilst many other. iioJi-<?drble varieties are -suitTiblr for nth^r coni- 
jiiercjal, user'. All varieties art capable ox much grKiter <un'.l>>ei'- 
cial development ih^n ai present. 

The fish i^ndustry of the Comm tin wealth m' far as ifs export 
trade is concerned is a negligible quantity since the value of rhe 
total exports of Australian, whether processed or not, amounts 
to cjnly six ihousimd three, hundred -ar^d Ihiriy-fiVL'- pound? per 
annum. It we compare thi.s amount with the huge export trade 
oi Qipada, the l.Jnitp.d States of America, aud England in hy- 
]iroducti alone, it is evident that the hshing- industry in AustraJia 
is capable ot considcrziblu development. 

Most of the spPDos of fi?X\ inhaluting Alistnili;in wiitert arc 
noi utilized cotnnu'r'.-ialiy. and the catch ot seme of ihe edible 
varieties is regulated bv the hshermcn ; and, itistead of cxpandtu^ 
their home market, as is done on the Conrinent ot Eitrope, where 
advertising C3mpai,(7ris fo increase the cousurnption arc in vuguo, 
Jitllc action has been taken hy Australian B.shermen in this direc- 

Th«se campaigns and the slogan "Eat More" used abroad 
have increased the consumption of fish to a large extent. One 
would imagine that the European people having had tish available 
for a thou*>aud year^ would have rt^arh^d ?_ saturation poml a? 
iar as markets are concerned: but wc find coimlries like Great 
Britain and Germany engasfed m hi^ pressure advertising scheme^ 
to extend their markets for the disposal of llicir catch. 

Fish foods are reco.s^nued by ihc- medical profession as effective 
body-budders. The.\v iirc ca^ilv digested and contain vitamins 
<»nd iodine, and a<:t as preventives oi cxirtidn dLseases. 

It has hcen observed that Australia Lacks phosphates in he:r 
pasture and agricultural lands, and the consuinption of fish, tspcd- 
ally marine hsK to some <ixrent ftttpplies the phosphatic deficiency, 
and thus helps m conjunction with other foods, lo provide us ^vjth 
a well-balanced diet. 

The e\ of the markets in Europe has been rendered 
essential since the scientists, with their knowledge of marine bio- 
logy and by the application of the re^Ulti; of their reseai'chcii ) 
liaye been helping the fishermen. This has enabled the fisherm^rr 
to increase the size of tlieir catch. 

ml. ] Matttn'Glf.v. Devci-cpu^ the f'nhin^ ImlHsiry. 53 

Ambitious schemes are now being projcaod to furllier increase 
the supply and to plan for the turure, 

The fishing industry in Austraha slinuUI become a vast nabtiaal 
asset if ^icveloped by the Commonweallh Covenmient. and marine 
biologists should be engaged lo develop the industry. 

Marine biolofists, partictilarly some ot' tho-^ l^elotijifuig to thf 
Pcrmiincnt Internatjoiul Council ior the Exploration of the Sea 
have achieved astounding rcsuUs. The avowe<;l object ^i this^ 
European council to secure ihc racional exploiUUiOa of the t^- 
50urces of the sea is to asccrrain how the maximmn harvest may he 
extracted without damage to the onttinuance of stocks, The 
biology oi various species is extensively and intensively ^riu:iiiHl, 
and llu.- v^'ork is subdivided among the several luainns iidheriti^ 
to die Council. 

The work of the nrarine biologi*-cs has enabled then^ to fore- 
cast the arnual stocks o[ fish which may be caught even years 
ahead ot the date. 

Owing io natural ciust.s Uiere are extraorditrdiy diffejence.s in 
the number oi hsh surviving in some year< as compared with 

In years of maximuin *nrvivn! practically one hundred tiilie< 
as many fry .survive as in years oi uhnimum survival. Thti 
eflect of good and bad years of brood survival are demon$trateil 
in a ^'jcnking way several years later, and marine biologists have 
been able lo develojj a technique which enables reliable forecasts 
to lie made ol the prospects of rhe carch of various fishes 

l'i)c sampling of the plankton, which compri.-^es the minute 
organisms forming the primary food s\ipply of fishes, is one of 
The indicators. Temperature of ocean currents and the restricted 
or unrestricted release of Arctic ice all have an influence on the 
increase or otherwise of the different varieties of fish Some 
species arc more plentiful m colder ciuTents and others h\ wanner. 
Whtliit the quanLity of plankton is likewise aftccted by these 

The Mawson Antarctic Expedition has accutnulaled sornc 
infontiAtion which should prove useful eventually tx» Australian 
fisliermen and biologists. 

iicsides studying the changes in the numbers of the stocks of 
fish, science has concerned itself particularly with dettrmininj( 
the migration of the edible fishes. Experiments luve been madr- 
by fagg-ing them to find their spawning grounds, and to obtain 
other data to enable a correct scientific conservation of the food 
fijihcs ro be maintained. 

The biologists have bruughc their knowledge to such a stale of 
perfecuon that the fishermen oi Great Britain now consult tliem 
regarding the types of ncti to be used. 

W Matti^olev, OevdotiHo *hc Fuhinrj hidiisir:^. [ ^^{ ^ 

The tagging o{ whales ni the Antcticticia contemplated to nbiain 
data so as to cletcrminr what <itoc:k must be allowed to survive 
10 [irevcnt ulciiriate extinction of the »pecics. 

The scientist, through his investigations, is al^Ie to inftic»<c 
^^^at areas should be declared sanctnarie.'s and lireedtng gfixiiidS; 

The North Sea commercial fishermen wU!* ceniuries of the 
accumulated know'edge of rhe habits of the Fi>h of the N"orch 
Skl thought that they knew everything regarding the habits of 
ihe "fishes frequenting^ its waters, but the biologists discovered 
that iit certair. times the great body of herrings were on the -seA 
floor )iistca<l of nearer the surface, and consequeii(l>' the tr*iw!ers 
mksed tliem- 

The curTcnts ot the ocean deflect fishes, and it was found that 
the current whicii passes through the Straits of Dover into the 
Korth Sea deflected the eels, bred ui the Atlantic. aw<->v froin iht 
German coast. For the past twenty years English.fishtiineu have 
caught eels alive for tlic purpose of transplantiuv;' ; and the annual 
transference from the Severn River, in England, to Germany of 
young^ live e«l3 for distribution in German rivcre h:ts been seven 

These eels conCinuc their life history from five to twenty years 
before attempting to t€tum to spawn in the depths of the 

The traniiplancalioii of hsh in Atistraha has been ne^ilected. 
and although transplantation of certain i^pecies from Europe ^nd 
America has not yielded the' results anticipated, due principally 
to the introducuon of cold waler varieties nito warm waters, nuich 
yet remains to be achieved ui this direction with tmitabk edible 
marine species. 

The processing of fish is in its infancy in Australia, and as a 
CQn5»:"qucncc tliere are very few by-products such as fish meal, 
uili, manures, and glue manufactured. These by-products are 
made from the offal consisting of head;?, fins, tails and intestines, 
as well as surplus catches and non-edible fishes. Vast quantities 
of fishes, particularly those that swim in shoals and migrate along 
the extensive sca*hoc*rd of Australia are avyilabte for manufac- 
ture into Chesc articles. 

Fishes, such as pilchards, salmon trout and other kinds are 
not utilised as they might be. 

The prgduction of fish me?vl suitable for poultry and swiue 
CM-ci he obtained from the^e and other fishes which at times swarm 
in tht; vni dc ^'ac ot Bass Strait. 

Germany alone consumes over 100,000 tons 0^ fish meal per 
annum, and Denmark affords also a good u'larket fur fish meal. 
whilst China miports thon.sands ot tons of processttl fish. Crushed 
lobster shell is imported into Germany for poultry. 

■y.]^:^' 3 /JuiiAS and Dalm. Ihc iSfrcci Ocean Hood. ^ 

Duetto vwaiiT of bioiogicail control ciabs swartit hi xha Gippslaiici 
LaWcs. Corner Inlet and el-sewiiere. and have ruined the. fisheries 
there. Fishermen ciiultl catch these crabs, converi them inlo 
CTiJshecl food for ^>iport^ and so curn a pest into a nicans tii 
income. The genial tropical vvateri. of the north oJ Australia 
abound in large crabs which could likewise be wsed for pr(Kf.!?s- 
v^tX for export. These tropical waters swann hu^e .sI>arWSf 
which couki abo lif proccaicd, ;is well as the vast shunN of fish 
which cot^tc and go with the tide in the estuaries ot tlie norrherii 
bcroarus- The Conmionwealtli possesses a vast uiideveluped asset 
in its ft^h fauua, whicli, i[ scictitificaHy developed with the aid 
of experiejiced biologists to direct the activities of our fishennen 
and factors, should rcinrn co the Commnnwealth annually a large 
sum of ntoney to benefit its economic condition. We must plan 
for rhe future as other aVuntric-s are doiiig and utilize nature**^ 
^if\ of Cish Food. 

The fl'ihing luduHCi'v in Australia reqthres atnnulating, and this 
ca»i only be done by advanced methoci.s- and srientifir techniqne 
Operated by skilled biolofjicat direction and by marketing expertt^. 

It is due tt't the want ot this scientific direction that the fishing 
industry' in Australia lags so far helnnd tliose that avail tiieinselves 
of xhc researches oi marine biologists. 


By J. W. AvPAS, F.L.S-. and C. Dalev, B.A 

hi fs'^Uibern Rnrope and Aineriea we have instances oT gre<U 
roads oi higfliwavh ^kinini^^ the ^a-ctiabt. fdlloAving its contour 
for hundreds of miles-, and s^'^'*'^/^ ^^^ ever-chans^eful panorama 
nf debglitiijl scenery amid heakh-giving surroundings. 

It t.s many years since the construction of such a road ni joulheni 
Viecoiia was suggested, but il was nol until die close of the Great 
War lltat the project took material fuiTH, and the j^^rear idea of the 
tonnation of a broad highway runninj^ parallel to the ocean's 
vet-^e irom Atigiesea Ut Warrnanibool was boldly put JDi'waj-ri, 
and its construction urged as a fitting and permanent national 
memorial to those who had fallen in ilic Great War 

The greatness ol the couceptiun was acknowled^^ed. The scJieme 
was well suppcnted, money raised, land acquired, snrveys made. 
jarciiminary difficulties overcome, and ere long gangs of returned 
soldiers were busily engaged along the 'sea-front, prtparmg the 
way lor the great venture*.. The under its President. Mi' 
Howard Hirchcock, and its Hon. Sccrec^^ry Cap(ain MorJcy, 
spared ncirltcr time, energy nor expense in forwarding thi^ diffi 
cult work. 

% Auftivs and' Dacby. Tftr C^<>o^ Or6m Rood. [^voi t*^' 

The first ie<^tiOTi fo l.omtr isr ^a\^^ iivailaWe fov Traffic, and. the 
otiifr .=itages being inLigli less advaticred towards cnmplcliow. 

From Melbourne a 'quick passage by motor over the excellent 
road brings one co Geelong. Thence through the :ionthcm oii£- 
sktrts oT the city, past icrtile orchards and pastures goo<\ travel- 
ling \^ ma<^€ until the attracnive seaside town of Antrle^ea. wi'lh 
its river, lieacti and forest is reachev.K H^re coiitcict wich the ocean 
IS iitit obtained, the course fieing rouiu:! p-eiat Ui'.iuhnn's JilufF 
an<! ths Lighdiouse at Air^j's Inlet, a charming seaside atid coim- 
iry resort- However, an existing roa-J pvic.sing through a forest 
track h used as an alternative. This joins the Ocean Road after 
crossing the bri^Jge at Hogg's Creek. Just outside Aiigkica <i 
coasklexahle area oi* land lias Ijeen jjianted with pine trees by 
the Forest Commission. 

The forest vegetation in thiy arfta oi Tertian' me?isures is 
HLiderately robust, the genus Eucalyptus being rei>rcsented chiefly 
by Connuon Peppermint. E. ausirrJiana. Silver-Jeaf Strin^ybark. 
/•- cinerea var. muUifloKGr. Messmate Stringy-bark, E. obliqua. 
Ajjrpte Box, E- Stunriitina, Manti*^ Cum, E. vimiunU^, Red Iron- 
bark, ii. sidcrcfxyhn, Yellow Gum. £. Ic-iuosylou^ and 3lue Gnm 
E- ghbulm. Here and there is, a spTinkhne: of the Austral Grass 
Tree, XamJiorrhoca cvustyalis, with its long flowering spikes. con3- 
monly known as ICan^raos' t^ils. and the persistently flowering 
Mop Gondenia, Goodcnia ova-iti, with ii^ yellow blooms. — a feAlurfc 
in the scrub for several months of the year. Alsd noticeable arc 
two or three species ot Cu5h Pea and Parrot Pea and ;^evcral 
species of Acocia?, some oi which grow in dcn-se thickets, and. 
when in bJoom. are gorgeous heyond description. The Golflen 
Wattle is one ot the most commnn, and fills the air with a delight- 
ful periume, but the tree here h soinewhat stunted in iorui. 
Behind the coa::tal sand -dunes the Coast Beard Heath or Carrot 
Wnott. L.mcopoqon pa^viflont^, tortus dense thickets, massed 
together with <hc Boobialla. Myopont^tn utsutan, Coast Daisy 
Bush. Olt?ari(i axillaris, and Tre« Everlastings HcUchrysu-m fcrru- 
ginemn.. These trees, although not strictly sandd^inders. owing to 
choir densety-devtiopcd crowns, prevent the wind reaching the 
sand surface, and so attain the sa^nc result. The heavy canopy 
also prevenfrj excessive evapoialion (torn the soil, and les-scns the 
danger nf drifting. The most prominent of the undershrabs is 
Coast Acacia. A. Soplu^rac This plant is a rudimentary sand- 
binder, and its spreading liabit prevents the sand to a great extetlt 
from drifting. The surface plants are the true sand-hindcrs. and 
the most importani of Ihese are the Coast Spear Grass. SHpa 
tereiifolia, Hairy Sp'miiex, Spiitifcx husutus. Indian Couch Grass. 
Cynadon D(iciyli?i%., Salt Grass, Dittichlis spicafa. Coast Rat-tad 
Grass, Spoyobolur virgimcns^ Mat Gras5, J^ottbovUia compressa. 

•^^"g^- ] Ai-T)AS and Dalhy. The Crrat Ocean Road. 97 

Knotted C'lul) Rush. Scirj^its nodosa, aiul Marriin (irass. .Unmo- 
phila aniudiuacca. The latter is the most important and vi<rorous 
grass for hinding drift-sand. It has long-desccndinj^ roots to 
hind moving ch'ift-sancls on the sea-shore for tlie conipactnePs 
of which this tall grass and Sand Lyme Grass. Iilyiuii^: arcnarin.-f. 
are chiefly used. It delights in the worst of sand drift, and for 
its full development gradual accumulation of fresh sands around 
it hecomes necessary — hence it never gets suitocatecL It has 
great tenacity of life : even when long dislodged and looking 
withered or dead, it may sprout again from the root. It docs not 
readily ignite, and is easily started from portions of the roots 
for new growth, but may also be sown. At Port Fairy it was 
found necessary to take steps to put a stop to the serious encroacli- 
ment of sand in that (listrict. The late Baron von ^Mueller was 
applied to for his services, and at once suggested the planting 
of Maram Grass. His recommendation ami advice were followed 
and the desired result obtained. 

From Airey's Inlet the road passes within sight of fmc sandy 
beaches. At first low hills clothed with a dwarf vegetation com- 
prising Imnmrtelles or Everlastings f Yellow and White) embrace 
four kinds of Hidichrysuins : two of Hclipicrnui or Sunray. two 
nf iinajdiaVuiui (tr Cudweed, and one of Podolcpis {P. acuminata). 
As the coastal range gradually increases in height, and as it recedes 
to still higher hills, the vegetation becomes more luxuriant. Stud- 
ding' the sand-])anks and slopes towards the shore are some 
particularly fine specimens of Cushion Bush. Caloccphalus 
Bro-Zi'nii. were observed. Where the sand drifts up with everv 
gale will be foimd the Knotted Club Rush. Sctrpus nodosus. Salt 
Grass, Distichlis spicafa, Sea-Rocket, Cakilc viaritima, and Prickly 
Salt Wort. Salsola Kdi. Mantling the sand-hanks are immense 
qttantities of Bower Spinach. Tctragonia implcxicoma, which 
extends itself to a great length in the sand, or hangs in dense 
green curtains from projecting ledges of rock while the so-called 
New Zealand Spinach. Tctragonia cxpansa. occurs in sheltere<I 
spots beneath the cliffs or between the dunes. The last named 
is a well-known anti-scorbutic, and in some parts of -Australia, 
as in New Zealand, is cultivated as a vegetable. Several other 
interesting trailing plants which help to arrest the sand and pre- 
vent its encroachment inland are met with. viz.. the Climbing 
IJgnum. MucJdcnbcckia adprcssa. Angular Pigface, Mcscuibn- 
anthcnium cvquUatcralc, Rounded Pigface. M. aiisfralc, Sea-Berrv 
Saltbush. Rliagodia baccata. Sheep's Burr, Acccnia oviua. and 
i^idgee-widgee. A. Sanguisorba. 

Two interesting small herl)s belonging to the Gentian fainilv 
occur hereabouts. They are the Yellow-Centaury. Scbcca ovata. 
with ])ale yellow inflorescence, and the Austral Centaurv. Er\- 


AuDAs and Daley. The Great Ocean Road. 


ict. Nftt- 
Vol. L. 

Grassy Creek at Herschell's Fernery 

fjj'j^' ] AutiAS and \>*.frs', The Great Otean RvtttJ. 9> 

ihrnfa aHstrd-ii. The latter is very abundant m Ihc open ItillsiiJes 
whert ilb spikes of rosy red add a chaim to the lantJscape during 
liumiTier. Both of thciic plant's liave valuable medicinal properties, 
especially tbe lattrr, which is. .s;iid |o hti liighly cfBcacioiis in ca'vp?^ 
of dviientery. A planl vifhkh gladdem the eye cvcrywhcie (eveu 
aloiiK th<» roadsides, where it is frequently trodden down) and 
expands iis delicate pink bios^^oms to the sun is tJje Blushing; 
Bindweed. Comrok'nlus (fruhe^ccns- Another representative of 
this family^ a na.Livt! kpI South Aincriaj, is <hc Prusirute Bcll- 
flower, Noiana f^yosfrctta, a jrloriotis hrilliant bine perennial — an 
escapee from cuUivalioii. Tluec sf»ecie& of Solanujii are notice- 
able hercal>oiits. esjjecially the Apple of Sodom. 5". sodomaeunt. 
(he Kanijaroo v\pple, .S*. azmulan\ and Black Xighlshade, .S*. mi/- 
ruui. The inju^ of all :^re pnasonirtJb. Growing profusely in 
rnOib» places were Iwu ■ii>^ies of ^Timih15. or Monkey Flowers, 
theer abuiidani pmkish-white blosonis being always pleasing 
objects, i^eepin^ above t)ie «;rass in placets imdiscurhed by stock 
was seen llic iniall but bcaulilul Rosy StorV s )^ill. Pckmjomum 
RiidiicyaTium, an<l WiJd Flax, Linvm jmin/huilf:, with iK slry- 
hlne tfower.^. Il is not nnlike the Rnropean flsix jii habit of 
growtl) and in the cjuahty of fibre obtained irojn its stems. 

The Tertji^ry area now changes or mer>^ps into the sands^lonc 
clifTs of ihe Jurassic, a couimuaiion oT the Harrabool Hills. Out- 
cropping on the bc^icli IS a Scain of carbonized vegetation such ai 
uccnrs in leal impressions, or ieams of giei»Ter or less e>;tent 
throughout the Jin-?!ssic niParsnres to which the liills we-stwaid 
helonj>. . The road gradually rising passes round the hi^h clifTs 
l>e1ow Clarke's at Point La$tncs, turns sharply at die inevitable 
Devil's Elbow, and dii)ph\ic dawn to cross Grussy Crerk run?i 
round an amphitheatre of hills and rises to a considerable height 
at Big Hill, whcjicc a magnificent view of coastal scenery \^ 

Jufii below ihe slope, perched like an «yrie on the sleep hillside 
is lluloi. This plcasaiU spot -is admirably situated with a .southern 
aspect just helow the road, and sheltered from the hlightiuf; east 
wind, it cnmmnnd?; pleasing vistas of Hnihcrcd slopes, hills and 
valleyv. a long stretch of sea verge and rollitig o*;can- 

At the foot of the steep hills winds the never failing Grassy 
Creek to the besetting sea. Over the valley is a rilcmd of rnad 
against the hillside, around which the motors can be seen oii the 
way re Ihe luU-gute, where a. tontrihutiiin (as at Aircy^s Inlet, 
a coiUiibutFoii of five shilhnf^s per nioior, and a shilling per 
occispant) «s payable towards the upkeqj ol the road. On some 
days a very substantiul sum is tlnis obtained From here ih*- 
lofiy look-nut of KelsalTs Kock overlooking ihc valley of Grassy 
Creek and gtving an e>tCJ«ivc view of llie far-tiprc^ding ranges 

I(W) Aui/ASiml BAr.Ev. The Grcaj Oe^m Rccd^ (^Vol. L*^' 

ai well as glimpses of the sea,* can easily be rcacKccI. Fiom the 
Kind and cilotig the Creek is a winding and almost ovcrgrowa 
Uack to rfie IvOuise Falls nbout six miles distant. Ucsct vnth 
tall Krack'fn -ntd scmb. the track has hfcn little *jsed Tt cros'ijes 
au<{ Tc-cro^ses the stream niciny cin>e&. arid there ace two or three 
(ih^rii pinches* to ^urniuuat betorc catchinp^ sight of the Little Fall. 
Aboiir a m\\ti further on. ntVer parsing a snmll canyon on the* 
way. Kei'BChcII's Fcrtv-sy is tnlered, a very fine *ern gully, where 
gall Tree-fern^. Dici^jon-ios. grace Uilly shelter a prv-f union ol! 
oiher specie*., bt^ne^th Mu*>k. Blackwood. Blanket-leaf ^ud Native 
MuPicTty. The iem-irunks in the nn.nst and cool i-ctreat sup- 
ported quite a profusion of planes grovviiig from then- surfaces. 
On one ^^dici: tiiink besides green luosises grew :t voting iVIusk- 
rnee. an A^plenium. a Scellaria or Star-flower. FJlnay-fcTr*s, an 
Urtiia QV Nertlc^ a liai:?.wing-(ern. Pol^ipodics, and mure minute 
fornis ot i.'e|jctation. Around ihe crunk of one vigorous Tree- 
tern, its foitcr-mother. grew a flourtshing Filackwood. whilst in 
the angle between the tree?, als-o rooting in the tree-fern, a Hcdy- 
i'aryn- or l^iitivii Mulf)erry rearecA itself, Ccich member oi the co- 
operation ?jeins; u^ healthy eondition. Overhead towcre<:l fine 
dcaii shafts of the Manna Gum. Enctttyptus vtniinolis, from a 
bundrfrd to a hundred and fifty ket in height, with well grown 
spe<:imcn& of Blue Gum. E ij^obttJus. Mountain Gr*jy Guni. U 
(joniocal\'x, and Messmate Stfingyhark, F.. obliqim, Fietl Tronhark. 
E mtero^yion. grew higher up on the hillsulcs. This shelteieil 
valley showt. no signs of rhe ravnges of fire or the axe. being as 
yet in a ^nrgin state. 

*l*hc mulerg-rowth js chiefly Common Cassinia. C. at ukaio, 
Pnckly Bush Pea. PuUcnui'M junipi'tine. Largo Icat liuslvpca, 
£. dt:phnoid<-\s, Prickly Moscv Acun'a va-tkillaUi, Narrnw-]cat 
Acacia, A. linearis. M3TIIC -Acacia. A. myrtifoHa, Varnish Acnicia. 
>)_. Vermel fi.iia . Hop .Acacia. -/ strlcta. Blacs' Wattle. A. mollis- 
jsiina. Silver Wattle, A. dcolbaUx, GoKlen Goodia, C. fotifolia. and 
the Hop Coodema. C- m^-ata. The 'Iwiggv Daisy-lmsli. O/cam 
rfimulasii, and the Snow Daiiiv-hush. Olea^fa lyrcto, were in full 
bloom in juasses of white, whilst toward^s the npper part of 
the gully the Musk Daisy-hush. O. o-rt/ophylla. wai in exuber- 
ant flower, a fine ?iighr. for elsewhere k had cciiscd bloomm^ The 
cliuStering Clematis grew profusely, gurlanclinsj bi^cken or scrub 
with us beautiiul creamy ftoweis. At the hca<! of the fern gully 
the valley abruptly ends, (he water dropping^ in the LouiSe Fall, 
about sixty fc:et down the cliff face, rhe latter hnlf in a vt-il of 
spray from a jutting ledge, a very pleasing sight. The rock 
behind is hoDowed out into a cave &6 that one may wTilk behind 
the falling spray. Tn the exposed Jurassic rock surface are dun 
veins and leaves of carbonized vegetation. remmdu\g one of tlic 

^' J AUDA5 and Daiky, TA*- Great Ocean KcKid, 101 

ages thai. have passed since the deposition. This a-nt^cifve valWy 
\s an area which on acccunt of its Unspoiled beauly atiil cham*, 
should he pp.rnian<?iuly leaefvcd. 

From Iluka it is an intrresring wallc or driv^ of Rix mites ^> 
Lome, the road hcingciit out of the &ie<;p hills and ri.-iiTij^t Or Valfing 
with iKeii" relarivr: posirJons to the sea-front. The liilla are tJuckly 
wuoclctl 10 iho edge of the road, and the slopes to ih-^ sea are also 
covere<l with scrub vegetation, comprising Hop Goodcnia. C 
ovate-, Gr»lden Bn^h Pea. PuUev/sa Cunnii, Rou^Hi Bi.i:*h Tttn. P 
scdin^a, Sliowy Parrot Pea, DUhvynia florilnnuia, Heathy Barrot 
Pea, /). cruifolia. C<irse Bitter Pea. uHrina. Narrow- 
leaf IJiiter Pea, D. c-^yryml^osa., Shrubby Spurge Phylhnthis 
CumtH. and the Firc-Wced^. S^-aecio odoratus^ S. veU^ioides, S- 
ita'jifs, and Cottnn Weed, Ercchfitcs tiitniiridi'ntcvki, were growini' 
liixuriaucly. 'J"he rc*ad is in good order, and improves with 
traffic. A feature of. it is the mnnher of "]:>a«ising' places'^ and 
point?! on the chfl[ fronts, each legibly marked wjih the t^ame ^^ 
the donor of a sum of fi\'e pounds coward:> th*; ojnstriiclion. So 
winding is the road and ahrujir rhe turns tliat the neces-sity c1 
caution is constantly increased by the <lcvire of boldly prmtiTi.t; 
;trr?'..stive wards cin. the. face uf rocks, ^uth as ''Tuot/* '^Tontiki." 
•*Toot Aj;^5in,'* "Have Another," "Sound Yonr H./' etC- Fine 
ocean view5 arc observable everywhere from die well-graded irr^cl**. 
On the beach the rocic toniiatiou under tidal actitHn weathers into 
a kind of jonued pavement, the s^oiter jionions of which, beirvji; 
rtmiuved, make dcfniitc ruck holes. Incidentally there arc ]ji:itchcS 
of inundy beach: <n* at the base of headlands, a mas? of broken 
stones clifticnlr tn pass over At- rhe base of >ome of the lofty 
cliffy are caves where swallows bu:ld their nests, and along the 
sea shore many iatere^titij^ forins of >eaweeds are met wi(h (and 
scarcely fail to be noticed even by a casual observer). Pnjliahlv 
one oi ihe coirunouesc xu catch the eye tjt'thc collector is Satz 
(fiuxuth\ sjj Hontwyswa Baril'sir i> ;l sea-weed which 13 coonnon 
om rocks iteai higli-water tnark, .ind it differs so muci^ fnjm every 
other sca-u*eed ui its leafless frond that it niity be easily rticognized. 
It derives ics name irc-m hvrmtfss', a necklace, and stra, a chahi, as 
it consi-srs of a serie.> n( iiiHared inleruodes sin>ilar in thuracter 
Xv vesicles. The Iructihcation consists <j[ .si)ore cavities sunk in 
tlie vesicated nucrnodes. Another very common sea-weed is Eck- 
hnin c-vosl-rrata: this is one nt the sea-weccls winch contribute ti> 
rhe formation of kelp. ToniJ of this weed may be seen along: the 
coast. Other seaweeds nk;t with are Pli?i;amium prorcruw. a 
charnnng and symmetrical algae. Zoutirio Smrtoni. and Fvllos- 
pom yoitwso — a large icaf-bearing Mrawceci. An inceresunc;^ Teat* 
ur^ C'U the clifl iaees is. the inuiieiu.e quantity of Tussock Grass- 
Foa tarspttosa. It grows iu rhp. from of tuffs giving out, as ix 

Ui AiTDAjf m\ n^i.Tv, fiu! €ffitt> t>cdfl#i ^'fiffrf [^^'iY u'* 

njl«, uumerous long wiry leitveS'. ft U s«lrh>m houcSieri hy i^toclc. 
ami provides liltle oiitriment. Digjcmg oiii bcc»:oilcs u (lillicitlt 
pruccss it ibe gvus'o gets a good liokL The area occupied by t\m 
grass on rhe roast rs a considerv^We one. and i^ Is extremely untnr- 
tmidle that Its f>al;»tabiliry ^ni\ nutruivc quality are h> Iow. Il 
is ail exc^dpnr clroLi^ht resistTiil f^rass anrl helps in hind thr. soil. 
The^c arc iK oi\ly redeeming features. On ncarmg L.oroe we 
raiiK upon cvwc vti> Ixantilul chimps of thf. Tail Rice Flower. 
PhnrJra lujuttrhut, nnri Deriveni- Spppdwfrll t/froniro. ih:n<'enti<t. 
The fontt^T attains a hdi:rht of six' lo lUne i>el, ariti when \\\ flowftr 
IS ont^ of the chjci botarucal teaturcs along the Great Occiin Road. 
Inco(i>para>>Ic l^rne. beautiful tor sitiiation. nrerls no description. 
Its conibinaUon of aluactions by shore and range being unequalled. 
Behind its fine :iancly beach, the winrj-blown ndgcs fiavc attuined 
fixity on account of the fine growth of the Poa or Tu.'vsOLk GiaH$, 
and Marani Grass, two effeetive sand-stays, the latter of whirli. 
^ow in general use along the coasts, wi\$ first successfully intro- 
duced at Fort Fairy. 

Kroni Lome the next section is to the Wye Kiver i'rom Lome 
the extension passes Teddy's Lookout along ilie »ram-rrack cross- 
ing the pi(.lnrci<jue George River, bcl'jw M(. George. It winds 
in and out ovpr the casnping-groimd. then across the She-Oak 
River. at>d ground the cli fF face.*; past The Brothers to the attrac- 
tive valley <>£ the Cumberland Tl\\^t, with il.s t*old glens and sink- 
ing rugged cliifs- This section, owing xo the prccipiions nature 
of the sea-front. \s not devoid i>i danger or thrilW InsJinctivtly 
one hug.^ thi* inner ed^e. whilsl M>n>eiimes wondering If the 
Ir.f.sened and fiisendercd lilocks vi rack just iibcad, or Ihe "shcken- 
side," where water is oozing through, will really defer falling until 
the danger point is passed- Jusl pa^it. t^odfrey's Creei: rwo graves 
on the sCeei) hiU mark the resting place of shipwrecked ^liluriij. . 

About a mile furtlier on w^ strike a ttuil^er tramway, from 
which is so«jn discerned Ihc headland oi the Wye River, wjlh a 
house, then a jcny. another house, and. ou a closer ap]>rnach. a 
mnnber of himses and a Urge mill. A few years ago Ihis was 
A 5cenc of busy itidustry. A large sum of money wa& expended 
in nmllicg operations, buildings, jetties, tramways and maehincry. 
Now only a few houses out of afwvut thirty are occnpied. With 
the ck>sing of the mdl population went el"=;ew'lierc- Ttie houses 
arc falling inlo disrepair, and the plant is rapidly deteriiirating. 
The scrub vegetation is encroaching on the buildings, and the 
pbce \^ almnst deserted. In n visitatinn of storm and flood a 
few years ago the head ot the jetty was- carrieil away, and other 
donDugc s-nstainetl. In ihe Wye and neighbouring valieyj^ shel- 
tered by the high hills tl^c Blue Gum groivs very well, ajid wrjis 
ihe chief timt>cr sent to the milL The valley of the VVye seems 
tu be of great fertility and suitable for the cultivation of such 

*^- ] AvoAs and Ttie Gr^ns Oretm Rood. tOJ 

crops ;is potatoes, onions. !iKern<-j peas, snahc. probably also 
berTi^d fruits i whijst ii resnnied foi' the purposes oF yfToresta- 
tJoTi; as has been suggested, che area would sptfcdily gi*ow suitable 

Tilt* oomvletion of the Ocoan Road slioald be of great aclvan- 
lage xo tlMS remote area and conduce to its settlcnicm. tor its 
coiDparativc vsolitnon would then disappear. As iisunl in rhr! 
coastal rivers, Iroui arc numerous. ThcTL- is g^iiod uctjau h:%hing. 
•and crayfish abound in the roclc-holes. A stretch of sandy hcuch 
is jRiund the htrle bay: and in ihe days lo come lh«r "Deserted 
N^ilkgc" will no do\ibi he a seaside:: reson and a iavouriti' stage 
on the Great Occur. Road. BeyomI the VVye Kiver the road 
fOn>irt;ct<ed by the Countiy Roads Board is in sonic- placed up 
lo lw«niy feet lu width- The rc>ad keeps well up in i:lcvolion. 
then drops at Monash GulJy, and skirts Addis I^ay until the flats 
of the Kcmicl River ar^ reached. It was oft hQrit that a few 
year^ a^o titc s :-. Casmo Was stranced for two days, and only 
saved Irom wreck by considerably lightening c^r**o. thtis enabling 
h^r to gtit riff ^at'clv iit high tide- Anif»ng^ the jerti^oned oaigo 
were sixteen ho^'^heads of bctrr, Ca5.ti:5 of KoSTer':^ laijc-r betx. 
sonic <u wine, and barrels of tur and oil. which, with other ilot- 
sani. were washed ashore. In iho absencu of official authority 
all t?^c mail liquor and wine utterly vanished Near th»* Kcnnet 
?it the time a working cainp wns opportunely placed. To ndd to 
the conjunction of fortuirouf* circiimstances hilly-cans ^nd cups- 
were auion^'. (he- anicles that the kindly ocean washed ashojrc. 
The incident and its inevitable sequel arc lutly told in rhc annals 
of [Ik* Great Ocean Road- 

Ac lliis point occur many satid-dunes, and the shore-line Iw^ 
tor several decades been filiing' up. What look hke old sea-clijfs 
of iron-stained sand beds can be Si?en for several hundred yards 
friiJii the present sliorc-line. An intervening depression, partly 
filled up with swnd and cliff detritus, h'd.^ become overgrown wtth 
iliickets of MoonaJi Paper-bark. Afeiolciuft panifiom. and Coast 
Beard Heathy Lem'opOf/<w parviftorus, matted togf.-ther with dense 
masses of Coast Sword Sedge, Lepidospcrma gkuH-oinm, and 
Kuoited Club Rush, Sen-pus nodosum. The two iiUtcr have (o % 
.great extent been efTeclive in i;loppin|^ the sand movement. Above 
these, where the l^row uf the cliiT recedeJ!- from the sheer face, are 
clumps of While Correa, C- a/fctr. Thyme Kice Flower. Pini^ca 
scrpylnf/ilia, Sea Bo.\, CynopoQOJt buxifohtt.s^ Tree-Everlustingf. 
Hiifuhrysuju ffrmujlncum, and Contthon Cossinia, Kcre ;dso 
some cuiiouftly rlwarfixl specimens of Blue Gum are met wilh, 
•which indicate clcaely thai eiicaK'ptii have no liking for the Mii- 

Past (he Kennet the rough diffs of the Mutton-fish are marked 
by the elevated track decJtning^ again to the Grey River and Shrap- 

IM AUDAs an<l Daiev, Tk^ Cr'^ot Oroo^i ft!W(f [ yti". t!**' 

nel Gully It then r?S6S again around the bold headland of Cape 

Pactnn, iiiHler which i.s a notable cave ot some extent it was 
luit >vcsr of thiri that the wreck of tl\e s.s. Schomburg occurred 
Prom here there is a marked improvement in the road. On tde 
Cape 15 an old descrtefl homestead to the teft oi the mad. Tht 
disappearance of limber on the hills, and signb of ciiliivation. grac- 
ing, and !=<;vt!enitint giadaally sEiow approAch to a more populated 
area. At Wojigaara a post office perches cm the crcat of a high 
lv\l. Just past Cnrisbrook Creek, which emerges from the lofty 
hills about three-quarters at a rnilc up its course, ia an <ittraccivn: 
Jail On the <tlluvi;il plain towardii the debouchment of tlu^ strenm 
was n very fu\G display of Foxglove. Digital^ purpurL-a, lu flower. 
A garden escapee, sometimes appearing! as a weed, k is stroogly 
poisanovs. but stock apparently do not touch it on account of ns 
liitter ta>te Here also were some very fine cKitn|vs of Paper 
Flo\ver> TIioIuhsUt pdalocolyx, and Slender Velvet Uush, Lnsio- 
pctnlaiii Bcmcrk two Stercultai'eons pltUit-N well vvoichy oC culfiva- 
tion. Between Lome and A])ollo liay the nnmcronft creeks and 
rivers draining the coastal watershetl arc a feature of the distric!. 
Many nf them have vvaterf^llix on their course and issue amid high 
ranges adjoining the coast. Smythe's Cretfk, rising in rlistant Mt. 
Sahinc, 1911 feet high, is noted for the beautiful scnnery along 
its course. Skene's Creek lias fertile fiats, awA in tht deei> glen. 
Wild Dog Creek, hemrticxf in by precipitous hilU^ lies below &. 
well-made road which leads to Forrest, and overlooks charming 
views-" of the rich cultivated flat.«. ar^d comfortable holding.s along 
ihe courM.' of the Creek. 

The bst tive miles to Apollo Bay is over a wel!-mctalled n*»cid 
round the foot of the lulls, where cuUivatJon and tUbyiug axe, 
carried on to ad\^iutn^'e A ion$r stretch ot firm glcammnj sand 
round to Pomt Bunbury marks Apollo Bay and its adjacent flat:? 
of rich soil behind winch are Lhc lofty encki^ing hilla. denuded of 
their pristine forests. Apollo Bay i.^ nicely situated and parlfy 
protecte^J f'*oiu tlic westerly winds. An enclosed re^crv.j between 
i\\t heath and the road server again to shoiv the great efticacy of 
the Maram Grass in bindini: ilie drift of sand. Pines seem to 
flourish, .^nd New Zealand Flax or Flax I.ily. Phannhtm tcnnx, 
grows most vigorously. The town it becoming" increasingly popu- 
lar as a seaside resort. Coastal vessels call at the jetty when 
required. On the foreshore at one time face meetings were hcK!. 
Cv'ents bcin^ run off or buspemled for a time to snit tlie movements 
or tlie tide. No place is likely to prof t more than Apollo Bay hv 
ihe extension of the Great Ocean Road. With good soil, rich pas- 
Hires, produclive farms, a fine bay. and many nacural advantat^s 
it will be an attractive resort for tourists. I'he most striking feat- 
me in its vicinity is the bareness of the ranges f ruiri Cape Patton 
to the Jiay, and the visible signs of the ruthless destniction of the 

^^*' ] AuoA5i and Dalcv, The Great Oeccn /?xjnrf. 105 

ui*iguial lorcst gfo\vt}i oi valuable timl)er. Whore tlic land is noi 
culti'v-ated tlie penrading bracken, to the exdnsioii of other vetjeta- 
tiou. grows jn profusion. Patches ui tittiber remaining sparsely 
here aniJ there anjong ihc UiHs. having a lowered vitality, are nut 
vigornus in gftnwih. Changes in dinialc, erosion oC soil, nnd 
greatly ^ncrcas^d liability to flood$ in th-e Npecdily ^vvollcti arrcatns, 
are liiOTiic of rite resnUs conseqiteiit upon the wide'ipreiid rem<>v;ij 
of the forcstal covering oi die liIUs. 

Across th-c month of the Barhalii and outward towards the 
tlliort Kivor a track leads to the State, forest of abuul -^.OOO ar.r«?.^, 
which consists mainly of Blue Gum, with Mountain Ash, Spuilcd 
Gujn, Swamp Gum, Blue 5ti-irig}'bark, Apple Box, Red Ironhark. 
and Manna Gum. Towards ihehead of the KIHoU Rivcc some Hne 
*]ierim'^iT.s nt White Montilain Ash, Mountain Grey Ginti. kxvA 
Bhie Gtiwi were seen. At the Sphttcr's Ilut is a beaut iful fsni 
gully, rich in the type ot vegetation formerly widely ^-xit-ccnt in 
the neighbouring valleys- Ilcra were lofty iree-ferns,, umbra'^e- 
ous Dicksotjias, 3V/d slender Cyatheas, ;jttTactive B«cch Myrtles 
{one of which v^-as sixteen feci in girth), Blackwood. 'Iree Lom- 
atias, Hlank^r-Ieaf. Musk iJaisybush. Satiuwood, Tree Everlast- 
ing, and Silver Wattle, wilh a rharnnng grrvwtS^ of moisturc- 
lovnij; plaiits l.iurderiug the rippling stream, and cloilnn^r the tree 
Iruiil<^ wilh gracefi4l :j;reenry nf epiphytal ferais, such as Ilymffii^^ 
phyllum, Tsirhnntcnv.-', atid the rare Lycopod, Tnie.^picris tasm\Vi- 
tinsis;. The I-arge Helmet Orchid, Corymnthcs prhiiwsti- was seen 
among tlicm. The ctimbnig Kang;iroo Fern. PnlypaHiunt pusiu- 
hif-Mfn, though growing over other ferns as well, luid taken possoST 
sion of dr Tie^ Ken), overwhehnitig the. gjrowing crown witii a 
thicket ol Us own roots and fronds. Other climbing terns noted 
were Leathery Shield Fern, Polystichunt adiantiform^. and Piugt^r 
F^rn, Polypcnlium aitsfivic, 

Growini^ ;iparL from tlic Tree Fenii-. in ifladus of their own 
and revelling m (he twilii^ht oi" *-he forest is a miscellany of Gtound 
Ferns, chief among them bcuig tht; Commun SliiclJ Fern. Ptfly- 
stichHin acuivatum, Mcjther Spleenwort, A'planum hnUAJfruw, 
Shtny Shield F^^rfi. Dryopip-ns Jf-i'ovif>osiia. Batswing Ferti. IliSU- 
opteris ivrua. Fishbone Fern, Btc:rhv?wi discolor, and Sickle Fern. 
Fcdocit falcata. "i'he fronds of the. Commori Shield Fetn are da'k 
green ui colour, and frcqticatly fiavc young ferni> arising ln«u 
buda near their apices. The racbis is covered with dark brown 
NCJiiles Ia-S(, but not least, is the Rainbow Fern. DavaUia (iubia. 
It gfeu' gr'j^ariultily, and jjs pwle yeJlDWish fronds were dehghi- 
fviliy Ijeaui-iEid- 

A tall shrub, cotispicuous because of its dark gUi^^y, denriculatcd 
travci; ib the Austral Mulberry, Hcdycarya- ang-u^tifolia. lu places 
the».s uf chis shrub were qn^tc yellow and appeared to be 
aftocted with the le;if blotvh, Giivosporwm Kcdytarvap Two sniall 

406- AuOAS an(t I>Ai.r.Y. The Croat Occnn I^aad- [ yoil j., 

trees heloDging to the. Cvtuposita: arc ploiUUiil. One is ihc M'tisk, 
Clcar'ia a>"Qo^hylia. It Has a musk-like ijilour and h;ii l;»rge. el!if>- 
liail lirni. dml ofkivous leaves, bilvt;ry beneath. The other I* the- 
lUaiiireNlc^af, Hcdjorriia salkina. which lus lafg<? linccuhite leaves, 
quite woally beneath, The Siiow l^ais)'" Uii^h. Olcarin ivntta, is an 
exceedingly t'^etty hhrub, and was laclfn with its wlwfc starry 
flovvei^. When the plant is toudxcd fine leat hairs come off in 
(ar^^e quantities and fill the air with au irritating dnst. fri>ni which 
ihc plctUt O'tcn receives rh,e name of Chok^-hn^^Ii. The Cnitniion 
CassJnia and Tree Evcrla^litig were- part ion lar I v ylcniiuil, fonjjiiig 
dense thickets in niriny places, often matted together with Wire 
Grass. Trtrarrhma fH-m:ea, Large Sword-scdgc. Lcpidospenna 
exalkitmn. tind Scrub Nellie, Vrtiavincisa. Two Fireweeds, Sen- 
ecin tiryadcHs, and Ji '2J€lkiQi\ anpnal fonipositcs with ■^howy 
yellow flowers, arc plentiful. 

Titc iortsi is vveV. protected from fire l>y a system of breaks. 
Return was nxidc to the road Wgh in (he h^Us atrove the Barham 
Kjvcr windiiii^ inr below, the marked contrast I.ietween the Irving 
forest, <;5 reserved, and the widely exiendin^ cnea of rleiiuded hills 
Vvilh grcv, bv^irt 1 ranks killed by Fire ur age. standing ooi as lar as 
the -sky-line, being here very notiecable. The road i? graded alon*j 
the liills down to the rich floor of the Harham. a pretty strcanx 
reaching the ocean behind the towviship. 

Retiup from Apollo Bay was made over the Hreal Qc«in Road, 
the conccptioii of which, visiotiary as \t 5eci«ed al (irsr. w;i3 u. 
noble and laudable one. and its t^xecutioti suListactoiily undertaken. 
When the projeirt is wholly complrtfrd ir will he nor only a worthy 
and enduring metnotial, recalling- the <\c.ed% of Anstralfan icildier^^, 
but a ready means of outlet troni remote hillb and glens to the 
highways, ot traf^c, an incentive to settlement, a^ avenue of access 
to iiaven> ox rest at the foothills oi flic ranjE^e or ihe Vfrge of tin' 
sea, atid a convenient and fascinating road luc mnroriny unsur- 
P^^^ed it) Au.slr<ilia for the charm and variety oi its accnic -attrac- 
tions. The road -mW also give latiUties for Ffcid Nahrralist^* 
excursions in country formerly ahuost inacce$.Mtle vvithoin ntneb 
expenditure of time and enctgy. 

tjiider CyrfostKlh HiiycUn. EiidUcbeT (in r.phinaon's J-'h'i-faf Prrtssianac, 
Vol. 11, V 6), there api!ear> a rcry brief tJescripttoii of .^ plant from RuTI- 
Jiest l5.tand, VVcstcxii AuilrAlid. P v. Mueller, m Futi/ttf.. VoV V (18t)5). p, 
?6j states tliot tliis forui ditTl^rs but slightly iTomC. rf^nrjonntT R.Br. 
Rentham in FL Aiut'sti, Vol. VI (187.^). r>- -3?'6. ^tvfs C tliiiiciUx si. ;i 
vanclv >>i C. *tfii\orw\S. 'l'lr»!> plant is apparently Klenticfil with A. rrMiiii.'t/. 
m/u Nicb- ct r:oa<Ih>- {Tiu V"\c. KUt't. Vol. l/V-Uv. 3V3J. V ?3). Thus 
A. Icinuss'inn-^ beccii'i-''?s 3 sj-nouym of C. HUsfcnU. 

As Schlechtcr lias inr.luded iho mentis CsTtcxd^ti^ in AcWHflms K.Br^, 
Cyriastylis HUgvUi End)., J841. becomes- Aaanthus Hitgctfi (EnHl.) 
Nichol/b (.'t Goridby, 

For ;he alKiw important refcroire I nm indebted to the coijrteiv ijt 
Dr. R. S. Rogti'Sf. of Adclatde ^y jj Kicncu.r.s- 

^» 1 -Vo/«fc .Vffto. m 



Ths fqnnatioo of a "League of Vqinli", with the object of 
ciiti^tlng^ Uie iutercht of €l<kr ^vholars in the prestrvarion nf our 
Fauna and Roru, is to lie coniincnJed, and, ii proyerly organised, 
will scrv« lo link ii|.> jNaturo siudy in the schools \\ith existing 
Is"-3rurc organisations to ihc l>enenr ol ail concerned. 

The tinnsuul i>rc5encc of two whaler ivcencly disporting in Port 
Philliii r<;c:^ll^ 10 ntind the days, more ilxan a century a^o, when 
nur two First pnmarv inilustries, sealing and wh;,t.lmg in V>:x:^s 
StraJt. were hoih extensive an(j pi"ofti;d)l<» pnriiuits, 

In regard to tht Echidna'-^ tlisaiipenring trick, the iollgwin;^^ 
may he infunimtivt; . — Whilst staying at Toolangi, I came acro-S.^ 
<j.n F.chidna near Yea river. )..cvering ii with a slick, ] took hold 
of the Ieg5 J list al>ove the powcrtuf claws. After examination I 
3Ct it >ree; and by altcrnatijig ;i vi^oron^ contractile movement 
with a 5tron'^ tixpvdsivc ont*. in which the body, r|nil]5. and ciciw.s 
wctre used with great rrTect to Jisplact: earth, the i'xhiJna C|uicklv 
"dug m," }\j>t taking a f|V!a!"tor of an hour to i;et out oi sight. 
Again M Longlord. wc savv a very large Ectndna crossinj^' a road. 
When slopped ic vandy ^ndcavoined to excavat-?. the hard road 
surf-ucf^. CriptannA it. we sonl it to the Zoo. 

On a ttiird occa'sioiv at Sale, I took charge u( another ■"frel;ul 
porcopini.'" th;ii was' cndeavonring to burrow thrangh an asphalt 
path- i placed it in a larpc wooden case four feet in height 
in a stabk for the nighc. >'<?xc morning the case was empty L 
wa^ Ht a lot^s to know how jr had i^ot nway On a visit to ttic Zoo 
I Saw an Ecbulna cltnib up the sule of its cOnj(Kirtmt;nl. aljont 
seven fcei, In the aid of wire netting. I had nor thought of the 
Echidna as a clioiljcr. hut to efrect escape my captive, in dctanJl 
of "di.gging-in" hud gone over the top. 

During the nn'ld winitr birds kiavc been ntorc numerous than an the home j^ardcn. Twu Blue Monntriin Parrots noilnng 
ago rested for a brief si>ace on the wireless line, then f^ew north- 
ward in a flash of vivid colour. A pied Sparrow, with spbishes of 
white on its brownish phiniagc. flew ui — -a rare instance, 1 should 
think, of i?portive coloration. For a *Jortnig'ht a lone- \^''attlc-l.nrd 
lured by a kUe flowering guni. discordantly announced \ui pre- 
sence. A prettv. unaccompanied Ulno-cap. truant from the familv. 
perched lot a few moments on the guden gale. Well-groouied 
Java Doves, hke sparrows of low degree, have been in regular 
at<<:ndancc. good ;3cavengcr.s both, Has anyone ever seen one of 
/these doves out of ?l«;ek. Hldermanic condntonr Their mournfully 
rciterani nc^fe c^m always be heard. Onr hon)in^ JTa^'pie,^ wen* 
first hesdid earoMinj^ a fortnight ago on their annual return pre- 
paratory to nesting? in an old pine tree The p!ping of a pair ot 
Grallinas. also recurring visitants, has becu on the air. 

108 f^€tHr^ .VnV/. [^V^: U^ 

Last Thursday a Harmonious Slirike Thnuh. f^r afield irom 
forest haunts, sang a full-throated matin song ot delight fiil melody. 
Add to these an animated discussion by two friendly Ukickbit ds as 
to a fitting ne^^ting-pUice in the ^^iuleti. wher^ fnr three seasons 
ihey hnvc domiciled, and we venture the forecast that spring i*j 
tomin^ early. 

The homely s[>arrows, cheerful chirpcr.^. and true philosi.iphers- 
are ever ready xvhcn crumbs are thrown or ^^tray seed.i fall h'om 
"the rich man's table" — ^in this csist the umefu! carary*.^ cage. 
Starlings, for no appar^^nt reason except perhaps seasonal niigra- 
lion, are not nearly so niinvjrons as lonnerly, and we miss owr 
tavouriie songster and nimiic. who, iu challenge co the world, used 
to sing wirh a full and merry heart irovn the top ot Lhc hightrit 
wireless pole. From sunrise to gloamuig he gleefully "tuned his 
merry note.'' Blackbirds. wxXh quick eye5. h,ive liceu very busy 
amid Lhe inWe-.n leaves, the pauses between their dainty httlc runs 
give them an iiir of quauit alertness. 

Wild flowers in the garden tire responsive to quickened life. 
The Thryptomene is ablu.^h with huds amid which white florets 
are peeping Oviir on the sunny side. A Lilly-pilly is like ii Christ' 
mas tree, so plenteously it carries us purple berries. Of three 
Correas the Mountain Corrca has a fexv creamy, tubular flowers. 
C spe'Aosa, ihc red variety, shows aboui a. do?.cn goodly s|:>eciniiens 
of the Ch)b s badge, while the ttiird Common Corrca has died after 
three years* growth. 

BencatEi a Poniaderris with its apetalous Rowel's. Calyihrhr Snlti- 
Xfam is putting forth its light green terminal tutts, which herald 
its profusion of white flower.- later. A Microinyrtus an<l a Snow- 
Myrtle show promise oi good bloom. The Gcraldton Wax-flower 
is decked with oval flower buds, red in colour. Two Grevillcas 
are un^ojdm.y: rheir dislincUve flowers. A Native Mulberry is also 
shQwiiig" its inconspicuous florets. TJie Hendigo Wax-flower and 
its nv^re robust congener are pleasing with blowti and trai^rance. 
Even the Mu?ik Tree feels the urge of Spring, wliilst more lowly 
plants are eiiually con.=iCious, and a Mint-bush shows snmll cushion- 
like processes preparatory to flowerin.^. 

* In the msect world there is a suspension of activity. Case- 
moth shells and a iew Mantis-cases clmg to the walls or eavea- 
Snails cluster m damp shelters The brown globular egg-cases 
of the Death-head spider, all perforated, showing that the youtig 
ones have vanished into space, swin^ idly by their attached strands 
on a fruit-tree. To a sheltered r;%tter of an outbndding closely 
adhere the viscid chambers of wasps, apparently sealed until' 
occasion reciuir-js their opening Not until spring i.'s well advanced 
will the insects be active with renewed life. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoJ. L.— No. 5 September 6, 1933 No. 597 


The. ordinaryv meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Halt on Monday, August 14, 1933, at 8 p.m. The Fresi- 
flent. Mr. V. H, Miller, presided over an attendance 01 aI?oiU 
eighty members and friends. 


A letter from Dr. Ian MacGillivray, acknowledging letter (d 
condolence from the Club. 

From the Prime Minister's Department, re apiXDmtment oi a 
Marine Biologist, stating tliar thi^ and other aspects of fisheries 
were ar present occupying the close attention of the Gov- 
erntiient, and tliat the future policy, Jt was expected, would Jtc 
decided on at an early date. 

From the Director of Education, stating that "The approval and 
endorsement of the League of Youth by the F.N.CV, have been 
noted with ])leasnre " 

From the M.C.C.. stating thai trees being cut down in Yarra 
Park were worm-eaten saplings, and one rotten medtuin-sized M'Cf 
vyhKh wa§ dangerous to passers-by. 


RepoJ't.'; of excursions were as^ follows: National Herbarium, 
Mr. J. W. Audas; National Museum, Australian Marsupials.. Mn 
F. S. CoIHver (for Mr. J. A, Kershaw); National Museum, 
Eihnology* Mr. A. S* Konyon. 


On a show of liands Miss H. M. Hogarth and Miss M. Larsscn 
were duly elccitd as ordinary members. 


Mr. I. C. Hammett anentioned the erosion of the Yarra bank?, 
at Ivanhoe, and moved that "The Committee investigate the mat* 
ter with a view of stopping ii/' Seconded by Mr. II. P. McColl. 

Mr. G. N. Ilyam moved, "That this Society authorizes the 
Hon. Secretary to hire a charabanc for the puipose of hoMing^ a 
picnic on Siiow 13ay, September 28, 1933, and (u strike a levy lo 
me^t co5t ol same.'' 

Mr. Proudfoot told of a M^ng Thrush which sang in the same 
tree for 7 hours 30 minutes. 

: V 

Mr, F. S. Collivcr clcscrihed a nest of ^itts in a burctav 

Vix A- H- Chisholm ?=pnki: on the Sbeiiirookc F'oreiL and Lyre 
Bii'tls^ and niove<i "That the Cc-iiiii^ittce anaiigc a conference 
With tbc Forests Cocnini-^^sioner in .an endeavour to have the 
lorest proclaimed a National Park; nnd p.hyt- the R.A.O.U. aiul 
Bird Lovers* Qui) be invited to take pat't ni the discussion." 

Seccinded hy Mitis \Vit;an, :ind cai'ried. ^. 


In a lectiu'c on "An Lthnologiol Collecting Trip to ihc Western 
District/' Dr. K. M Wisharl f^ave the varied experiences of Mr. 
F. Smith and himself, and gave members a §teat deal of in[onna- 
tion concerning ihe various collecting" g^rouiids. i\ very Invge 
scries of specimens was used in ilK?stration of ilic Iccturc- 


Di'. R. M. Wif^hait and Mr. F. Sniith (in ilUiMfaiifii of lec- 
ture) ; Ground pebble, ground, and grooved axes, etc . from Cape 
Otway; hu<kin;2: stone, puhbk <t>;c5. from Rivernoofc, pebble «*xo.h. 
Chijdor^- Cove; blank and ground axe. b<>ne needles, etc.. from 
Gorman's Lane; basalt axes, -mills, top-stones, Bridgewater Lalces : 
flint choppoi^s. and .scrapers. Sv^^an Lake, mills, hammer?-i.onc^ 
etc. Mt. Sturgeon : nrilil^, hammer stones, sha.rpening stones, etc., 
Wiiburti ; luii> stone- hammer stones, basalt mills. Lake Robe: 
sharpenijji< .^tone. hammer stone, old axe. luverleigh: abn cres- 
cents and scrapers, from Cape Otway, Wilbur.'^ [nvevldgh. and 

Mr. F- P. Morriii. — A section of wood of "Red Box." with 
embedded head of aboTi^dnal i.pear-head made of Wackwood. (Col- 
lector. Mr. E Nye- Railway DeCKirtment. Melbourne). 

Mr. V. H. Miller. — Two species of Dendrobmm, Queensland. 

Mr. T S Hart- — Brockmau's report on Exploration of Korlh- 
ve^t "Kmibrrley. i90L with aboiiginal drawnigs. 

Ml. -A. J. Swaby. — Fii*st flowers for reason oi Pnltcnoi-a f\L£aili- 
folia (Mount Byrou Bnsh-pca), Erioslcnt-on gracilc (Su'iull-fcaf 
Waxflowct). F.. obovalis (Fauy Waxt^ower). ThryptomcHir cnlv- 
clna ( Bushy Heath-myrtle) . Microtnyrhis ci{laf:iis ( FrixTi^cd 
Heath- myrtte). anci Acqchi myrtifolia. AH garden grown. 

Mr F- S. Collivcr. — A senes of shells, sectioned co show in- 
T<>Tnal arningement. includmg such genera ivs.j—Turniella, Coinifi- 
dia, Loto^'inm. J-asriolaiUs, Scmwassis. Conns, Voluta, TnHw, 
J^atii'iij Afif-rex, Ncrila. Tyhspira, OU'VG, /Vcothais, etc. 

Master Al<in MucCtiskilL — Fossil phni remains froni near Cole- 
I ainc 

Mcisliir R. James- — ^Florny sponge from the Minety Milt: Uwich. 

Mr- V. Fttchcr. — Fdooms of Rosemary Grevillea (C. rosmariui' 
fojij^ A Cimn ). iMyrtle Acacia {A. myrtifolui VVilkj.). 


^«: ] KaIT. Ncfci on 'Srhcr fish. IH 

JvJO'i KS Ois! SIl-VKR-Fr.'iK 
By Jankt W. lUrF. M.Sc.,, F.M-S. 

The average person who has seen Silver-fish mi^ht describe 
ihem as being winpflcss, sofr-bodio^l, mort* or less flaitciK-d insects, 
vs'irla very lung -Lunennac afid (brcc lon.y taj] ap()cndageii. He might 
silsuci Knt>w that'dtc body is covered with scales ov^rl:iiipin<f tri Ihe 
one dirf-ction, like iish ?-calp^. He knows, too., thai \hexc is tio 
JTietaiiior pilosis or change dumig the liFe oi the Sdvcr-h^ih. for 
he has never yccn a gruli or a pupal stage, but he /inf seen iMimnc 
Silvf'i-hsli^ as well a^ nieditini->i;?ed and lar^e ones. He is, rhtre- 
foro. though he may not realize ii, already acquainted with some 
of the ch;iraeterisncs which mark these inseets a.s primitive, such 
j*s*tlip* Hofr body, rhr nbtience nf wings, and the absence of /i 
mei^imorfihosis. Other iniporlrnu primitive feauiies, such as rh« 
presence oi paired styles or [processes on, tlic nnder suriaee oi iht 
last tw<j or chrcc segments oi the abdomen, would only be riotie.e- 
;|ble atrer a more detailed exanu'nation. Though situated ventrally, 
ih- lips uf lhcs<^ styles are vi-siblc from above. 

The aimmouebt .Silver-fish met with ni houses near Melbourne 
has hen^ ideutihed :i.< Crnu>lcp!KUio I^nco!*: Kb. This s|K'e?e-'; soint*- 
innes aOiJeaT'f. as :i dark j^Tey or blaeki.'ih form, at others a fleshv 
whuc. Tlicbc vanatious are really due to the cxteiit to which the 
scaler have been rubbed from the body, immediately aiEter a 
mouil ihe 5^Kin is ronipiftelv covered wdh blackish scaler; Intei, 
however, these become rubber! oH" tii the hauti^^ of (he SifvcT-fish. 
And thctt the body aj^pears light in colour. Tlie sexes can l)e 
di?tin;;nished by the pre^r-ne^t uf a lon^ median external ovii.»o.sifor 
in Ihe female.; tlii*^ ovipofiiror is on rhp uiider-surface, hut a.«t it 
projccis bcvoud the body, it can easily be seen from above. 

5ame of the habits oE Silver-fish arc well known. These insects* 
ave nocturnal, hiding away in the fiyy and et^min^ out at niglit rt) 
f<5ed Their numclibles or jawn are slvnn;^ and u")t)lhed. enabliujLf 
Jhern lu euL into a variety of foudsiulTs and fabrics. Their favour- 
ite and most tiasily acqnircd ioods iit houses appear to l.>e the 
covers and backs of books, surtaoe?^ »"if photngrajihs and [>ieturrs. 
Starchy food-stufls, and aviiHcial silk fabricrj. Their depvedations 
on t\u'^^ materials are only too well known. They appareoily 
ravonr w^tm. d^irk situations, and are frequently found in libiaiv 
ic&. Viiclicrts. bathroom? and basenienis. espt.'cially wliere there 
jire ert'vicrs ov simdar sheker. The Mak-s covering the budv, aiid 
ch6 \vel!^develo[)pd lees, enal)le thej^i to move about very rapidlv. 
and when disiuriied. they qmrkly drop to the Hoj^r or .seek .sunuv 

Siher-UIi are gcnerallv t.onsidei*ed to be lang-livcd iasccts. \t 

tbfr liiTic of Wfiling*. T huvf l-wo mdiviJuak living in captivity. 
which, along" with othets, I placed under observation at the School 
nf Af^-icultuic, Melbourne University, in Novctnhcr, 1929 They 
Arc thus wt;!! intu their fourth year of captivity, ttiough they wtn-e 
considerptl to ^*p adulr size >vhen first ca])tured. The hislnry Ot 
these two specimens ma> be of itUerest to note here. They are 
Survivori o£ two lots which were confined in November, 1939. 
in two g;lass lieakcrs (twenty Sslvcr-fish irt r?ach) and piovided 
with the {oUowmj^ food maierialrt: — Po\vdere<l sraich, artificial 
5dk, t)!own paper smeared with bookbinder's paste, blotting paper. 
and tissue paper. These materials were chosen as being represcn- 
tcUive of the foods they were probably existing dri at the: tinie of 

The hcakcrs, together with others similarly furnished, were kept 
at nrdin;^rv room cemperature. in a dosed tin, m which \V7\^ alst> 
a vessel of water. In Ihis w^y darkiu?,s5 and u reasonable hiamidity 
was provided. Bi-wcckly readings ot these were taken, a record 
of the numbers of :>urvivors kept, and any dead bodies, etc* 
rrmoved, At the end of nine rtionths' cap(«vuy the nnniher-s stir 
viving in tliesc two baiclics were eigluccn :tnd seventeen respec- 
tively, and a month later the umnbers were seventeen in both 
h)ts, They were then lett. an*! two year.s Uter it was found thnimic 
individual had vsurvived in bo<h hatches. Tn ihe interval they had 
probably supplemented their diet with one or more bodies of their 
fc'tow-captives. for they have provtd to be caTinibalisTic in c^jp- 
liviry. The snrvivorii wt-re dieii each placed in separate beiiker^ 
with fre5h food oi the snme variety as before, to which was added 
a pinch of eascin. For ihi? fjast twelve niontiis they have been 
hvitig un this dici in sohtary contlnernent. and at the present lime 
{ie... three vears and eight niomhs after being captured) ihcy 
still ajiijiear to be healthy and active. 

Tr will be noticed from tl->e above conditions of capiiviry, that 
the foods supplied consisted chiefly, if not entirely, of carbo- 
hydrate materials, and apparently Si!ver-h?>h can live un thi^ diet 
for considerable periods. It is not known how ihcy procure their 
protein foods in nature, but in captivity, no doubt, cheir canmhnl- 
istir habits supplie-:! rhem to some extent with thi"=; rexjuiretnenc. 
Captive Silvcr-tish were also found to con-^ntne their cast skin.^ 
or exTiviae and any eggs that may have been laid. Of the foods 
provided, artihcial silk tmxtnrcs Seemed to be one of the most 
favoured, and especially the iiofter varieties, and in some cases a 
detinite preference was s.hown fcjr the ".warp** or the "woof* nf 
a particular material. For in?,tance, after having bad several 
Silver-fish confined on a certain artificial silk mixture, only the 
tibres running irt one direction remained, the "matrix" or inter- 
lacing^ fibres tiaving been eaten out entirely. All efforts to mgke 
these insects eat pure unsoiled woollen or sitt« fabrics have (ailed. 

^3*!' 1 R^''^ ^<f^'^ ^^ Siher-fish. 113 

Life ffhto^y 

TJw se^ccs in Ct^ffwkpnmn tinvpfa appear to. Ijc aboul equal iii 
jilinihcr, F^t>s arc Jai'd "ieparal^l)'. being dro|)i)e<:l loosely aiuang 
the food iiialttriiils and. fabrics. (In the C-asc oi a /onii of Lcpisnui, 
it was noticed that the eggs wero invariably stuck to Thts fabrit^fi 
wiifi ii .sbghl srrrcuon). The egj^:^ Kr€ about rbc ^i/c of a ^maH 
jji?i*s h«ad, ^Hobnlar in ioT»n, tHtid of it iight ycHowisli, <;oloi^r, They 
have licen (aid during the inonths Septemljer fn Mnrch, tht^ itdialts 
feeding on Hie diet previously mentioned before the. addition of 
casein. The greaicst number luid by any individual wa^. uvetity- 
fivc. u\*cv a jjci'itid. of tr.n duya during the month nf March. The 
inc.ub.ition period appears tn \^ry irom six to nine weeks at ordin- 
ary room tcniperaiurcs. Just previous to hatchhig. (lie tyt^B of ?hc 
_voun.ij' SJlvcr-lish arc visible throtigh the eg^-shell 

On hatching, thu shell is ruptured and the hrsr-sta.^p larv;i 
or nymph ap))^ars as a nnnute whitish foi'>n \viil\ comparatively 
^hori antennae- and tail appendages, The body has a :cw bairs. 
Imt no scales ari^ present, and its niuvcnienN are nnf nearly :}< 
inpid ris ihey arc ia ihe latei sla^^es. It is id he noted also that 
the paired aijdoniinal styles arc not prc"tcijl iti the newly-halehed 
fuTiii Mter uhout t'onrteen day^ this ^tage moults and enters 
the second stagt, wliirh resembles the fiTsr m the absence o( 
:scales and styles, though Ihc antennae atu\ tad appcndag^cs am 
slightly longer. It is apparently only when it has rea<:hcd the 
rnurth Nia^e. Jr after fhe third moult, th^T the scales; ?nd sryles 
;iie developed. J'here ate probably ^ix or seven sra;;es in the loui- 
pletc hic-cycle. and as has already been seen, the adults are long- 

Other Spccxtrs of SiJvcr-fhsh 

The order in which SilVur-fibh and their alhes are placed is 
Thysanura, so named on account of the fring^ed api>earance of the 
hind enU, some forms having two tail processes, others three. All 
forms possessing three processes, including the Sllver-Hsh, are 
i^rou|'jerl into the family Lrpismaiidae, the name beu\^ valien fron> 
one of tlie ton>monesl Emopean genera, \h., Lcpknw, In houses 
near Melbourne, besides Cicnolcpi'iVJa lineata Fb., iwo other species* 
h.-Rve been found, occasionally in con^iderabte nunibers. vi/., 
Lc'fiisvta s-acrhan-ttu- 1^., the commovi F.uropeau house Silver-rish. 
and Thennobia acgyphca Luc, a species of the so-called "Firc- 
brat" ot Enrojie and America. 'Hie former is of a dull Jea'J 
coJotir, and has not the flaite.ned appearance of Ctmajhipisvui. T^^<t 
"Fire -brat'' i^ brownish and frL-cklcd, auJ apparcnilv favours 
warmth ttiore than other forms, as it i:> usually recorded as fre- 
qwenting bake-houses aitd kiichtns. An engine- or boiler-room 
in Melbotimehas been the location of numerous specimens handed 
to nie. For the ideiitihcation of these thr«e species. 1 have r^ 

llil y<.^fy. ;Vt>A\T y" Sil'i'er'fixh* [ 

Vlr(. Ntil. 

thank Mr. I!. Womcrslcy, F.E.S., of the South Austr;ili?*ii 

Chn fiAiiv<' Silvt:r-fi<;h art tncniion^rl by Dr. R, J Tillyat'd in 
hisv /mtY/A' of /htslraiiu (ind Nc-.v ZcaUwtl, where it will be seen 
how varied arc Hie habitats of these insects, some beintj foiuKi 
nnder Uirk. others as inquilincs or giicstb in arus' and tiTmiles' 
ricsiii. Ol* Muropean inc|uiliiie.s. .jn aimiMn^ cabe in rccunlcd hy 
C A. Kalaod in Insect Life, -vvheie he. says that "few guests arc 
more crafty tk'in a little Lepismid Aicluni formicana. This Trea- 
ciirc is very similar to itti ncnr ally, thn Silver-fish. It Ji.n;s ?»ot 
scc<M to hr a w'ek:t)me gues*, for the aiiis ofieti inake attacks u^xiki 
il, bill, be)iig txccedinjilv agile, it rardy etjtiicb CO ;uiy hnniK . - . 
VVc [u»ve mentioned the ce^mmon practice ot one ant feeding 
anothe-r hy pns.sing re.(;^nrgitarcd food from month to nmuth. This 
ii> Alelut'a's opporHuuty for sppeiiSnig lis luitiger ; when two iMiXs, 
are face lu tacc and about lo pass the sugary liquid, their guest 
giides up with astonishing rapidity, steals the drop as it passes. 
and makes off-" 

Nuiurai /iviuny 

Thouf^h there appears to be nn kn^wn Silver-fish enemy or 
parasite of any iiTiportancf. it may he menhoned here that 
ScuUijera, the 30-c;Ulcd Housenrtniipede or Shield-bearer, pre;. "^ 
upon insects, as we.U us on others, when hekl captive. This 
iVlyitapot! occurs commonly under bark or stones, and is well 
known us Add coNecior? by its nunierous louj^r anj^ul^ted k^.c->^ 
and :th very rapid muvenicnLt.. Ll is ueeastoually noticed in 
hoUb^5, and my attention has fr^een drawn to its }>redaceoui> ^vibits 
on Silvrr fish. A si>ermien held ivijitjve hy me I0r nne month. 
ooii^nuK^d folnteen SilveT-ftsh a< \*Jt\\ i^s a fe\V flies, during th;u 
time. Our common Scutigera Is of a groyislT-green colour, and 
has A lon^% narrow !x)dy with a covering nt etght dorsal plates or 
b-hie-hls. riie antennae are very long, and the eyes, unlike ihose 
of otfier ?*^yri:ipoda (the group to which milfipede-s and cenfipedea 
belonjr) are vvell developed and I'ae^t'ed. A. pair ot poisnn claw*; 
JA present, in addition to mandibles Or jaws. There are fiClten 
pairs of well-jointed legs, mcreasing in length pewlcnorly. and 
\*'irh rnulti articulate tarsi. 

Effect of Chemical Fapmirs 

It might be mentioned here that, owing to tiie laci that the body 
<■»! the Sdver-fish is vei'v weakly chititiLzed. thc^c ins^cti: <ire 
readily affected by vapours frnm volatde products, VVhde exam- 
ining Silver-fish held in capitivity. 1 have ijeen able to n?.e just 
iufficieiiL ether to Hi»aesthcti?x them for an inspection uiirlev the 
microscope and to enable ihem to revive later. When insrctieides 
are used, as in spraying these insects on (he walls of rooms, they 
Kltop imin«liately hnf. are not np.ccssarity dead — they may h^ only 



J Raff, Xott's on Sihcr-jis!t. 115 

temporarily overcome I)y the vapour, and tliey should he gathered 
up immediately and Inirned or destroyed in some wa\'. 

Protosoa)! Parasite 

Silver-fish, toi^elher with many other insects, are known to har- 
bour Protozoan parasites in the food canah If the alimentarv 
canal of Ctcnolcpisnia lincafa be withdrawn from the hodv an<l 
examined with a hand lens, minute rounded structures can Ijc 
infesting the saccuH of the mid-intestine. These appear to lie 
Grcgarinc parasites of the grotip of Protozoa known as Sporacou. 
They are probalily quite harmless to the host. 


Forty-two members took part in the excursion to the Xational Herbarium 
on Saturday afternoon, July 15. The members were welcomed by the leader, 
who. after general remarks on the history of the institution, (juoted some 
statistics showing the additions tu the Austrah"an fltira since Bentham's 
publication of the Flora Austnilicusis. in 1879. The Australian collection 
was then dealt with, and some notable specimens in this portion of the 
Herbarium were viewed, including a set of some oi the first plants collected 
in Australia, in 1770, by Banks and Solandcr and others by Robert Brown, 
during the years 180J-5; also the late Mr. 11. B. Williamson's collection 
of Australian plants donated to the Herbarium. A collection of plants from 
Petiver's Herbarium, gathered in India and Xorth .America, more than 
200 years ago, was also displayed. 

Some attention was devoted to the library and the members were greatly 
interested in the pre-Linnean works, of which the Herbarium possesses a 
\ery complete and valuable series. The total number of books in the library 
exceeds 12.000. :\bont 20() additional volumes have been added recently, 
and progress has been made in overtaking the arrears of binding : altogetber 
about 300 volumes were bound during the past year. 

The extra- Au'^tralian collection was next visited, and the system of 
arranging the collection of (jver 1,000,000 sheets of specimens was explained. 
In this i)ortion of the l)uilding many books of historic interest are kept, sucb 
as CBrunfet's Herbarium Icoucs (1532). Fuch's llish>ria Slirpiinn (1542). 
Dodonaeus ( 1569), (brew's .-InaUuity of Plants { 1082). and Dampier'? 
i'oya(/c to Xczi' Holland (l009). as well as a very large collection of at] 
classes of works dealing with botany and its many salient features. 



Myo/^ontm Mafycarpuni R.Br.. "Sugarwood", is a small tree wliicli gmws 
in tbe Mallee and Winimera. where it is often wrongly called "Sandalwood" 
or "Dogwood." The saccharine exudation (tf tbis tree i^ dirty white in cokmr 
and was eagerly sought after by the blacks, wbo used it for manv purposes. 

Keeent researcli has shown it to contain a high percentage of the valuable 
constituent mannite (mannitol), which is being used in luirope for tbe treat- 
ment ui diabetes and other diseases. Tt is excellent in industry fijr certain 
torms of fermentation. Several inquiries regarding tbe iilant have been 
received from, overseas. 

The writer, F. P. Morri- X'atioird Herbarinni. woiild be ])lea>ed to know 
if large areas still remain in the Mallee, Winimera. or in Xew South \Vales 
and South Australia. 


Pkscott. rhi Orchid Hunter's Paradise. 

rVict. Nat. 
L Vol. L. 

By Edward E. Pkscott, P^.L.S. 

The house stands on a low sandy rid^e, only a few feet aljove 
the level of the flats that stretch a few miles across from Corner 
Inlet to the hills at the hack. Perhaps the low ridj^e is one of the 

Photo, by W. H. NichoUs. i 

The "Broad-lip F^ird" Orchid. Chilo<ilottis trapczijonuc Fitz. 

verv old seashore sandhills that formed when the sea was receding. 
ThL*re are ])ine trees around and near the house, as well as many 
old f^um trees. Hedley is a district of South Gippsland (X'ictoria). 
and lies to the north of Wilson's Promontory. (Xir first find is 
within a stone's throw of the door, where under the pines them- 
selves are great patches of the Nodding Greenhood, Ptcrostylis 
nutans, daintv in their pale translucent green colouring. Earlier 
in the vear. and under the same pines were many flowers of the 



] PeSCOTT. .-in Orchid Hunter' j; Puradlsc. 117 

purple-brown "J^roadlip Bird" Orchids. Chiloijlottis fnipcaifonnc. 
with their peculiar small tongues. At the base of the ridge we 
find (juite a nice dis})lay of the large tnngue orchid. Crypfostylis 
loiu/ifolia, with its duil crimson tongue, gn)wing in association 
with the small and wonderfully fragrant native hound's tongue. 
CyftOijlossttm suaz'colcus. 

But the greatest surprise awaits us when we cross the ridge. 
and get out into the stock jiaddock. where are a few c!um])s of low 
gum trees here and there, with much tussock grass and Lotus 
major in profusion. Here are dozens and dozens of ''s],)iders" ! 
But what are they? Cakulcuia Patcvsonia/ No! C. reticulata 
perha])s ; or are they C. clavigcraf They are standing uj) daintily 
everywhere. In the sjjace of a square chain we may gather several 
dozens (»f l)looms. But their structure is such as will amaze any 
botanist. They ought to be either the *'Cluh))ed" or the "Veined" 
Caladenia. but they are both, and neither, in one breath. Tliey 
have most remarkable kd)ella. Surely this is one of nature's joke>. 
One can scarcely find two flowers exactly alike. Here is a mar- 
vellous find for a species splitter. He would find enough new 
species to niake his name famous for ever, liut the varieties all 
run so closely together, and show such transitory forms, that, for 
the ])resent. they must be considered hybrids between the ivco 
si)ecies. \\'e suspect that tiie paddock has be^'n top-dressed with 
stii)crphosphate ! 

Over the road, less than half a mile away, in among the grass 
and heath, are the Common Spider Orchid, Caladenia I'otersoni, 
and many "hares*\ C Mensiesii. ([uite as popular as their friends 
in the previous paddock. Some blue Tlielyjiiitras stand up witli 
their faces open to the sun. making ;i striking contrast amongst 
the pink and white heaths. 

Xow we must mount our horses and go fin-ther aileld ; for here 
along the tracks, a few miles out. we see the unusurd ]Mn-i)lish- 
coloured "ducks." Caleyaiia major, so conspicuous tliat we readil\' 
see them as we gallop along in the fragrant si)ring air. Cahuieiiin 
Pafersoiii, Ptcrostylis nutans, Glossodia major, and others flash 
out as we pass cpiickly along. 

.\wa\' again we go for another ride — this time to wliere the 
red Correa, C. rubra, grows all along the track for miles, drop])ing 
its rich and gay red bells from its slender s])rays, in hundreds. 
Then we find l}eautiful patches of the rankly otlorous Borouia 
{inenioiiifolia. their pink stars covering the hushes with their loveli- 
ness. J fere again we find the Duck Orchids, the Sun Orchids, 
Spiders, and others in abundance. 

Satiated with our finds, we canter homewards; but we must sec 
the railvvav line. This is always a source of ])roliiic finds. And 
again we are not disa])i)ointed, f(.)r again the orchids crowd in 

m'OTt, .-/// Orchid Hunter's Paro'Jisi 

rVict. Nat. 
L Vol. L. 

Spiders. Sun ( )rchi(ls. and Greenhoods aj^ain arc ihcrc. in- 
cludin<j^ the Hairy 'J'uni^nic Grccnhood. /*. barbata. while the sweetlv 
fras^rant 1'awny J.cek Orchid. FrasophyUiim fiiscuui, with its 
I)r()wnish flowers, is growin^i; in large numhers. 

^^^^H^^Jr ,ir 


BBf ▼ iii 



Pi '^ 

1 % 





Photu. by W. H. Nicholls. 

Tlie "Lizard" Orchid. Biirnrtlin at lira ta i.indl. 

Xext dav we take a trip u]) into the hills, only a couple of 
miles awav. ( )n our wa\'. in little paddock nooks, again manv 
of our friends of vesterday ajjpear. We hear that in the hills wi^ 
shall see that charming e])iphyte. S'arcocliilus parviflonts, and we 
are not disappointeth For. growing <ni the trees and in the scruh 
we see ver\' man\' plants, from small seedHngs to large flowery 
])lants. Most of the plants are all quite low down, many of them 
a couple of feet from the ground, surely an evidence of the 
;il)sence of human vandals. I'he owner says that this gull\- shall 
he a close preserve so long as he lives. 

He shows with i)ri(Ie where a log has fallen over a shallow 

gully. <inH growing m tlie log is a woiicleriul colony of the Clom- 
mon Bird Orchid. Clulogloitis Cwnm, liundrecU ol (lowers 
crowded togethpr in a lieautiful cjirppi of brown and green. 

Atid this ia noL by any means \hc full lalc u( iht.s heaimfuJ 
Gippblaad coumry. The rare snudl Hchrict Orchid, Coyysfyiityfiy.< 
lifiqulfuhtn^ is found, ;is wfll n^. other ht^lnietK. Onr fnendi caH 
thtf'-'.e quet^r litlle clup>:. "pelicau*;." Ijktiwtse we find patidics oli 
dte Yellovv-tongued Cahdcnia, which may some day h^. ^w^n ti 
name of ics own, but is now known as variety c%fnti>Uka of 
C t'ornm. 

F3ut pcrliapa, amuug all of iht* nook.s whcrt^ uTchi<is arc found 
at Hi^dlcy, the most favoured vuid beautiiul spot is iiiifuetria 
gulh". Here, rimong the patches r>f MrlaJcuca squ-arro^SQ-, its 
favourite home, hirge palchcs of thti "Lizard" Orchid, BuniettM. 
ni;iy be fcamd. Their queer brown red lizurd like hud.s, nijenii:^ 
only in the sian. and rhen lor n ver}' short peiind attract our 
aaeniiori and deoKind ndrniranon, 

Mttig<!ther nearly one huudrcd speeicjrt niiiy hi* ecillected throut^h^ 
ouf ihf year, within a few miles of the Hediey home 



ijy C Fkea'ch, Government iiiologiM. 

No. S **'Jhe Wattle Goat Mtitlv'. Zcnccm vucatypn Coisci. 

Til its n,*iMvc stare rhc lnrvn <if this hne moth tccdt, in the Lvin^hs 
iiid h links of Wiiilles, pnrtitulrirly the UlrKk Wattle (Atuch 
ifffitrrens). the Coastal Wattle ( 4rocuT fostgifolui}, anrl other 
•sj-icciea. It hiis iately Iiecn found in peach, a]»ricot, uud plum 

Tlic inotliS deposit then* et*^s, mostly in crevices oi du- bark. 
When h:it«:hcd chc young larvae CJOtjimirncc lo feed and work 
downwards" into the Tree :irtaeked, <:nLr^',in.^ [h<i cylindrieal tLtniuH 
a& they j^rovv. earini^ their way downwards after reaching rhe roots. 
The youny larvae arc pinkish, and when fidly grown turn ci yellow. 
ifh colour. The larva is noticeable by the verv singular shield-like 
honj plate on die bsck of rhe htad. When f idly grown- it mea.s'jri*i 
rimr iriehti lu five inches in len^i^th. When about to change- iiUo 
ihe pupa state it Jrjrms a 'jHghl eyliudri\:al cocoon, from four inchei 
to 3 soot long, ol sdk wich sawdu^^dike _^'r;iiu.s oi wood ;is a lining 
CO The l.turrow. TJje oaievpillars frequently retnain in the vvood 
fm Iwn, nr even ih.rce, ycar5. 

The moth5, on emerging, often arc destroyed by hT^ict/teurin*^ 
birdjv and ant;i. so ihar the^e mofh.s iire. not liV;t-ly ever to become. 
a srrions pest in the otvhard- The birvae arc very highlv pii/ed 
for bin"i foi' fi^Iuni^, whifc tftey alsu* formed a favourite food 
for the abongmcs. Wlien proprrly eoukcd, they are rrjjuted f)y 
bushmen to liuvc a most delicious, flavour. , 

120 SrAtH. Po^sil fm»a aj the CU-chny DistrkU [ v«] W 

By Lro W. Stacm 

(U) Hie Bihis^ nl Campbell's Point, Lake Connewanc. 

Campbell's Point jutrt out fr^im the wtxte.rn ^kle of ^he Big 
r.-akc as a proinineiit liea<Uanc! with st<*ep slope-? lo the shoie line. 
Tlip marts in whidi the fossils arc tounci lie at the base of the 
point and extend iiloi^g its north shore for iome chains, approxi- 
iJiatcly eight feet above high-waler mark 

Uurinjsj a week-etKl at Lake Connewarve wilti Mr. Alan Coiilsan. 
IVI.Sc., who showed inc the position ot the fo.ssihfcruus he<3s- a 
fairly rtpipscfirative c(?lkctiun was made. Mr. Cnulsrm has t^inix 
turwarded me further material, and, with \\it addition oi ihLs. 
<•> fairly compreht-tisive la'ina has been listed. The fossils ave 
preserved as casts and moulds (usya)ly dt5torte<3) jo the hardened 
indurated portions of tlie marl and ii?i white eaithy tilms in th*: 
ordinary marl. Well-preserved. weathered-otU specimens are also 
iound lynig on the surlafe ?oil. 

Washings made {roin iIjc marl for Bryoztia wcnc vtry dis- 
appointing- Cyclobtoniatous types were numerically predominant, 
jirobably because th?ir compact structure was better able to re.^i^t 
ailack than rhe Ch^ilostomatous xoavia, which are unmially in 
much grtater abuadautc than ihc iormer. 

A list o i ^0Si>iLs t rom CainpfwEll's Point was pubUshed by 
iVlulfiei (I), but there is considerable uncertai^nty as lo mauy of 
the localities qtioted by him. 

The following fossils were found during our visils: — 
Atithozoa : PlaccHrcfhiis dongu-tus Dnncan, P. deitoidn^s 


r?ryo;'oa' Ccllaria contif/ua iVI^ac^illi^Tay, C i/ divariaita 

Rusk, Ni-:llia ocuUUa \^\i9k. S^lcfuvin t\uirginaia T-Wixyds. 

Mevibrc-ndoeciH-m dc.prcssa MacG-. Colcschnra dcnUcnMo 

MacG . Adeoncilopsis obliqit-a MacG., Jdnuntea- hocJistcHerl^ 

am Stohczka. I. aikintica E. Forbes. Hoincra f^'rommaiS' 

MacG., fisitoioplurra nuxtroiis Bu^k, E. punctata MacG.. 

Crmn mdcrositymn MacG. 

Braeinopoda ' MagelUinia ganbaldinnn ( ).)nvii-ls(m). 

Pclccypoda : Spoiulvh^^ psvudorddula VlcCoy, Lima l?(issu 

T Wonds, L. linyuliforfHin Tate, Limatula jcfjrcysiana Tate. 

Fec(en fonkkcri T-VVoods. Barbtilia ielUrporavca Tale, Plagt- 

arca fauu^zoica Tat^e, Cncuihuut coriocnsls xVlcCoy, C/y t iwtcrt.i 

gunyoituff'tuisls Chapm. and Smgl., Limopns rkapMumi Sin<jle- 

ton, L. nuu'covi Chapm. ^ Nucuhinn va^gnns J ate, ( hamcT 

- lamdiift:ra T-Woods, Dosinia dcnsUincaJa Frhchard. Cotbida 

ephomilia Tate. Myochama trope sia Pritchard. 
Scaphopoda* Dentaluun aff ntanttlii Zitlel. 


j StACH, P<fssi! Ftiima of ihc G^clnng District. 121 

Gasteropoda; Svopfnmdcy ffniuis Harris, Umbracuhmi ausfrah 
Harris, Conu.\ dcnnonli Tate, C. cf. helerospha Tate, Argo' 
bHCcinum prattii T-Woocis, Cypraca Icptorhyncha McCoy. 
C rf. contusa McCoy, Trwia avcUanoUles McCoy, Centhimu 
aphelrs T-Woods, Cerithium .v/'. no-v,?, Turntella acrkttfn 
Tate, Crepidida •uncjmfonnis Lamarck, Eutrochus fontinalis 
Pntcbard, Montfortula occhisa Tate, Siiiquaria occhiso. 

PterojDoda: Vaginsllii eligmoMonia late, 

Mac^illivray lias recorded CrLua nncu'rojitoma and Moym^ra 
prohUMms irom Muddy Creek (undoubtedly the lower beds) alorc 
and Idmonea hochstetwriana from Mornington. Mvuldy Creek, 
and Belmont, while EnUilophora punctata was recorded from 
Moiiun^ton. This tend*- to show a relarionship to the Muddy 
Creek (lower beds) fauna, but it mui>t be kept in mind ihat the 
ftryozoart fauna of the IVjrqnay beds has not yet been worked out 
in deta-il, and that these formi> niay perhaps occur tliere also. 

The majunty of the m\;I!usca aru common in most pre-Kahmiisn 
beds, but some ot the species recorded liere deserve consideration. 
Glychnens gtivyomujrnsh is very commor* at thii; locahiy, fairly 
iXirrmion at Clifton Bank (Muddy Crec*k) and Mornington. but 
rare at Torquay. Centhium aphclcs occurs at CJifton Bank. Shel-- 
ford, and Mornington. Scaphamlt^r i^'mrh occurs at Clifton Bank. 
Sht^Uord, and the Mnrray River I.K^d.s. Lirtiopsis chcpiuani occurs 
at Torquay, Corio Bay be<ls and numerous otlier localities, but i« 
apparently not recorded from Clifton Iknk. The Pteropod, 
ya{jincHa ctigmostonm, occurs at Clifton Bank, Mornington, and 
ir\ the Bala>mbiari o£ the Sorrento bore ironi 1310 to 1426 
feet (2). 

'ihis fauna is lacking in the distinctive Torquay corals an<! 
ntolhisca. ^^nd ihc famin appears most closely alUfd to diat o[ 
the lower htida at Muddy Creek, which are regarded by Chapman 
ati<] Crespin (3) as of Lower Miocene age. 

t Mulder, J, F.: Gcch^g Natmalixt. Vol. I. No. I (aa^icwid series), y. 11. 

2. Chapman. F.: l^cwnh ol Gcol. Svn: JVr., Vol V, P\. I, \y. 168 

3. Chauman, F.. and Crispin, 1.: Proc. /V.vv. Soc, t'ic. Vol. XLIV, Pt. 1, 
p. 92. 

Wuh the advent oi Wattle Day, it i*s hxjp^ti that wattle-blo&SKjni 
gatherers will remember that under the Wildflower Protection Act 
.\cycia-s are protected. The proviaion of blooms for decoration or 
sale induces sometimes among thoughtless or ignorant per^^ons a 
iorgetiubess of this fact, with a conf>cqMcnt deva^^tation oi wattle 

i2it Uaukktt. The Great Bomr-lnrti. CvIllT 

By CuAKLES Bakuett 

Among tl»e many hcnutiful avid interesting: bifcU observed ilurmg 
my recent witmlering'^ in the Northern Territory was the 
Great Hower-hircl (Chlfjuiyutvi-^i juuMis) Three bowers were 
discovered, but m each case: the owncrit were absent, and I inncle 
cidsc acr4uaintance with the howcr-biuldcrs of tropical norrhcrii 
Aiistrahii in ;i D:itwiti gartl^n and at a wayside "camp," when 
my wife ;md i Wire niotorm^ from Bir<[um to M<nvi-aiitle Waters. 

Every rnarning. whdc we were at Darwin, in July, &t*v«:ral (ii"eaL 
Bower-birds vi.sitcd tvccs in a nature-iovcr*s gardcti. wlKre I was 
ftee to loaiii. Others wer<? ubscrvcd in ncighbounrif; gardens and 
trees growing alotij> Ihe eil^c uf the rocky sea-etiflfs. 

Apparently C. nitchnif-s is a commuo species in the Darwin 
disLrict, and within a few niilev of the town its bctwers ^lavc been 
found, rhere is plenty oi lorest and stnib-land ;iroiind Darwin, 
and the very few local obscrverB need not go far to enjoy duliiiht- 
M hour;^ among birds. Five nitnutes' walV from the hotel 1 noted 
nearly ;t .score q[ species, meliK.iin^^ iht^ Rcd-rollarrd Lorikeet 
iTrkhofjIossus ruhiitorquis) and the Red-wiug:ed^ Parrot {Apros- 
mmiHS erytkroptents), both being numerous. They were feeding 
in trees on the edge of the cHfT -jungle, where Yellow Fig-hirds 
(Sphccothcres flmnrdentris) were noisy aiui greefiy m the gvcM 
l^anyans. whose shade was agieam with shade-loving butterflies' 

My wife townd the first howcr; at the Daly River. It was built 
near a gum tree anfl sheltereil by prickly buslvjs. not in an isolated 
patch of scrub, but in Cuirly open forest, where Cnxun^inty trcc5 
predoniinaled. wuh a bamboo- trmged creek — dry at this s<ason — 
■near by. We cstimaled the Itnwer to Ik* a little over two icet in 
Jength and aboui eighteen auclics in wnlth, llic height ;it si-xtecn 
inches. It was neatly and strongly constructed, with beauliiully 
arched walls. Tlic decoralion^- inchuled stores of bleached shcHs 
of a land snail, very common in the Daly River jimgles, bleached 
bones ot a walhby. which iilx-innds vn ihe hush. :t lew purple 
bt'rries, jncces ot white stone, etc. 

Another bower we had heard of l^ctore ttie hoincward journey 
from Darwin began. It wa^ easily foujid froiri verbal directions, 
being within two yards of the ovcrlarad track along the telegraph 
bnc. between Fine Creek and Rirdum. Here the t^nail shells 
were very numerous, and heaped at eillier end of the bower. Bones 
were (cw . the birds liad a strong iancy for shells, and had col- 
lcctc<l them infUistriously. 

Our third bower xdso was visible from a track — the track lo 
Koolpinyah station, Hon>e thirty miles iuuth-easi of Darwin. A 

THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. l September, 1933 


Phoio by t. . Barrett. 

Bower of the Great Bower-Bird 


] f!llAl'MAtC, ^ftisivirs ht fft,' B^tifdilijj />}' CoUif'i;>c,tw^tottif- 1^3 

hfiwcr. we were \o\d, which cvisicd af Hie ?pot )oi' several vecira^ 
WAS destroyed by fire, 'i'lie unc we Saw was biiitt near the ruiHS- 
Protected liy flie iiiink of a fallen tree, uphehl by its liranchcs a 
few lee; above ihe t^iruunct. ihc bower -wa.^- riirvhor sbelicrcd bv 
slragyling l.iUohcs. and [jrovcd a UiAlciill subjeci ior ihc camera- 

Whcn \vc were bailing tbe billy near a bore on Ihr. riiiul from 
Birdum lo IJaly Waters, Bower biirlfl soon disec/vec'ecl ihat the 
iiewconicr5 were worib ;ittcution, or, rather, thai tlicir tncker- 
box i>n>iluccd Uiings good for Ijirds to e-at. The bird^ were drink- 
ing at ihe nvertlaw fruni ihc troughs when we arrived^ or Feeding 
in tht tree^ aroimd the br)rc. Pieces of aike and ham sandwtcli^ 
tossed on the ground, birftd birds of several kindb, but none intor- 
e.sted us so much as the Great Bower-hircls. \vhu:li were the most 
trusifiii or venturt'some oi ^H. One flew in within a do?en feei 
of riK', snapi^ed up a piece of ham, and *ltw off to eat it, o^\.y to 
be hack a^ain for more a few minntes later 

We lingrtecl over lunch thai dav. One v^r^\y has a chance to 
simre a mea.1 witli such di^ilm.i^iiislicd easual visitors as Great 

My K- Chapman, A.L.S, 

Anslraliau geologists will be ple;ise4l to know ibat ihe viuWs 
tJifg*ir<lin^ the siice^ssion oi; events; in the AiisrralLTU Penno-Car- 
hnniferou? sysccm, expressed by our doyen of An^traViaii .t'efilo- 
gists, ISir F-dgeworcli DjivkI, in coujuncfior. with Mr Su^yinikh. 
have Ix^en accepted Iiy iK) leSvS an authorny than Sir Tlios. Hoilnnc^, 
furiiicrlv Director of the Geologiea? Survey ot India -Xs 
President ot the Gco^ogicut Society of London, Sir Thos. Holland 
snniHiav'^eN llie latest evidence ?.s to the period uf the giaciaTJon 
of Gundwaaa-laitd as n whole, and shows how tbe lo.e:ic;il plecfng; 
rf»«fether oi the Aiisrr,a<ian 5ticce-SvSion, by David am] Siissmilch. is 
the inevitable eoivlus?on, D'>mpared with thai of j-'rofcssor 
Schnchert, who jjlucei; the gJacial horizons much higlier. 

Gnndwaoa-land. ab |2^eolni;itsts Icnovv ir. wn.s an ok\ land-surface 
flccumulatioii of shalt> aT»d sandslonci;, .snmclimL^ nowded wJt^> 
the letjves of the extinct fern-like seed -bearing' plynio, Ciossop 
tens (lit. tongne-fern), together with tht- a]lie<l (ioncfainopicris 
and ai* occasional Psyymopkythtm leut. These depositn an; some- 
times intercalated witJi sandstone'"^ and sbaly Jiniesiones with a 
shallow niaritie faciei of lainp-Nhelts and polv/.oa. "J'he I'ouua- 
boii of this gaierally continental phase took place fruia upiicr 
CarbOuilcruiL?. io pern-nan times, probably some 50.00!).()()0 or more 
years a^jo. What rcmuins ol ihig old e<intinent has .a Jvithet* 

J24 CnAVMA^i^ Episodes i;r the B{uiiiiHif *</ Co^uiivf'itifi'linsd, [ vV. J-. 

straggly configuracicsn. tor it stretched from Antarctica throitgb 
South Ame^ica^ South Africa atic! Australia, and up to India- 

One o( the main features ot the Gondwnna system is the. occur- 
rence oi ont or more glaciated boulder beds. In other countries 
this api>ears to he more or less basal, but in Australia the problem 
is to knovi^ whtch of these corresponds to similar htds elsewtujre, 
Dn 'l"oit*d investigations in Argentina show the glaciation to have 
t/iken place before the close of the carboitiierous, and this atrrecs 
with David and Sit.>smi]ch'> cnndusion ahont tite Ati-slralian 
occurrences, in New Soutli Wale.^, \Ve5lfirri Australia, Tasmania. 
Sotuh Anstralin, and Victoria, lu the latter State we have this 
bed iif lillitc with scratched boulders well exemplified in the 
Werribec Gorge section, near Bacchub Maish, and at Colcrainc* 
where some fine striated stones were lately [omi<l by Mi'x A.. Ot 

In the addrebs rclcrted to. Sir iTios- Holland concludes., so 
far a? the present evidence shews, that in India. Australia ;ifid 
South Africa the K^cicin! tillite datum-line in Ifvisc three region;? 
15 Talchir-Lochntvar-Dwyka. lu Australia, whilst tlie major 
or Lochinvar glaciation is in the upper carbomrerous (abovt the 
(op of !he Kuitun^ -series) the minor glaciation extended into 
the Lower and Middle Permian of the Kamilaroi system. 

David, T. W. n., ancf Silssmikh. C. A , 1931: ''Upper PAleozoic Glacianon 

ot AuMralia/' i^nil. 0>t>/. Scr, Amcr.. Vol XLH. pp.. 4H\-SZZ 
Du Toil, A. L., J920: "A. Gcolocrical G>otOarison of South America with 

South Al'rtra." The Carnegie JnsdtiUe of Washington. 
Holtnnd, T. H., I93.V The Annual Af^H^e?5; o', ihe l^r^sident. Qjiari. 

Jcffo'it] Gcohgicoi Soi'k'iy of Londoih, Vol. LXvKXtX, Pt. 2, on. TyiV- 

Sctnichcit. C, 10J8! Review of the late Paleoroic Fnnnatio«i anii Faunas, 

widi special reference to the Ice Age of Middlt; i'eriHiiui time. null. 

StJL'. (Unl. StH-. Amcr, Vol. XXXiX. pp. 769 S8(>. 

J. lu extension to the F^itkland Islands was. first rpcc'r<1e<l by ihc writer 
in Mtiurt'. as cViUcnccd- by thr: occurrence oi kerosene sh-tle. CUissnpU'fls 
was siil>senucrrtly recorded by Prufebstir HaJU.:. 

Thi$ year seems to be a favourable one for prrhfic animal life. 
This has been seen iti the multiplication of rcvbbu^, and the 
unexampled mcrease in hares. Now reports acc to hand of many 
kangaroos lo be seen, and at Bullarto reservoir reserve, near 
Daylesford, sve arc to'd. every evening huntlreds of wnmbar.? are 
on view. The wombat, from its nrxiturnal hahiK. can hold its 
own, btit this- statement, if not a Falstaffi:in one, wtll certainly 
create sitrprisc. 

On page t05 fif tlie August Nutui'oi'nt, for Tmi'sif^tei^is tctsma>icimft rffld 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL L — Ka 6 Oaober 3, 1933 . No. 598 


The ordinary meeting of ihe Chib was held at the Royal Society '$ 
H:ili cm Monday, Seplember IL 1933. at S p.tii, The Prt^-sicltiU, 
M-r. V. H. Mill'^r, presided over an t:.Ll en dance of about 120 mctn- 
bers and iriends. 


From the Royal Zoolog-ical Society of Mevv- South VVales, stat- 
ing that the matter of the destruction of bird lite by Itahans w^s 
b<i;ing inqnired into and that notices were being prepared ia Italian 
[or |>oitmg wliere these people work. 

From the Trustees of the Hobart Museum, for i^ppHca* 
tions for the Directorship. 

From the Gould Leag:ue of Bird Lovers, statMi(; that a Chil- 
■dr^irs Demonstration would he held in the Masonic Hall, Collius 
Street. MeibouinCj on the evening oi Bird Dayt Octobtn* 27, 1933. 

REPORTS OF excursions' 
Reports of excur^iions were as follows: — Frankston, Mr- V K. 
Miller; Sh^rbrooke, Mr- A. G. >-ioc-ke; Oakleigh, Mr. (J. JvJ. 


On a. show of hanrl* the lolltDwing were duly elected: — As an 

Otdinary member, Mr M R. McKeon; as Associate members, 
Miss M.' Mitchell and Malcotm McKeon. 


The following report was received from the Commit tec appointwl 
to inquire into the ero.sion of the Yarra btinkri at Jvanhoe: — 

'1 accompanied Mr. Kenyon and Mr. Hyam to viev/, with Mr. 
Hiinunet and ocliers, the eroded river bank^ at Ivanhoe to-day, 
Mr. Keiiyon enligbtvned i\% ^5) In causes, and ihe river I'jrOvid^.d 
the examples. T came away with the fcfling that the STUii>gjnii" 
which has l)een done has probably been useful in preventing exces- 
sive flooding of ihc floti*. and that it has defmitely been harmful 
in promoting erosion. If the owners of the flats object to the 
flooding, then the -**na|?ging is a boon, but the price of it may bt; 
the compIcTc los-. 'd their land." — Sgcl. R. H- Croll. 

Miss E. M. Hayncs s|)uke of ihe destruction oi protected wild 
ftowcrs, ai^d her remark.s were supported by Mr. A. J. TadgclL 
Mr. A. J. Swaby undertook ro have a notice relating lo the Wild 
Flower Act iuserled in the fidticalion J)epurhnen( (ja^ailCi 


"Hie subject for the evening was tlie ''A. J. Ounpbeir' lecture 
oil the Upper Y:irr.a. Thii was givon l>y Mr A. G. Qidipbcll 

A very fine series of slides showing- variom aKpecls of the river 
and its sconeiy, as well as some of Liiitorical interest. il]ubtrated 
this lecture. 

At ihc close ol the lecture a voie of Ihanks to Mr A, G. 
Oinphell was TiiovtN:! hy Mr. A- K- E. Mnttinglcy. This was 
seconded b^' Mr. Geci. Cogliill ami carried by acclamation. 


Mr. T.-S. Hart; SeeclHngs oi Celery-top Pine (Fhyllocladus), 
Ta^nirinia, showing clmni^e from narrow It^avcs oi the seedling 
to phylioclades of the mature tree; seedlinpjs^ ot Acacia armata 
Hhowin^j change from pinnate leaves to phyllude^; Bossiaca 
^rirtscarpa, Hmma irhpFrw-a, from VVe^t^''^ Au5-r.ralirj ; /Iciuia 
mitckellii, Mt-lakntca gibb<>sa, Krnnvd\Hi rubicnncfa. and Bo'^siocti 
hi*..ifoli(i , from near Bairnsdale ; Molncea Hramble (Rubns 7itolut'- 
i.afiiis), Irom Orho^it. 

Mr. V. If- Miller: Caladenia dcfonm.s, C. praccox. Acicmthus 
cau.daiii'S, A'/, nutans, Ht rurtO; Ft. nana^ 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel: A series of "Carrier Sliells'\ Xeitof^hora 
pulliduin Reeve, Js^pan ; X. ccdcnlafcrru Reeve, lloag Kuilg: A'. 
conrhy'tophora Koni,. VV Indies; X. corrugala Reeve, Honf^ 
Kong; X sahiriodes Rcevtj. North Quccnsrknid; X. vhcdUcrra-nea 
Tiheri, Coisiea; X coperafu Phil.. S- Africa, 

Mr. A.J. Tadgell ; Uncommon plants from KyneTon-Casrlemaine 
district, consisting oi : V'cllow form of Onion Grass {Romulm 
bi-dbuodium) ; Galiitw dlvdriccituin, new to Vi'*toria; Whitlow 
g"vass (Erophihi vidifaris) (Drohd vcrna) , 'Fivf-anthered Spnrrey 
{Spcnjulii pi^nkmdra) . Croni PiarL-onrt. Lcproipcrjiiunt tiiriaccum 
and /-. lacvlfjatuyn from Sanch-ingham. 

Mr. A. J. Swahy \arious plants, Haresloot Fern i^DavalHa 
py.v'uhla), Crab.^ and Limpets. 

Ml*. F. P. Morris- National Herbarium e.vhibit. Ajuga grandi- 
fiora Stapf, *'Large-flowere<1 Bugle", grows in Malk-e. VVimmern, 
Si'»mh Australia and the Riveriaa. 

Mr. Q\\}X2. Daley ; Fit teen ^pL<iui of Gurden-gruwn native 

Mr S. R. ivlitchcll ; Mineral^a from pL'^matite dyke^, com]>rJsirtg 
T.epidoiite (containing up to (> % Lithia). Muscovite, Microcline, 
W. Awst.. Albite, Topax (massive). Topaz changing to Daniauritc, 

Mr. F, S. Collivei-: A series of recent and fofsi! sponges, recent 
apecinicns from Victorian wnters. fossils, incliidinr; Prottyspo>i(jin 
obltrnga, LanLX'ficld; Trcfocalia pi'zko, FlixKlcrs; Eciomnia new- 
haryh Morningtoii. 

^*lj^ J MoRiiis,, Some Pfrforiiwi Gaxtmccac. f27 

B}' P. P. Moiaus, Naliojial Herbarium 

Most oi u> have ))een iiuercslcd m Siorkbills during some periw* 
oi our lives- Children often wet the spiral Iruiis ;iucl watch ihem 
coil ari<i urtcoil ; fp them rh^y are known as *C]t)ck.s'\ to the tanner 
as 'Xmwfoal" invl **Curiotwc^d", to ihc botanist, Grmnrmti <\u<i 
Etodtum. 1 hive recently played al "Clocks", and 1 was so inter- 
ested in the beliaviour of the fruits of these plants lliat I nwciC 
fiirfher study and enquiry. 

Tlie otost inreresting |>.irt of a biological study of ihcsc plants i^ 
thut relating lo their pollination. Most ^pene^ h;ive utilitarian 
lufis of haJrs at the bat^e of the ixtiilss. The large flowered >>lants 
are incapable of :^eir-pr>llinarion, ami depend ahno^t entirely n|:'On 
the j^otiil nfTiceh of winged rnsocis, cbiefly becs of difTeient kinds, 
which ate altracred by the abnnd^inoc o^ nectar giveu off by the 
prominent glands xi the bases cd M^e Kepals 'llie n^^rtar is pro- 
tected from indement weather by *he tiiTts of hairs, aud ustijilly 
fron} creeping inserts like ants, which cannot etiFectively bring 
about croirs-lcitiiiiation owitig lo the glandular hairs behi^' ren'orse. 
Ihns ntakmjr rhe path ot an ant lo the flower :« very difficult tjnc. 

DouU]c53 tiK 'acihly which some inrrodnoe*"! '^|X"?cir.s, sniii ;lfe 
Eroiinnn botrys, Long Stork.^^bllK ^'^lin a foothold in new countries 
LS 10 be explained by thcii ability lo sclf-ferljlizc, when they are 
juit vihilod by iiii appropriate insect. Still, there is sonie factor 
unsnlved in ihi> iriiroduced wee^l. It ts iipreading rapidly, ami 
most of the ^eed is fcrtde; pcrhiips a native insect, which fcrtiliiios 
native tjjecies, is helping to ^'fill the bill". 

In (rc-rcinium the ripened caq>els dry and contract in such a 
manner that the outside \s shortest, su that there io a tendency for 
titcir ends to bead oui wards; and, ultimately, after splittinj*^ alonjj 
thece-nrral column, rhty break away at the Ixise, and curve upwards 
with coni.iderable fence. The segments of the ovary have already 
bent rhumsehes at a sharp angle with the beak: the result of thw 
moveu'ient is to throtv the seed, or even the entire carpel to u 
ixmsidcrablc distance, aiid thus help in the propaga.iion of the 

Tbc conirivanoes for dissemination m Erodium are e>»en mote 
inreiesting ihan those of Gervanium The frnit is more ixjinted in 
Eruditinu 'Jhe api-ien^Jagci or av.iis consist in both ^cnerii almost 
cxclnsi^i'ly of mechanical (bast) fibres. Iii CtTJi/mm, those form- 
ing the outer pan contract to a t^Teater extent than those nearer 
the a.xis, a? rhe fruit ripens, so lh<it nliiniatcly ihc base of the awn 
curves outward io a radial ]jJanf.. In Erodium the car|*eis retnDin 
practically indehiscent, and are fnin. sharp-prnnred at ilic Ijasc. 
lilccr a Spear Gitiss. oradually tiulargmg u|>wards, and are covered 
]ic!ow with stiff hairs supported at the base by titm cells projecting 

'r Vfol. Mat 

from the epidermis of the ovary. Ihc outer fibres shorten in 
drying, the inner ones, for the lowhjr haU contract spirally, su 
that the r^pcufid carpel is not' only thrown elas-ticaUy k'rom the 
pliant, bnt the awn ultimately bccomeii coiled bti'low into a spiral 
column, frtjiii ihe top of wliich the upper half Iteiids away in a 
^•radiml curve. The awn is bearded below, on the iiuiur side, and 
when it at length bcconies twisteil, ^hii K'^ng. loose hair^ paint oiit- 
■wacdly in such a manner as to -^Li as a parachute favouring the 
hirther dispersjil of the t-rtut by the wind. 

My origiT'.al idea of ilhislration in this article wa.s io gnm the 
carpels to pajier and have them pholotinipbe^i. With much labour 
I iUick the coiled carpels one cvetiinp. ;iud next morning I found 
tlieni some distanire trom their orig^in?.] position. VVhcn moistened, 
the awns become straight, resimiing their coiled form again when 
allowed to dry. and repo^tin^* these changes with every alternation 
of moisture 3Lud dryness. A carpel collected xiNty-three ycnrs ago 
was still nctive. 

Suppositig die sharp itasal point o\ the carpel to be slightly 
caught in the soil, which readily happens eitlier as the t'ruil (alls 
or when it? nKwrments be^in. itb vviihdvawai is f.-mlcred JifficnU 
l)y ih.c siifT astending hy.irs with whit.:h the ^' ovary*' is clothed, so 
that the crowditij* of chc awn against stuJ)Me or stonr.s, tcmls 
to prer>s the t'ruit farther into tlie earth with every movement, 
whether the result of moistening r.»r drying oi the iuvn the prob- 
iibilicy of its Vk'itlulrawai, when oacc caught, is :>mall. ilms, when 
pastures are not grazed heavily, and secchnj? is not prevented, the 
plants mcrease rapidly. 

Wfien the fruit has been buried in damp soil (or a few i{<\y^. the 
-'iwn. 5Dfcens at the base, 'yo that a pull or knock, wbJcti otherwise 
nnght have withdrawn the fruit, nierely breaks the awn, thus 
removing, the only sourer of dnnyei to the Aclf-planted seed. 
Th»A .piviyision will also ho n<jtigc<3 in specie? n( SfiffUi Spear 

The tX'nlrivaTKCS in the fruif. therefore are of i\ dual nature, 
referring' 'not only, to it5 elastic removal from the |Xircnt plant, but 
its insertion in the soil. 

Our native anrl introduced species ot Erodiam !)elong to a 
botanical iiectiaTuwhic-U has a naked or smooth upper-half of the 
awa. Jn some'toreig^i species (Fig. 11) this appendage is mcieh 
cloTignted- and pH.m^o^:e with a double Series of long silken hairs. 
Thc sec<l of these ^peeies are thus carried far by the wind, while 
at length ihey are planted by the coiling or corkscrew process 
described, to^^cthcr with wind action ot the feather-like awn. 
This also occurs in Sl'il?a elt'fiar.lisi^iiiti, Feather Sl)ear Grass. 
This, gta^f. and .si>ccies of Krodnmi are io be I'outKl ^cowing in 
association on our dry plains, it is essential for the gioNvth of 
new plants that the seed shoukl be scattered at distances aprt on 

del. -| 

10 3S, J 

MoRKjti, Sotiur Victormn Get attuuiae. 


Victorian Gei'aniccae, 

dry soil. There would not be an a<lequate supply of niotstiirc for 
d inass ol sccdlhigs, if ihc seed was dropped at the foot ol Ibc 
|)cirtnt t>!.iut. 

GrRA>fiACKAf. (Fig. l-lO). 
Ttrit stamens afid imlhvTS. .Alviis btfil upwartfe t»r 

Tirched - GefantH7ti 

Five stamens ami atichers, alteniating with five flat 

scalc-lilre sterile filaments^ Awns spiral . . f.fodi<0n 
3lttTutvti> 10 (2-7 fertile). Calyx with a false spue; 

f- ^ sepals without glands. Petals unequal Peh/ffontunt 

i Geranium (Figs. O-H,)). . . 

(From Greek gt-ranos. a Crane). 

There are two native .species in (his Stale. .Ttey are hf^rhs with 
■ forked stems, often swollen at the nodes, with simple radiatcly- 
divided petioled and stipulate leaves; peduncles two-tlowcrc<l". 
sMmens 10, with anthers, maslly niiited at ihc base, ovai"\ deeply 
divided; ripened carpels dcHiiiCCiit u)i Lhe inner side, the :>ty!ar 
a[>pcndage finally arched, smooth ai^ the inner side; seed round- 
nhlong. The g^enns rontairs tiearly 160 species, almost confined to 
ienjperate regions. 

Gcrimimn pilosimt Forst. Cut leaf Qanesbill ( Kig. 6)" A 
very variaWe hairy perennial grawinf^ from 6 to KS inches or morc 
hij^b. It is g^ftnerally found in or near forest- ai'cas throughout 
Victoria. lis flowers vary from pink to wlittc. 

It has slight fodder value, whilf the swollen root was eaten by 
. the Macks, who found it nutritious 

Gevaniiivi sfssiliflnnmi Cav., Mouiilaiti Cranesbill (Fig. 7): 
This small Alpine plant grows in tutts to a height of ahorU 6 
inches. It differs from the former in bein^^ a snialler plant. %he 
leaves not so deeply divided^ ^oklen-fawn coloured, the flowei"s 
often single on short, hairy stalks, 1l>c sepals being longer tapering 
and i>oiidcd. The petals arc red or white, whilst the seed is sinonth 
and black wlien matured. It would make a very pretty iirna- 
mcntal in a rock or alpine garden. It is confined to the hi*;!;Iifr 
nriountains of Nnrth-ea.stern Victoria. 

Ehomium (Figs. I, S and 11). 
(From Greek croHiox, Heron). 

-Leavi^s pinnate with distinct setjinenls 

Leaflets ovate ixiarscly toollied. Flowers 

I>ak-piirp»e. Fruit \l\ mcfu^y long .. E. vwsihatnm I 
I.eaHets de*fplypmnatifid, witS tocitJied lobes. 
Flowers reddish-purple. FruiT l-lt inches 
lofij; .. .. _ _- - -. .. V. '. ... .. a. cirtiitiniunt 2 

Leaves cordatc-ovat« in outline. 

leaves ktbed* deeyty tje^iertte*]. Flowers 

blue. Fruit 2-4 inches Ions ?i- Cy^/Hltrum 3 

Leaves slightly lobcd. not deeply segtiienitd 
. riov^XJ> hliiislvpiirple. Fruil 1-lf inchtis 
long .: _ n. rhhm' "4 

X:eav7s various. .7 

Dassl lrave=: 5tm{)lc, ovate, toothed, becoming- 
[ri:>cct and iMPOaiihcd tuward ihe top 
Frwll 3-j inches long. .. .. .. .. .. E,'hfftryr ^ 

1. HfOdiitm ihOHhatum VVilM Musk Erodium, a pn>- 
cmnbenr annual ov biennial often sfrongly sniellini^ o( unisk, 
Stcni> a (uol lonjc. with l^vcs pinnatip<**'^^^' ^^§n>snt5 with short 
pL-titjleS: ovute obtu&e, uncijually tooihcd and cut, hispidulous. 
Stipules broadly oyale, fi^my. Howcrs numerous ui the lunbcl. 
and larger lUau in E, cicntarium, although th« petals^aiti scai*eely 
lunger than the calyx. Peduncles odeii tS-S inrheN.long. 

This introduced pla-rU \^ ■vvid'.^ly disLriliuted throug'hnui VtCTODa 
and Mew South Wak>, and is tjeaerally abundant on ihc lighter 
soils and Ihroughout the wheat-growing areas. Such country is 
kiKiwn to fanners as "'crowfoot** '"ountry, as distin^cni.shed from 
•'trefoil'' country, which i* gt^n^rally heavit^r tnuntry, which sup- 
ports Mcdicago species and .annual Clovers. Mui>5< Er^diun\ is 
H fair fodder, and an excellent hce plant. 

2. Erodwm cicuikirmm L*Herii. Common: Storksbill. A 
sftraller |daiu fhan the former, usually annual, hut often forming 
a dci'ife ruft, with a thick taproot, and in some -^ituarion-s lasting 
ai lensc a second ye^r Ii is- very liaiiT. \vhich are sonietimes 
viscid I-<*ii\fSi mOirlv radical, ]:)n!n^jt'e. On long itiilks. (he ^eg"- 
mcucs <hstuKt and deeply pinaatifid, with narrow, more or less 
cut iobes. Peduncles erect, hearmg an umhel ot (roni 3-12 small 
rcd<!isli-pnrple flowers, Fnnt l-l-^ ntchCsS louip:. 

'JMiii introduced plant, like £, mo.'ii'hatxnn, is native to Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, and is known in America as Filaroe. Ft is a 
fair JoddcT, a first cli^ss l>cc-planc, and will withstand dner con<li- 
lion.s than Erodiunl. 

3. Brodimn cygi\orwn N^-cs. Blue Heronsbill or K^ue Stocks* 
bin. This plant is very v^iriabk in size. On poor ^oil it n^ay be 
lint a few inches In^h whilst on gorxl wheat land that has been 
(op-dres.sed it wall t^^row to a heighi of 5 feet. Jt grows very 
rapidly, itp period Oi^cnding from autumn to late spring The 
tnatnre growth is aftecred by heavy rainii. Owing- to the succu- 
lent narurc oy ds growth it falls prosfrate: its leaver fall off Tt 
is very nutritious, and all classes 01' stock fatten readily on it. A 
chemical analysis of tiie plant shows it 10 have a high fodder value. 
l^eaves oval-hear* :^hapcd, with three lobes which arc toothed, 
l^owers hlue. the pecals scarcely exceeding the calyx. Fruit 2*4 
inches lon^. This tiattvc- plant is spread tliroughotu the St/iTc, 
and is kitown also as Wild Geramum, Large or Native Crow- 

4. E. chi-mn Willd. Pale Erodium The only specimen that 
I have seen of this plant was found in the yard of the Dei^artment 
of Agriijidiure. Flinders Strrtst, Melltonme. Leaves differ froni 
the former in bcnig only slightly lobed. Fruit 1*1^ inches long. 

S. Erodium hott^ys Bcrtol. Lon^- Sturksbill. This iiitcre>t- 
mg iuhoductxl plant is spreiLcluig chioughout the wheat and sheep 
are^ns of north and norlh-eascern Victoria. It was first intioduced 
iitlo OU'i'enslancl and South AtJstrali;]. anrl was fir^t recorded as 
naturalised in Victoria in 1923- It? leavtjs f-how ^rcnr vaxiation. 
The basal ones arc cvalc-oblong with a few tooih^id IoIjcs. They 
chcn become trisect high up the stem and pinnatifid towards the 
summit. The stcnis are reddi&h and the hairs white. It is casilv 
rccognizetl by the long (rnil. whii-h variev frttm 3-5 inches long. 
The petals are much Icmgci" than the =ie]:"ol? ; Flower* purple. 
It is a \vc?ed introduced trom iJ.uropc with ver> shgin fodder 

Pelnrgomum. This genuf^ contains ahout ISO species almost 
entirely cotirtnec) to South Africa. The Get'aniMns ot our gavdeiis 
are really ?;pcdc:^ of I^etarijonium-, of which many varieties and 
hybritis were prociucetl, and were very fashionable last century. 
Fashion wili again favour these beautiful Cape flowers. 

Flt.nvcr:^, with fevv cxccjHions. distinctly one-sided; the upper- 
most segment of the calyx is connected at its ha>e with a special 
dcvelopnicnt in the form oi a nectariferous lube. The petals 
Uioslly unequab thti two upper ones being guneially Urti^r. the 
nrmber sometimes reduced to tour or even two. There arc 10 
stamcus, but some arc always infertile, and are tluiN reduced to 
5-7 fertile ones. There are three native species. P. Rodncyamim 
Lmdl r^osy StorksbilK Perennial, 3-12 incbrs high, with red 
petals and crims<Mr veins. P. ansh-ale Wilkl. Austral Storksbill. 
Perennial, V-S ft. liigh. Flowers white with pink or red veins. 
P. 'tHodorum Willd. Kopata. Slender annual, tlowers white or 
pink with pink veins. 

ERGDIUNf (Figs. 1-5 And 1J>. 

T, B. Hi(fSt:k<i-him., leaf- (a) Another type of Iciiflct. (b) Carpel;: ready 
for ciisporsul. (c-d) Coi)ed and uiico:I«l cirpelrt (method or penetration 
of frudlei), 

2. H. cygnoKimi, !ia( t>-pcs. (a) Carpel. 

3. 11. bnhif.';, leaf lypea. (h'l ''Fruit" wliich dt^idea mla 5 cAipelt. 

4. ft. cictitarhtm. leaf, (a) Diapeisal ot cirpelr. (b^ Twisting iis H 

3. /■:. chiiim. '.maU leaf. 

GBRANIUM (Fig^. ft- 10), 
G. G. Hlo^utn. Icai type.*i. (a) Calyx, (b^ **lVuit.** 
7. C. scssUiflofitm. leaf, (a) *Tniit" shoiving splitting ant! arclnng ot' 

B. Gcraniuni "fruit showing Aplittin^f and arching (xxon spirall and throvv- 

ioq: se-^d. 
9. Seed. 
10 Gi-ranluin flower, sliowing* 10 slamcns with ID aiilhers. Er<Kliwm ha^ 

5 stamens with 5 anthers. 
II. Plumo:ic or leather carpel. This section does n*>f occur in Au^b1j;i. 

The fcattiery stppe^idAge is an extra help for pcriciratioii by wind. 
A carpel is comprised of awn and truitlet which contaitis one seed. 

rHH VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. l October, 1933 


Red Seaweed., Asparagopsis uriHdta 

Ont. n 

Lt'cM. >1m Amt^lan Sea Kover, Ife 

By A. II. S. L-^CAS, MA.. D.Sc 

2'^tly <5f oar Australian land plants liavc been of piirpost' con- 

vi53'ed Tiy "Kunian agency to disUnil regions of the world, whi^n^ 
iliey have- flourished evreecHngly. ai'.d comiiienccd a oew life full 
of zcstaiKl i^roniist. Eiicxilypt? of our:^ adorn Che streets oi" iitauv 
Konh and SoulIi Ameiioin cities, an.i arr Innk^d co re* yittJ tirrilicr 
?ri lilt: future. Much Cahfornmn Koncy is: drawn from Australian 
gum ticcs. And iliev are grown as objects of beaiily in the coui>- 
trie« of i^outhcrn Europe and North and South Afnca. Tivt 
v/atiles, too, are favourites in North Italy as well os in Ausiralia, 
the long-tasselled Acaa^i lonrjifolu^ \n-ov\ng to he tlie hardiest and 
often employed as a stocl^ for olher species. 

Ne.irer home, Mr. Max Nicholls h busy pliinthig out seedling.* 
ui Eui.alyptns fjlobulus in localirios of Lord Howe Island whiclr 
ut:e untenanted by paliiT^. wi'.h the objec; oC providing a future 
.snp]ily of firewood, which ia btcouling 5Ca.rcCj and uicidenially of 
coiH^i'ving rhe indit^'encms and picturesque crcs=;ii of the lolauel. 
Afi;y:'na. too. J am informed hy Mr. Fred Tniner. is asking for 
information on the native grasses, and other (or^gie plants of our 
drv hinierland, rhinkjn.!^ to stock piirts of tht; arid plains of that 
Slat<.*- und 50 make vahiable lands out of the desert. 

Ail ihc5e land plants Iravc liccni conveyed ou board sliip a$ 
acorf^ditt'd passengers or iTci^hl, hut om lateM Ausirahau migrant 
V^% \A^ its own iniri;:itive, and unnoticed by tlie shipping compamcs. 
travelled iis an ont^^ide p;issr*.ni^«»r ;jcro??* rhe orejin*^ ami gained a 
firm hold on the coasts and shallow sea floors oi" Weslrn^ and 
Southern Franee and North Africa. Ii js au elegant and delicate 
Red Seaweed, by txame Aspatii^jopsis armota 'i\yft generic name 
in given becjuso of the resemblance oi tl^e. i;Taceiul sprays to sniaH 
.%hoo1s of Aiparaj^iis, und the .speciJlc because some ol the branchti" 
hf:ar in iheir lower jiart curious colourless hranchle.ts, n\) to an 
inch long, which are armed on all sides with Knrlxs. those in the 
upper part of the br^nchlct sltarply reflex^d. Tlie^e barbed spears 
are no(, bowevfr, used as weapons for attack or defence, but serv-? 
to hook the branches to each other or to some otlier adjacent iil;^a 
or rock. And. as we ^dud) see. tlicy have proved to be of >tiprcme 
importanre in the disptrsLon of the plant. Dr. Harvey described 
it in IS54, aiui found that it occur.^ on west, south, and east coasts 
of Australia, and also in I'asmania and Mew Zcaiand. It tivideuily 
posses<i?s ample anean^ of dispersal, to have «tttained <>uch a wide 

From ilie begmnin^; of the nineteenth cenluiy^ nud even ht'f(ir<^. 
the shores of Western Europe have been coinhcd hy hi>ranisii and 
naturah-ss, and the 'dyae duly reeurdtd. Hnr it was not till ten 

I^ LucAs. An /it^iralioft Sua Roivr. L vci U- 

year^ agn tliat Asparagopits armcta was noted as maVing ir^ first 
ap^)car^i)cc in European water?. Dr. Nilb Svclelius. of UpSAla, 
has worked out the ilcvelopTnc-nt of fhe plant from purely feui'O- 
ppan material- He :^ent me Ins monc-grapli, aiuJ tci Ui^s I owe the 
details of i(i s*?Ulcmei^1 in th^se new lacalUies on the otJier .side bi 
the woiid. 

Professor Saiivjiijeaii was the first to fi.nrJ the pl;int on the Atlfin- 
tic oi Franct: av Giielharv (Basses Pyieriees) un June. S. 6, 
1925. ^ a itT<:cch oi cuasc uf about 1 kilonietre It grew en- 
taTigie<:l in ^ preen weed. Hnteromorpha. lit liad worked on the 
Banie stretch in April of (he same wirhrmr seeing the pUint, 
And the 5ame locahty had btcii viiUcd for the eollecfion of ali»af^ 
durijig- August and September, I92.f and from ApriS tt> S.cptcm- 
licr, 1924, v/ilhouc any Mgus oi Aspantgopsis appearing. Thus the 
date of the landing of the Australian alga at Guclhary is ahnost as 
well fixed a^ dxat of the Pilgrim Fathers at New Plymnuth. I.ater. 
1930, the plant has hctix observed a& far noriJi a$ Cherbourg ou 
the Channel, huviug^ spread from the south or come direct Efum 
Australia Certainly a raos-i enterprising or_^nism. 

Pioneer pfaiu:- hrsl appeared in the MediterraneaTi ot]. the coast 
oi. Algeria at Saint Eugene, where Te:>nicr gathered a few spcci- 
nipn;-^ rui April 20, 19^:^3. It became quickly naturalized, and 
Feldmann found it in abundance m 19.^1. at Chevcheli. :>omewhac 
west of Algiers. TheuCe it sceJiis to have crtysscd ilic Mt.diter- 
rane:ui en Che French coast, not tar from the Spani*^h border, 
where Hamel foimd a single plant in 1926. and in 1929 Kcldmann 
ai'aw it ui cNlramdinary masses formfuj:; ''veriiables prairies" on tbe 
bcftttim uf die b^rbcmr at Port Veudici. nol far ir<j!U BarK'uU. 

This fixtraoi"dinary power ot migration is due to the develop- 
ment oi the remarkable barbed hranchlets. 'The barbs are at first 
merely hooVs by which tht^ plant airaehes itself to adjoirnng 
objects. But, wben attached, tbe barbs grow into btrongly 
adiiesive disc^ wb_ich fix tlic whole branchlet. This now sends out 
vegetative shnots- and 3s easUy loosened frnni the motbe!" plant, 
and so Corms a new individuai attached to its new sntetratutiii. 
and may easily be detached by the waves, and remove<.l to *'(rcsh 
svoods atid pastures new". If the hooks reaeli suih giec-n :fca- 
wccds as Entcrvmorpha, which oftcti grow;> in masses on the hulls 
vi tihipi. and are carried fruni port to port, we can miflerstand 
how the plani:^ have found an opportunity for nndreamt'l-of 
voyages over the wide seas, for them voyages of adventure and 
discovery to-be coiiiparerl with those of Cook ur Cohimhus. 


NaUiratiU,^ Jtilv, 19J3, page 64 Kxiilrtiiatioii. o( plate. TJtt luttcrf A and 
F Have bwn' transposed. 

In the payer. "On Uie Great Ocean Koat3". August ^atumlisi, page' IfiSi 
Trnvsif^Urir. tcsmamnsis %hou\d read Tmcsiptaris taimaws. 



' Uy II. Fk'ay, 

A pair of Tagunn or Greater Flying: Phalancers, which lived lor 
three years in capiiviiy. 

J^ j I'ltiAY, The GjcqK't flyvnj Phdatii^^.^ 135- 

By Daviu Flf-4Yj B.Sc. 

Ar OnCe distinctive and unusual, chu largest u( Otir interesting 
glirlin^' maisiipjals i^ an cvuaorrlinary and 3iTe.Si.tJnj* sighr fr> atiyunef 
seeijiti it lor the first lime. With jts soft silky i\\Y, ustially of a 
dusky black eolour. its quaint 'possum fate su reiinnl!?*:unt ot the 
Ringtails (I'scnAnchirus) ;in<l its long, pendulous, cvctilv-busliy 
tail, Fcitniraidn.\ oolans is hideed one of the. outstanding inembfra 
"of the Thalangeiidic (or Phalanger Umily}. Kjiown also as the 
Greater or Ta^ian flying; Fhalan^cr. this animal is one of the 
nKM delicate amd difl'icidt nmrsuptab to observe under cautfve 

In t\q>ical specimens the white ventral area contrasts strongly 
with the blade of the dorsal snriare and tail. The large ears have 
ilieir backs thickly covered with fur, while the insides are naked, 
and tiicse coupled witl'i the bare piiik nose a4'Kl solemn eyes invest 
the animal with thai: sombre wisrfnl expression — so ofieri observed 
l^azing forth iiorn .sonic lolly hollow when the base of a dead 
tree is tapped with an axe. The ^encml colnur is nithev]'*»blp, 
ranging from a dnigyblack type through oiher<t vritL r^inoky-gniy 
fl;ink3 to creamy-white animal^. Oiie of these plial lingers- cup- 
lured in the ncrth-ettst of Vidoria had a general smoky-prey 
upper surface with quite a well-deHned black dorsal luie- The 
ventral surface also va.ries in normal animals from a cle^r whitp 
io H dusky grey, and one such phalangcr fell into my hands near 
Delegate (N.5.W.), when a Eenduc 'possum 1rap]>er had coti- 
ducted me many mile?, to a eucaly[)T (/{. yefjnijns)^ in which he 
b;^d observed an albino Tannan Phalangci =ome months previously. 
This striking creature Ivjd come forth night niter night from tlie. 
^atne limb and volplaned qvcr the trapper's camp. In the case -of 
.several dark animals captured m January (1D33) at Mitts Mitia 
it was noticed ihat Ihc bases of the hairs on the lower back and 
proximal luU of llu: tail were also white. 

In the Bcnduc kicaliry. where barbed wire .itrartds were run Jioi« 
ti-ee to tree to i^ence off areas of a few acres, it wji.^ tio unLummon 
thing to find suspended bodies of unfortunate Taguan Phalan^ers. 
Ihcse animaii; had caught iheir volplaning membranes on' ih?^ 
^harp barbs when SAvnopm.e low, and so liad died a miserable and 
liugering' deallr The njembranc itself, unlike tliat seen in the 
genus Fc-tiiurus (lesser ;md Yellow-bell t<:d Flymg Plialangcrs) 
does not extend from the outer digit of the manus to the ankle 
of the pes or lund loot It stretches frrmi Oic elbow of each 
fore-limb to the ankle, and so whilst in J»nd-air with the mun- 
hrkn^ outspread ihe animal tends to assiune more of a [na.n^'ulnr 
shape (with the anterior region as apex. Note Hlustration) than 

niembcrii iA the geiuis Petmtnts which have a broad irw^e, <^i 
pirrichntc membianc l>cginiung on (he fifih rligit of the fore limh. 

FtivOnrijig the tallest timber areas, and i^Lncrnlly inhabiting dead 
trees in the. i^iillic? ol tnountainous ouintry. ihe range oi Pvta- 
itroides tokins- t:xtcodi; d<jwn the highlaruls of llabtcrn Aiistialia 
iTY>m Soiithcra Oueensiand to Vkiiori;^- Further iioith in Queens^ 
hiTiil ;i srri;dltir sub-speeics rcprcscius (lie only oOk-v member of 
thi?^ very iiUerc'>tiTig gemis. la Victoria 1 liavc never observed 
the species lurthcr west than the Ballan-Da>1csford forest, thoutrh 
more western records may have been established. Howp.vt-r. ic 
tht; f^^M in {he extensive bush of Gippslancf, the. big block phub 
angers, together with the Ringtail and the Lesser Flymg Plu^laagcr, 
are nmong the most mnnerons of arboieal rniirsupials -Appar- 
ently the species never re^iched the suitable tnviicjiiment of rlie 
Otwiiv regions, though this is the home ot the more active and 
adaptable sniallcr flying phahi>gers iPeluunis brcvkeps) and the 
Pij;my Fhalan<^er {Acrobatcs py(m<i<eHs). 1 he dry home tree of 
the Tagjuati phalangor MSually has ihc ne^tini^f hollow high up in 
the tuuik. and ue^iasiunally the marsupials lake tt* a huk in a L;r<*en 
tree. One tcmale anmia! was taken from a "s[>tnrt" in January 
last at Callayhan's Creek whe!i a fint! big hUieg^uiri (£ glohiflus) 
Whs (elled. 

It appears that though nests ot stripped bark or leaves aic built 
in these daylight retreats the black phabngers do not invariably 
^dd 10 ihe corofort of a snug Ii4?llow in sutb a (ashion. In the 
scores o( "home trees" which [ have taken part m telhng. few 
nests liavc hcen discovered, but live of the animals which <ire 
hving m captivity at the present linie have constructed a nesl of 
le^if <pfays at the end of their daytigbt reUeal — a h\r^*^e. hollow, 
rcd-sil"l log. I'lmnj^^h tbc anim:ds liaiJ inhabited llie hollow for 
three Humihs tfus was not huilt until the leaves were placed ac the 
entrajjcc. Then the phalangers carried thetu in uikJ fovmcd llic 

It is Tntfrestla^ to observe that the aniniaJs do not thrive unless 
supplied with such a log or a box fitted up strtulnrly alter ihe style 
of a ■'fiomc iree" situated in a lotty position in a roomy enclosure. 
L-on^r sapling fK»k"S and stringy bark boughs arc also nutch afipr^- 
ciated in elevated rejfions. For st;!dom unless sick indeed — docs 
tfie Gre:*ter Flying Phalan;;:er descend to the flc^ir of a cage in 
eaptiviiy The ie<l gum log k» which my animals retire by day 
is ftttecl witli a sliding door at the closed end. so that on ibe rarv 
occa^ioui^ whexf ii is necessary to handle them tbc operation may 
be periormeO wUh a minimum ni disttirbanre tn tjie inm^-^teiSi 
Couhned quarters in which these "S(|uiriels" of bufih folk ai« 
pixvculed front wandering by night, with long tails hanging 
downwards, soon cause them to fret and fade away. 

Aupther source of trouble arises frotti a prevalence of Mtiles 



October. 1933 

rhiilo. I).v I). Ki<-:iy.. 

A dry tree in a gully at Upper Beaconsfield (.Vic. ■, inhabited by Greater Flying 
Phalangers. The surrounding Eucalypts are Manna Gums (£". vumnalis) 

^j-fg^ 3 Fleav. The Crvraicr riyin;! Phal(Vi,irr. }:u 

which arc ijencrallv found on the animals, ee^pecially ahout t!u* 
face. 'I'hesc parasites give particular annoyance by crawlinp^ 
round the rims ot the eyelids. Immediately an animal becomes at 
all unwell these wretched acarines rapidly increase in number and 
cnntribute'in no small measure, by means of irritation, to the dealh 
of the unfortunate host. Another outstandinjj: featiu'c of Pcfu- 
uroidcs is the peculiar musty smell of the animal, and it is not Inn.u 
before the quarters inhabited by several of the animals acttuire 
this distinctive, though not disa^^reeal)le. odour. 

The home trees standing in the bush are tisually betra\'ed liy 
the various degrees of shedding oi" the bark at a distance from the 
gnnmd where the well-develoi)ed claws have scored the surface 
in '*lan(Hng". ,\s mentioned previously one is tistially able to 
determine whether the inhabitants are at home or not. by striking 
resounding l>]ows on the butt of the trunk wn"th an axe. Soon a 
shaggy-eared head may gaze forth, followed by the total emerg- 
ence of one or two animals, blinding the tmpleasant vibration 
very nerve wracking they i>roceed to climl) upwards with a queer 
and characteristic galloping motion, bnally i^erching on the to]> 
most ])oint of the tree with long tails swaying in the wind. 
Further blows at this junctiUT usiialh cause the animals to bunch 
i\\) and leap fiMnh. where they gbile away <lown some well-known 
aerial track, hke large frying ])ans. to t!te safety of a trunk forty. 
sixty or even eighty yards away. Once again the curi(»tis deliber- 
ate galloj)ing climb is repeated into the higher regions. However 
when neighbouring green trees haA'e the extremities of upper 
l)ranches in contact with the home tree, the retreat is carried out 
without taking to the air. The marsupials move along the slender 
limbs until they feel secure in the haven of the upper foliage. 

The feeding habits of the species offer an interesting study, and 
this phalanger is a strict vegetarian faring on tlie tender, succu- 
lent, growing leaves of certain eucalyjns. and not sharing tlK- 
].)artly insectivorous habit of the genus Prfaurus. In fact, one of 
the chief difficulties in captivity (as in the case of the Koala) is 
the maintenance tjf an abinidant sup])ly of the tender leaves of 
accejjtable species of eucaly])ts. As in Ballarat. some years ago, 
and now in Melbourne. week-en<l trips are essential in order i<i 
obtain at least enough "tips" to pack two kerc^sene tins. M\- own 
animals stningly fav(air twc* species growing out towards tlie 
Dandenongs, the Lotig-lcaved I'ox (/:. rlnml^honi ) and the Com- 
mon Pe])])ermint (II. ausfraliaua }. ( )n]y the young tender leaves 
at the gr(twing ])oints are eaten, so that there is a large aniounl 
of wasie. The eucal}'i)t blossoms are also fav(mre<l, and though 
the foliage of such eucaly]ns as R. 7'iniiiialis — the manna gum i*- 
also taken, others are highly distastefub The almost cosniopobtan 
laste of the Common 'i*ossum and the "Ringtail" for voung succu- 
lent leaves is certainlv not shared bv Pcfauroidcs, 


Flkav, The Greater I'lyiiu/ Phafangcr 

L Vol. 


\\'aiKlerin^ in the hush on a stiU ni<^^ht. when the Tagiiau 
Phalangers are feedinj:^ overhead, rarely leads to their discovery 
without resort to intent listening. Perhaps the faint sound of a 
leaf heing pulled from a stalk hetrays the position to a searching 
torch heam, and then the hlazing orl)s of the animal (possihly the 
most hrilliant light reflectors among V'ictorian marsu])ials) regard 
the intruders with some curiosity. But it is scarcely sufficient to 
interrupt the meal, and soon the ])halanger puts forth a long fore- 
arm and pulls more leaves within reach. Frequently during noc- 
turnal ramhles ahout Callaghan's Creek, above Mitta Mitta (Vic), 
the animals were seen feeding down in the gullies where a narrow- 

Tlie Phalaiiger has just launched itself into space from the summit of 
a dead tree. Enlargement from a cinematograi)h film hy Mrs. D. Fleay. 

leaved form (tf peppermint was the popular attraction. Right at 
the extremities of the lofty boughs the phalangers fed long and 
contentedly on the strongly odorous leaves. 

Animals kept in confinement may be persuaded to acciuire an 
additional taste fr)r bread and milk spread with a sweet jam or 
honey, but this is only possiI)le as an adjunct to the diet of 
eucalvpt leaves. Melon and lemon jam is a firm favourite with 
the (ireater Flying Phalanger just as it is with numerous other 
marsujiials. hLach night my own animals appear soon after night- 
fall (their heads gaze forth from the log at dusk), and the ledge 



October, 1933 


Fleav. 77i(- Greater Flying PlniUnifier. 


on whicli the bread and milk is placed (fur like the leaves it nu^t 
he fixed in the u])per part of the enclosure) is visited early to 
taste the delicacies. 

The (jreater Flvinu' Phalan 


at home in the air and in the 

trees, is a ludicrous sight on the ground. Its progress is ex- 
tremely awkward and slow, and the main oljject is to find some- 
thing to climb. Occasionally, however, the animals do ap])ear to 
journey across open spaces risking destruction by the f<tx. and 
several observations support this fact. The fox. by the way 

aj^pears to account for 
odd Taguan Phaiangers 
even in the tall tnubcr. 
and during rambles at 
U p p e r Beaconsfield 
(\'ic.) half -eaten re- 
mains of victims were 
discovered. In each case 
the finely - masticated, 
highly odorous stomach 
contents had apparently 
prevented the killer from 
C()nii)leting the repast. In 
nt)rth-eastern \'ictoria a 
farm-house stands in an 
open valley between 
heavily forested hills, 
and one evening the 
family was distin-bed by 
a scuttling noise on the 
wireless pole outside. 
Noticing an animal on 
the to]) they imfortu- 
iiately brtiught it down with a shot gun. and there lay a (Greater 
Flying' Phalanger nearly a nule away from the nearest timber ! 

The late Mr. Tom Fisher, whit was in the habit of watching the 
nocturnal antics of these large gliding marsui)ials. said that one 
pair at Traralgon (\'.) journeved fairly fretiuently to an orchard 
quite half a mile awa\' from the bush. I'hree eucaly])ts stood at 
intervals on the down hill grade to the orch^ird. and along this 
line the phaiangers volplaned at night l)ut coming ])ack they could 
not glide, and sini])ly ran awkwardly over the ground. Air. Fisher 
also claimed that the animals did not always "land" on the Inut 
of a tree btit sometimes in the upper branches. Considering the 
interesting and efficient type of locomotion which has evolved 
in this t\'pe of marsu]iia] it is evident that a large area of l.n^h 
may Ik* co\-ered at night in search of suitable food trees with 
tender yoimg leaves, by Mrs. D. Fleay. 

The animal shooting" swiftly downwards 

prt^vious to "flattening' out" and planintv 

gently up to a tree trunk. 

140 Fi.KAA-. Till' Greater Flybnj Phnhn'/cr. j_ yoh L^ ' 

The startling call of Pctaiiroiiie.w heard so freciuently in the 
tall hush hy night, is also one of the most (Hstinctive peculiarities 
of the animal. The loud gurj^lini^ shriek rises sharply up the scale 
followed bv a series of bubbling sounds, and the call aj^i^cars to 
be uttered while the marsupials are moving aclivelx' and indulging 
in gliding '^flights." There is an extraordinary similarity between 
the call of Petaurus ait^'^fralis — the Yellow-bellied Phalanger — and 
that of Pctanroidcs. Strange to say. however, though members of 
the latter genus appear to accept captive conditions fairly ha])i3ily. 
I cannot recall ever having heard them utter a shriek in these 
circumstances. In the P>eaconsfield busli the animals are specially 
noisv in the winter months. (3ccasionally slow re])eated hissing 
calls are heard, and these are made without opening the mouth. 
Tliese noises are very similar to the hissing cries so common among 
many species of marsupials. When annoyed — particularly during 
daylight — in the "home" retreat, the male phalanger may raise its 
forearms in true ])ossum sparrin^g fasliion and strike at the 
intruder, uttering guttcral grunts the while. 

The breeding hal)its of the Taguan Phalanger in the various 
stages are similar to those of other members of the I'halangeridae 
with the exception that the development of the offspring is rather 
prolonged. ( )nlv two mammae are found in the pouch, and as in 
case of the genus Trichosurus (the Silver-grey and Short-eared 
Opossums) onlv one embrytj is reared at a time. In Victoria this 
minute naked creature seems to api)ear usually in July or Aitgust, 
and it is difficult to realize that such a mite, no larger than the 
head of a drawing-pin. may indulge some day in graceful aerial 
"flights." Gradually as the youngster increases in bulk, it is notcfl 
that the hml)s and tail are extraordinarily long, the loose vol- 
l)laning membrane from fore to hind limbs is plainly visible, and 
the colour of the furless embryo is pink with very dark ears. 

Xaturallv. all insj^ections of the pouch arc conducted under 
difficvdties. for the mother resents the handling, and there is also 
considerable danger cjf doing harm to the infant. The little fellow 
appears to become free of its early inseparable attachment to the 
mamma when some six weeks of age. This means that it is able 
to attach itself to the source of nourishment or relinquish it at will. 
Later the eyes open anc! a covering of short fur indicates more 
plainly than in the adult, the contrast between the l)lack and white 
of upper and lower surfaces respectiveh'. Four months from the 
lime of its birth it has l)ecome too bulky to be contained in the 
pouch any longer, thotigh just previous to this it spends the day- 
light hours outside the maternal shelter and is carried about in it 
as a large bulge by night. Between the time of growing fur and 
the forsaking (tf the mother's '^pocket nursery" the young Taguan 
Phalanger is one of the most curious and pathetic babes that ttne 
can imagine with its lanky legs, very long tail, and thin weedy 



I'ho;.,. I.y Mrs. D. Fleay 

Eemalc Taguan Phalanger captured in January, 1933, Mitta District (Vic). 
The seven weeks old '' Joey" was born in captivity. 

5y?J j fftJtfiV, Thi Greater Flying i^kGhrifjew J4I 

body. Having oiicgrown ihe pouch, thougli still being nourished 
from It. the little phal^ing^r cling-^ ro ir.s mother's back during ht-r 
iiochimal wunclering.s, thougil [>fihap5 the gliding kapi- arc uut 
of the question unless the youn^'Ster rcmiuiis in the home tree oc 
sleepmg hollow. 

One summer night, ivhile w^indering* through the bush wijh a 
local resident of OillHtrhan's Creek, I was pu<d2lcd by the reflection 
from the eyes of a small animal in the top o( a tall bkie gym. They 
wer«? still i« the same position when we relTuned an hour later. 
Next day, when the tree wns telle*.!, a female phalanj^er and ber 
"jv->ey'* (a]>parent(y between four u\\6 five months o^ age) were 
6?»rel'y eiipiured. Evidently it was the refiection of ihe little 
fdlow'3 c-yes which we had distinguished the night before wliile. 
tlic mother was aw*iy in another part of Hk* gully. From vhis (in-te 
on the v^i'ii^ p!ialan>^er becomes increasingly more vcnnu'csonie 
and indtpcnd(M\l: of ii.s parent, ihongh it may ^lay with the old one^^ 
until fully grown, tluis sliowmp; a Skinilaniy to the family ^rnni> 
of the "-sugar phaUingcr" {J^rtoi'yu.s ln\ivtfcps). 

T.ike rhat of numerous other member.'^; oE the PhaUngeridae, the 
call of a TagUHn "joey", if sqwraied from the mother m its earlier 
more helpless stiiges, is ;i sncce_=»sion of slow hivS.sin^ cries little 
different frnm those of the Lesser Flying Phalanger. Piymv Kly- 
inji Phalan^'cr. Common Uposstim. etc. At the linte of wTitrnj:^ the 
youn^ leniale phalun^^er, -.howu In the ilkistration as a b'ind and 
naked creature at the entrance to its mother s potich. h Over three 
monthn old and thxiAan^. It is >tiU in the pouch, but well covered 
with fur and vigorous in its movemenis. 

Throughout 1925-26-27, T had a pan* nf Taguan Phalangers 
from the Daylesford district in captivity, and during rhi? time 
they produced several young. Generally the single *'joey'" arrived 
in early Augniit, but 'strange to say. nouc of these offApring' pew 
to miuurity^ they died mystcrioxisly sh-jrtly after Icavini*' the 
pouch. Both these adult animals wore captured under latbcr 
cxciiing conditions. After they had hc^n driven nut of ibeir 
homes by axe blow5 on the trunk and chiLsei] to the thb) extremi- 
ties of lofty botigh^. Tepefied '^hoi^i frnm a .303 calibre rifle 
eventually cut through the limbs behind the point on which ihc 
quarry was perched, i he sudden snaj^ping under the wei.t;hl 
<auscd each phalanger to fall one after the other almost stmiijhl 
downwards, helplessly twirlmy like umbrellas in the air. F.'j-.t 
5j>rinting was necessary in order to secure the animals before thc3' 
reached the trunks of neJi^hbouring trees and escaped out of reach. 
The thnll of thus securing alive and tinharmed tliese nioi^-t allnic- 
tfve animals for the first time in our young live? was ^ jov whicii 
is still very vivid. 

In Hie wild state the Taguan Plulanger is found usually hving 
in pairs m the selected ffconie trees, though odd lone specimens are 


yometimcs disturbed from dry encalypts. Rarely did we find that 
the aniraals contiriimcl lo inhabit a Ircc from which llicy ha<l bceu 
rcptatccllv driven forth by :iXf l>k>ws ami chased thrruagh npigh- 
hoiuing tree tops. However, if only t;ipi)e4l gently forth they would 
wait until quiet r^ignp*! once Tn'ijre ^fni then return slnwly to the 
dark haven in the mtpef trunk rollin;^ ihe long tsil into a characUr- 
i%Lic furry ring at the moment ot re-entry. This action leads om: 
to spcnilate that very hkely nesting material when carried to a 
hnllow is transported in a roll of the tail jiist as in the case of 
the Leaser Flynig Phyluiigcr jod the RingiTiiled 0|it»ssum (; 
anitJials are <jflcn observed at biiitding habit;; in my collection). 
Aguii! w!icii the Tiiguan Phiilangcrs are wslking along th^ hmbs 
at night the tail, usually so pendnkms and ioosoo is liekl (airly 
rTj^dly ill a simions line with the body until tht^ phulunger hilts, 
when It straightway resumes the drooping position. 


/lp*0& ■/raudifioi'O. 15 a new species de-scribed and ufiured in coUnir in 
C"«rnVx BcHan-icat Muffasinc (plate 9320) liy Dr. O. Supf. The late H Tl. 
Wtlliam^rm drew attention to thi^ prrtty pUnt in TUc MainraUit of'Ueceia 
bcT. 1925, where there is a g^ocxi hguie of it. 

r luve -sorted llie Australian ioat<;rial oJ A- ausSratiy, "Cotrtnum BtiKft'*. 
dud hud itiat it is confined to the moist areas of the {>>minonwcill>i, c^pcci- 
ally altmff the coastal tring^^. white A. gvandi^iyr(i St., "Uafge Bugk". lavours 
tlK; Irtlanil ai\d drier arca-^. 5iKh a?; tlie Mallee and t^ivcniia. The dtstrihu- 
tiort oJ tlie i;peues oi Aiuga constitutes one ftf the mnst interc^itiK and 
I>i|*zlirig pfobleriis from the ^.tandpoint oi cv:aUittonar>' history. The tpecicJ» 
find forms seem to pass through venous nt.ip.e^ troin one to another. Bcrit- 
ham has rc<lui:ed three of his ovvn species. wUm iic was al/!e to obtain a 
Urtre -"Series of 'jpeciineiis o( A. (ntjstralu: 

Ihe ditferenctrs t>€t\vccn Aju;ja nu-s^ntlU and ^t. grandifivra ate ttiostly 
diiiicnsiunal- Tlu* bine flowers of the latter are much larger, the coroIU 
tulw more c.xserted. ihe nutlets larger, wtiile Itic I<:avcs mcc broader with 
marked lobes. ;irid the plant is more rbbust. It i? very orii.imcnial and 
worlhy u( cuUivaliori i*iid capable of great improvei«ent Jl !*>■ pereiithirl 
with Mrflrii^g dark-biup flnwer and Iwiry gi?y leaves. 

I*. P- McwtRis- 

At Ararat reeend.y 1 va.w a mtinber «»l plants oi thni wotid^irliil diminutive 
orchirJ, Thctyimtra D'AUoni (D'AItoii's Snii OrcfiiJ). Il h^s a Ismail tvvist«l 
loaf CJcacTly l(ke O innucitorc yrccti tork^trew. and throiij?l\ Wte corkscrew 
leal comes m short fio^vcr stem, a couple ot niches ni length, with a sinjcle 
vale bUie Hower. 1 havt ottcii 5ccn the leaf in the Cfainpiaiis; on one 
oera^ton. ^vheti willi the lale H- B. WUlianiyon. Suvcral plants, not in 
flower u-erc notvxl, and w^ thout^ht them to be seedlin:^ ol the "curly wig" 
Rush, Canstii jhxnosa. , Xi. F- Pf.ScOTI. 

To Melbotarne Rotnnic Gar<lcns, rcceoUyp 1 noitctd a BlacJcbird whose 

pluitiaj;^e wns more than halt white. 




By A, H. Chisholm, CF.A.CKU. 

Otv iIv. occasion of my tniubl'orring dotncst-ic a^'tftuncc Trrini 
New South Waica to Victoria, si-jine six muntlis aga, I was pvi:- 
sented with a coiisideraljle body of svii^ivirhy by rhc bird-men <n 
Sydney. It app^^red iliat, ailde ttoui chc loss ot uph fling hitman 
society, r was doing imselt a grievous wrong in de^ertitig the 
bird.Htif Sydney. The avian atlraciions of MeJbourae, it M*as 
siigfgested, were imt to he ixmiiiarctL with tliose of tlic quaint old 
IIi»vv*ke.$bur3' .sandsioiii*, lo sav nothing of che hirds of Che W'lana- 
matta shale rtigiou uiimcdialcly west o) Sydney, and nf Ihfjsf 
olher engcis^Jng creatureii that fr<^ciucnc the jungle aveaif^ of xhe. 
National Park, the Tllawarra -Range, ^inri the BIup Moiiutrujis. 

Frankly, I Ech aoinc qualms ou the suliject myself- it was no 
li^ht matter, after several years oi happy assucialion, to lo<s.e 
touch \viih the Rnck-wsrhler and the K<*ath-\vr^n amting the 
sandstone, and with the Scarlet Hoiieyeaier, the White-rhroated 
Warhler, the BIuc:k-f:iecd Flycatcher, and kindred species that 
coniL about Sydney in the spring. On the other hand, of course, 
I knew well enough lh«t every nonual rcgn>« in Australia carrie.^ 
n charm oi its own, anti, nmre.civcr, I was aware that akhuugli 
the iVlelhouitifc district ^jack« somr of the di.^tincriye hird-i oi 
Sydney, (t contains at least two species that do not cccnr in 
Ntw Soutli Walei. A further consideration was che fact that 
even iai^iiliar biids exercise a fresh appeal in a new setting they 
reveal varioui- pretty oddiiici ui characlcT and behaviuur ijccordinp 
to their varying enviromtients. 

After this preamble, it is meet to decJare that recently, in thp 
viciniiy o[ Melbourne, 1 enjoyed several ''bird days" chat were no 
lef^a distinctive, no less nicruoraWe, that* certain rich experiences- 
of Other years in other Stales. Furthermore, the cnioyuicul was 
Srrtngtiiened on two occasions b)' the presence of bird-lovingr 
friends from Sydney— it was a pleasure to realize that fheir 
ornithologtcal education was also being broadened! All of tlw: 
-'days" in question belong^ed to July and August, from which it 
nviy re^idily be deduced tluit Ihc chief cutcriaiticr w^s Winter's 
master tvoubadoxn\ the Lyre-ltird. 

Firstly, on July 2, I accompanierj .\lr. R. T. Liftlejobn^; to Sher- 
hrooke Forest in connection with tlic broadcasting of ihc Lvft; 
lwrcl*s fantasia. That was a wonderful experience- \i has been 
dcfccribed elsewhere Lo sonjc extent-, bul I .should hliC to >^v here 
ihar 1 have never seen Lyre-birds to :>uch advantage in any otbcr 
pan of Auscralia. 'J'hc Albert Lyre-birds in Queensland jnngie\ 
arc very sh}^ indeed, imd the Lyre-Lnrds of Sydney arc dilTicnlt to- 
come upon in display. !n Shtrbruoke Forest, hnwever, a bird 
rollicked casualK* from ihc branch of a tree, ,and then stroUed 

144 CuisuOLM. Mimorahle Days Near Mdboimie. f vi^l. tV 

on fo a monutl fairly in front of a mu;Tophone. where. dusrcg<irr|- 
ing a ^>cVy of vik\>t\y p.u\x\g ptoplt. h^ px.vt ii biilliant display -ind 
several tjuaint clanccR. Meanwhile, both this bir^l <int.l another 
one. perhaps 60 yards awA>, produced an astonishing medley ot* 
iiK»ckcry. As seems to be the aisc with all Sherbrooke Lyre- 
liirds. the re:pertoircs wore similnr. Ench hnri as Us chief feature 
.1 glorified rendetiog of a call oi the Grey Thnish, to^'ethfr with 
a curious bubbling trill that appears to be an clherefthzt^d veisson 
Ot the "laughter*' of the Ivookaburra. The Lyrc-hirds oi Sher- 
^rof>kc, it would secTU, ;4rc more ifiven to improvising than their 
relatives elscwhert:. and therefurt arc less fDithful miuiics. 

A week later Mr. LittScjohns and I were again at Sherbrooke. 
It wiks a hc<uuiful day — cloudless, genially wan-n. and pertectly 
slill — fwe inch as you ^et in «he winter of the tropics. .A^'ain the 
Lyre-birds sang superbh, and again it was (x^ssahle, merely/ by 
exercising a little discretion, lo see ihe artiste in display. Peering 
from hehinfl a tree I watched one fine fellow rendering a brilliant 
fantasia whiU: he stcvod C|uietly an a muund with his tail in rcpase. 
Presently the tail was elevated, anil the fHamentary fcaiher«i fell 
in a fairy .shower over hij5 back while the two dominating feathers 
were ex(emlcd lalttuHy. Tn this pOiiitiun he stayed his mimicry 
and bcg^n to emit the rhythmical ''hcltfck-hrleck", or "caluck- 
caluck", me.-inwhite jumping from side to side \x\ accord with the 
rhythm of the notes. Later, we found a nest containing an egg. 
It vv'as situated at a height of alxjut 7 fccf on the ledge nf a tree, 
and was s-trongly built, with a detached green hush ovcrhangirtg 
the entrance. 

Absence in Sydney prevented my further homAge to Sherbroo^'C 
Forcsi until August 12. f^n tliat day. one of sh^idow ;ind ^hine. 
Lady Hordern and Miss Doreen Hordcrn, o\ Sydney, WHrrc among 
the vii^itoTS. Misb Korderri l»eing eager to extend the consKlerable 
knowledj^i* of birdj^ she hud gained in New South Waleis, Within 
ten minutes of arrival at the Forest, we stole upon a fine male 
I.yrc-hird on his mount[, an^I sgw a l>rilliant display, the woudertul 
creature elevating and dinoping and quivering hii tail t\i> he 
mimicked all the bird^^ of the area. It was an astonisliing experi- 
ence lor jieopk- who had been accustomed, after delicate stalkmg. 
to secure mere glimpses of displaying Lvre-birds in the .Sydney 

The most niemnrable experience, however, btfel U5 haU an hour 
later. There was a golliwog b«t-(be, perhaps three i}:kys old and 
with eyeb just l.»egtnning to open, m the Lyre-bird's nest, and when 
\\\z litllc one pi;>ed plaintively in a friendly hand the mother 
emitted an alarmed whistle. Upon thii>, to our amazement, the 
male liirtl — j)erhaps the one we had watched — came upon the 
$cenft. The female wai seeking food when he arrived, and he 
approached her with a strong Imitation of the Pilot-bird's Ceill. 

raising one wing as he did ^o- Giving the regal "fellow a hare 
fflanr^. sVie wtnt on scraLching. 

•I Menuni was not dismayed- f [c followed the ind«^(?n£|ent mnfher 
about, not attemptmg to ^eek food bor mfwly "talking" at her 
with a medley of mimicry. Calli of tlie Grey Thrush, the IJuuJicr- 
f>ird. a cumpany of KookuburraK, 3 flock of Crimson Parrels, the 
GoKi<;n Whistlei'. the Black and Gang-gan^' Cockatoos, the White- 
hrowed Scrub-wren, the liny Bro'u Tit, the Ydlow Robin (even- 
ing pipe), the VVhitc-thrriBted Tree-creeper, and even the Mnj^pie 
— 'd{\ x\\tyi ponn'^d from the giiied cvo;iturc in an almost continuous 
streym. Meanwhile, ncilher bn'd |>ajd ilie slightest heed to the 
<;roup ot ix"0)>l<: who stood near by, not daring to move, rapil)' 
watching thts strcnnge comedy-drama. 

At ito time did the male expand his lail^ dii>ugh onct! or twice 
he quivered it slightly, and raised both wings, Ovei' and over 
aRaan, during nearly ha!i-an-h«iur. he rendered his fanl<\stic 
serenade, mingling mimicry wiih curiinis .guttural cciUs The aii-v 
tre*^. however, ooncinued io disreg'.ird th<; mas^t^r, thimj^h onccf she 
pbiioed ^t him and raised hi-r half-crest, as who should say. 
■'^What if all this d^rmonMratint' about'"'" Fmally she advanced 
towards the nest and jumped into i?. npon which the lor<1ly fellow 
modified hi^ *duir'ei. stood al e-isc Fnr a few monient^s, anO then 
walked qniccly away. 

This wan the first time, in h considerable experience ot Lyre- 
birds' that 1 have ever seen a nialc bird nearby, .und T know 
of no other example in uffiniiy. \\ .seemed iaitly abvion:? that the 
wale knew where the nest was. but wherhor hi: knew thi'it a baby 
was present is another matter. I imagine that his .arrival was 
fortuitous — ht chonced to be in the vicinity when the femaie 
screamed, and he >;trol]ed along in a mood of inqiiiry," bec^*"'^'- bis 
passion for display wa?. now abating". 

A week later a^am iow August 20) we heard one or Uvo i-yr<?- 
binJs singing occasionally in Sherbrookc, but saw none a: all. 
Ju'identlY the mouUmg process had prompted the' artists into 
retj-iiat. In the afternoon, therefore, we motored m Beaconsfield 
to search for Victoria's own particidar bird, the Helmetcd Honey- 
eater. Mr. D- Du'kison v^^eneral secreiavy of the C>rnitho\*<' 
Union) guided ns to bale Ciirdinia Creek, and shortly atter arrival 
Lady Hoa'lcru's eyes fell npon a bevy of the be^uilifut birds. It 
is a rare treat, these days, tu st-e a "new" species, and we greatly 
enjoyed the si.ght o[ birds which sug^^ested ouV old friends the 
Yellow-tuUed TTonevtvitt;rN. but arc lari^cr and preliier. Mtire- 
over, through watching the g;iy crcatiires for 3 few minutes, we 
fonnd a nest with two cgi;s. i'be cradle was sniiHied al a beiyht 
€)i 4 feet in a th^ck gvnn sapling, and was aiudi sliallowcr Shan 1 
had been led 10 c-vpect^ 

Strange, is it not, ibat this group of birds should have broken 

5iway from iHc main liorty of »he y^Uow-Uifts, bngliteh<id their 
^Uiimn^jR. ^Liirl roii[in<'<l ilit.mselvcs to a liinitc<l area ot thjckly 
vcgcuicd country in ihn south of Victoria ! Most breedmg: * 
recortLri of the Ildmctccl IIoutycaieTS relate lo early sin'nirier> but 
1 surnii'sc:. m view of mir His(.v>v<*ry. :md ;ilv> rif Hift fact that 
Vellow-tufts are t^.:irly brtf-Jcrs. lli/ii iht .^uovner records Ale Ihosf- 
oT secoii<l bruocls. 

It remains lo be ackkd that the visicors returned to New South 
Wales convinced that there urc more clian)«iig ^'bfrd days" lo he 
cvi>erif nr<?H nc;ir Mellviurnf! than ar<! <lre;imeil vi in Sydnoy*s 
philosophy ! 

Some imusmJ spfcies were shoxvn by Mr. A. } Tadseli at the CUsb's 
S-eplcmhrr mtelitii^' 1. Cntiar^ yeUovv iortvi of th*.- .Irid. caIkU Union Gra^^ 
(RomuUa tnilb!i:odiufn), not prfvu^usW recorded in Anr-lralia for that colour. 
Most people k'ok f'ot a to&e of purple coloui'. atxl the ye'low i^oi-in loolo* 
like Urgf: Uypo.Yis yUxbcUa wh*;n growing in a Uatnp iilviatiou. There wt-rc 
u do'eii ol.ints growtni^ sr/ittprff"! arnUfKi av I'l^ircouft Fl slii>ukl l»: lenn^ni- 
htreil tliJil tl'cre arc two forV-like spAthcs Itc-UJ &t (knvcr head of 

2. WMiriow tfTass (Dmha ivrtw, syii. [irophda Tulm^'is). A smalt 
auflnal betongf-ing <o the Un>ily Cruc-ifcrar, who&c tour svt\iic T";*-'*!^ i''^ the 
fcrm ci( a cross, iiiualls and easily di^iin^-in^li it. J'Jie record, winch grows 
nti Hami' r<->ck>. ha^ och i>f llic fc»jr petals dcfl, >o (jiving the appear.^mo- nj 
^•.igKr pv-tals- Tti the held il nn;;hl hr mistaken, hcistily. ir.r Li'7'cHhockin. 
Iti <e<:ds ai'<^ loiiR, ?;lender and hrown. Previously only recorded (or llic 

3. Spr'.'ailiiig BecbUiw (Galium divurU-atnm). A small annuat, order 
Rubiacenc. was record^Hi for Vi'-itiriw. for the first tinn? in Vovctnhtfr las*, 
hy e.vhibitor. 

4. Tht fiv^-jniihercU Spunrey iSpcrt/'tJn penlon'/ra), rart'ly cullcctcU 
ficcuuse su small (not to he, confuat'd with >t^ rohn.'it "^ij^ter. S. nrvcnxl'A . 
The record is a glabrous annual, ord<ir Carophyllnc^ae, Ti ha? bl.\ck £eed 
like dots, liardly rough, and svirroutided t»y a niKiiibraiie like cruikled, white 

All uV Ihc atjovc 3TC irucn \\\c Krnclc«n-Laitlcniainc district. 

5. Green Tea-tree if.cptospst'nnun './>nacenm< fChecl^. jyn. A. hicv'\- 
fjahin'- v-Af- luoi'/v) (F. V.M.J. This ha^ Mni>!l, dark ereen leaves, ujort; 
bujhv than llioie ol the cuiii! Tea-ireti:- Lcf*t<ffti'rfHH»: itii-vitfutm}i hii. t;irgc 
^ig^r-grct-n IcAVtfs Pilld it. murp. ti't^e-likp. than f., rnriiicnrH. 

Mr. F. P- Mom-j. of the National llcibaDum. add^ the following :^ 
Recently n ycllnw form ol Romuica i)uJhicvU)Hnt was found nt Harccriirl 
by Mr. A. J. Tadffell. growing in imo<.i3U0n with the ordiuafy rosy-^tlac 
iorm tytvicai to Australia. Previous to this di-icovcry, white, hhic arid light 
l>ink colour^ havi* liecn lound- The! hhir r^ sotnctiiTte^ iV>i :nd nt northern 
Victoria 1 have a specimen from Goorambat. 

5y nonjiny :— /? bu(bkvdLii.r,i Seb. .and M^ur (/vta bnlUicodimxv Liun: 
'! rkhotiema bnftfu-odhwt Ker., 7. coUhimn, Sali-ih.. R. utifjiiwsum Kunie., 
R r/yxra fickK). Colour iorm lynonymy; — R f>ulcnclh Jr/rd. ct Four,: pink 
K. fiovtrr/^o J el r . yeMow-sh-vvIi»»c Tnritjncn'ii ^H-'jpalnstrc Herb, white 
fimvers ivith yc!!ov.- throat; T. umbtHalu^n. deep lilac flowers: R, ff.trni 
Buiii ct Held, and T, uwaic B. and K. hi*vc hnght >cIiow flc»vLTb tiii^ed 
^vHli lilac. These furms are native to liuropc, especially the \fcditCTranenn 
ttgion, where they have t)ecn recofdod. 



By C. FkENCH^ Goticrmncnl Bwiot/isL 
A'<). P.^The Cherry Bivrr Mofli {Marofja unipuncfaia \^o^'i.) 

The Cheny Borer Moth is :\ native iuscct coinmnnlv iaund 
Jn^i'.iJing 111 wattles (Acacias), Native Honeysuckles (Danksias), 
rhe Oaks (Casuaiinas),, etc. Jt is now re<-Qidei"i as ;i })est di fruit 
trees in Victoria, being ujund iriainly on dicrrics. fiiunce>, apricots, 
peache.s. pluiris, ];car&. and appltjs. \\h\\%\ logiiuberries and rasp- 
hcirics are -ilso atiad-CLd. StrccC U\:ii-i liiivc ;tliu been very .5ivri- 
ouslv daiTia^rod in recent years, elms, planes, willows, and tlic coirj- 
jnon hawthorn (Crritaegu.s) I)t:ing pcirtitularly bU^^ccptihlc. 

The moth is a white .satiny iuscc-L, measuring approximately 14 
inches iicross tbf: outsi^rcuid wings. Tlie centre of the. forewin^b 
i? cliaracterix-ed hy a sin.£^lf 5,tnall Idack .^pot. while the hind wing's 
FLi^ usually creamy m colour with orcasion;illy dark tonint^s The 
female moth i.s usiialiy Icirr^t^r tli;^n ih<^ malft. She is capable of 
la.vinjsj np to 40 cgg5 on the bark of th^ tree, and these suon h;iTrh 
lo small creamy lan^ac, which ininiecii;\i<:'ly ttotntnetire lo fei'd on 
the bark- 

The larva, xvhen iully grown, is gt-(i)M'f;b, the hoiul heiny black, 
while on each segment of the nhdonitm is a nuitibtr o( pinkish 
spnt:.. The yOun^ larvae usually feod for some time on rhe bark. 
dose 10 the surface, covering fh(-m.seJve< as Ihey tunnel with a mass 
nf silk and sawdust niatcnal. A^fter feeding here for '^ome time, 
they (hen Imrrow tu llic centre of ibe limbs, and hjunelhu.e diere 
niay he re.-sininsible tor the death oi the tree. In their natJA'e state 
the larvae usually make tunnels in the {ork belwvicn the branches. 
wliile in fruit trees any jjortion of tlie tree, may !)c attacked. The 
larvae pui>ate in the tunnel.^ close Cs-i the .surface, the rnoth:i usually 
emerging at the iiiglu cime and hiding during xhti (biy wmWx b)0\e 
bark on tlie tree. 


-Kvidi*ncc that the Wedgetailed Ea_^lL- {Vrvui'lus amhf-\) doe5 
more good than harm, is accumulating. The latest "^ood wcrd" 
for the Ka^lehawk was pubb-shed in the Melhournc //i-'rv.-y^/ fScj-j- 
tciiibjr 16, rA53). a report from Hendigo, as loUows:^ 

*'Mr. F. Wisjmore, who climbed to an eayle'.s ne-st nu die 
Aurhmwre Eitatc. near Bridgewatcr. found nine vabbil trapi=. it: 
the nest." The uwner of those traps may have a di^Terent 
opinion, but bird-lovt-rs uill regard the Wed^etail that carried rheni 
up to its ue^it as a witness for the defence. Kahbits ait; fed lo 
muijy ati Eai^lehawk hn)otl in shee|> country when lairil.»$ arc 
3)lentiful in die paddocks. 


Myopotdfi*- ;»/a/>'^'t^^ c.A.t\ hardly W Jtscribetl ai a jimaJl tree, tl b:rttie 
it» gr^ncral much \argt:r than iSe Box or Cooltt'^b. /■.' unr^fil'irfcn. U is 
Dflcn forcy frre -^ml (li^ihcr txitp.slve forests o» the 5f>ccif? stin exist jn 
the wrsreni parts 0^ the county of Milk-wa. aiir) m ihc Raak- t-ounlry: but in 
mu*l other ixurta tt has iaHco bck'rc ilic •■»>■'£ ct che scttVi, as it ^encraJly 
0ccitri= on open aTtd fairly ;(ood Innd, lliough alwa.fS very CalcareiMU A^d 
inclinetl to iulp1i9Lt«. 5iich «g cnpi or g-y^^uoi. 

Tn ^uch placcj. ai the wtstern Millewa. A/. i^l^i^icarpmH is f^fievr rvrlujiivr 
4*1(1. evccpl for a ff^v- scalif.*'ci] <thj-ahsi !■; the <>ilf: iiiliahitAnc. Jo Victc^TKi. 
it is kt^CivvP. onlv as Sandalwood, a itame I'cr whttli titcrc is much t'XUJst. 
*.•. it lias hccit, .inii ii. c^i^jjlcd tu China fi5 3 ?iib?lilirlc ?i>r tlic real wonct 
for t,a.rving- Th£ QuAndonR. with the brown, hittu JruU. -/•'iwitwi.f.f 

scarlet. n/:ri//iijm/uj. and tho miiig ci hitter, j^rrfiVamii- They, hi:'wev';T, 
iharc with the Ereruophila-s. hn(fi(ohn^ Emii-hit^-U or H?rrtfiati. ^iirl i7/'^ri- 
lifiiolifi'. ^\so Emu-huih — hoth ih«'se being most adntirahle ani^ dc5irai)5e 
garden trees — the sompwhat tjnfortim;itc atlrihute of «iwcct bark. Alunp: wjth 
the Mdllcc Poplar — tltc Bell-fii.tU Eftc ur Curfo'kAtn-r/'itj toUiuloiiMs—rUiif 
ire ttiC 'ir^t to hf .Vtdckwl by the rabbits and undergo most ^^atling^ experi- 

Sug'ir\voo<l is; rather a« unsuitalilc: immc. the VBOOtl is not sweet, though 
sweei-icen ted Tiic evudation oi tnann-i m v.xfrcmcly rare, ^"d »*ic ^acrh.i- 
Hiie v-xudation eve^i more so. The uMial thing is a decti purple, ah^iost 
wfa^k. uujn Of re&ii^. •.vliiT.h hns >utnc jM.ti$.oiKHTs M'-<5»''^i*^^- U is not t'-nn- 
mcrci;illy useful as a. varniph, hcrnicr too Te;ulily nvidizahte. as is the more 
aliractive-IooWing- gunt <>f the Vtjtrny Pine. This it- the cxiidat'on sou|:hi 
after hy Ihu blatlcs, it being used, nuxed with lime, etc., ^i a cement ff«r 
-ifbone in(('<lctnetLts It nevrr yffw in the Wimotpra, liring cxfr^mcly rsrc 
south o1 35* 30'. ^hc'Uah the kindred Rremoohila ij K-jund di> to 36^ 0'. 

Tho Dotrwood, so rMit>:\ by the Victofsns. :nVes the place of ilie Sandal- 
wood a.nd south ot that parah'el The oandjalwooi. or Rraid- 
Iruiied MyOfJOnmi, which is ^ beH«r natne CBaron vmii Me»eller u>t:d both), 
fs a very fair stock fotlder, and thriveii imdc^r ajipareiit nialtrr-;i;nicnf. As 
wiih ihc Cm r'H.ioriif Bvurhychiton l>i''f';iliwifjn. or Sfcvuha <Uv\-ytifoii<s, the 
right way to Uf-e them for %'eeding purpo-iej is to breaV; down t\te liiiiht, 
CAltti'r& tltcn> hB'h l<> deaih •->* On; viluiihlc Irri; Thib is- lallicr ihc habit 
o£ most of oxtt etlible trees, iuch ai both the Mulca^**, brorid- and narrow- 
Icavcdi the CA^bagc-b'u^h, hfetnGdcntUr^n oiaeifolmm, A\i>o known j*;; ihe 
TVose-hush. Caltle-hu^li, BulIotV-biiah. and Bliit-t>ii£h (the last in the nourkr 
district) , ihe BeUr, C. icfiuhphtoin, and the Buloke, C lucir-tnainu. 

Almoit -all Ihc "crthtra trcc:? arc edible — more or Ic^s— it pcrhayt the 
northern 5heci> »'jre prepared to eat anything?. W'iien icet^ ure iVlkd. sheep 
will 6r&T go to the Callitns, loco to Oie belar. then to thef Saiidalworrfl. 
and wind tin on the Cabhagi-'-tJiish, the two providing the hulk o' 'he 
foditer. Of cowr<:c, I'mth the s^wamp Pbcalytit-*. P. hu-olor (Rbck Hox) aoil 
E. microtfnTi.t-9 (Ccuhbahj. arc well relished hy the svoc*n^ tlcicUs. 

The Sandal wot^d rs of UTtlt: line ^s hiel *ind of rto use iur fenci* |«a5t5 ur 
other iann liniiiet. A 5s. Ktx^ow. 

At ShcHaroolrc. forcRt pi'^ii''^ ^rcmml on July Z? U-rt. ^i tctn,%le Lyie-Jtird 
ran nuickh' ftat.! a ^mall p.iriy ot Club members attd down to the -strcajit, 
where *he dranX, in tJie op:lifia.rv ^v3y. lliree or four *inii-j» F.videnlly 
thirsty, Uiis ntftihod w^t not found snusUcivry , so the bird \v^d«d into Ihe 
stream until the Wiiter was va^t her breast; then, tuminp: npsirerint, 
her tiea<I <jnd neck along the surCaoc of the waicr attd so got a unod hor»- 
'zoitial hcaUhil wllh no chance of losinj? ^ny in drntkiny. K^iiu so. ^ <ountcd 
«evejUcet' drinks, inrJdding the firsL fe^v, linore ihf bttd >vas siitii-fu'd. 
I'heii $hc \:utnni»;MCcd to Iced hack irp the hill. Probably sh^c had just r-nnic 
from a pr-jfonged itav an the ntf.f. Doc-^ not this stiuw niuiu ihaa nrdmary 
JKlclIiffcrKt? W.H.I. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL L. — Yio. 7 Novepiber 6, 1933 No, 599 


The ordinan- meeting oi tlic Club WciS held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday, Octoljer 9, 1933. at S pan. Tlie 
President, Mi'. V. IL Milkr, presided over an' attendance uf 
about 120 mem]3er*j and fricnds. 


From ilic Royal Socioly of Tasmania, thanking the Clnb fQf 
donation of i2 to the Oivc Lord Mcuioriat Fund. 


Reports of Excur,srons were ;»i follow: — Wattle Glen, Mr. 
A. J. Tadgdi; Upper Ueacan^rield (Ciuh Picnic). Mr. V. FL 
Miller; Frankston, Mr. J. W. Audas ; Gedon|tj, Mr. L. W. 



On a show of hnnds the followini^ wcT(t iJuly elected: — A^ 
Ordinary Memher5:— Nfr. R. T. M, Pesroli. Mr. K- Danks, Mr. 
John Gray, Mr. A. Morton. 


The rrcsident reponed ihrit rhe St. Kikla Coimcil had presented 
to the Clida the iwo vohimes of *' The History of St. Kdda." 
Mr. A, J. Tad^d] moved that die thanks of tiae Club l)e convevc*] 
to the Council. Mr. J. VV. Audas .secouiled the tni>ti<m. which was 
c<u-rie(.l, The Seeieiary was instntcted to for\var<l a Jetter from 
the meeting. 


Mr. Chas. Daley mentioned a depuration io the Minisler of 
Lands wi*h reference to the desirabihty of having Malacoota 
proclaimed a sanciuary. and a.sked that delegates from the Club 
Ise appointed to attend. The followmg were appointed ;— Messrs. 
R.*E. Pescott, W. H. Jngrarn, A, H, Chisholui, and A. S. Biake. 
Mr. Chas. Daley :inc\ Mr. A. D, Hardy are aJrcady delegates for 
kindred societies, 

Mr. A. S. Chalk reported that recently he had heard snakes 
imkuig a much louder noise than a hiss. 


Au illustrated lecture on "Australian Marsupial.'^" was given 
by Mr. J. A. Kershaw, C iVf.Z.S. A very fine scries oi lantern 
glides and specimens illustrated the lectiue. 

iMr. Kershaw gave a great deal of informrition concerning Ihe 
marsupials and monotremes, and at the do:sc of the leclure was 
thanked by the President on I>cha!f of the niemhcrs of the Club. 

Miss L. Dyall. Specimens of Trap-door Spider (Atra^' 

Master Georpj-e C Wade. — A Collection ol' huttcrfhcs and 
moths, mauily collected in N'orth QueensUind by exhibitor. 

Mt. F. Pjlclier. — Flowers of Grampians Fringe MyrHc 
iCalyirU SnUivanit) . Tasmanian Flax Lily {Diaaclhi tasmauiia). 
He^^irr- leaved Chorozema ( Chororctnn roffiaUf ) . Grravn in a 
garden at' Punt Hill. 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — internal sheli ol common garden Shig. 

Mr, T. S. Hart. — Coodcnia albifora, a Sonth Australian spedes 
with large whitish flowers, iweet-scented ; from Il^ylcton. 

Mr. F- P- Morris. — Some common grasses: Biomtts 
uniolokh'S, "Prairie grass"; Bromtts moHi^:. ''Soil Riomc or 
Goose Bronie"; Prorn-ns sle-HiiiK "Sterile or Spear Grass'*; 
lihrhartu !o)uji flora. '^ Long -flu wo red Veldt Grass''; Ehrlunla 
pamceo, " Veldt Grass '' ; Poa pnitcnsis, " Enghsh Meailow"l Sporoholus hcrtoramts. "Rat-tail Grass." 

Mr. Chas. Daley. — Calytltnx tctrafjotui and C- Snflnmtw; home- 

Mr. S- R. Mitchell. — Prehiiite. Prospect. N.S.W.:; Turquoiit, 
VVhitfiekk Vic- ; Uolerite-pegmatitc with Ilmenite, Prospect. 

Mr. A. J. Tadgell- — Garden-q;rown flowers. 

Dr. C. S. Sntlon. — Flowers from Brishaite Ranges. 

Ofchidologistii may be ituerested in the disrovery or d p^rltcl specinjcrt 
4>f the while iorni *»f Caladcnia FiUer-Hotti, at Upper Beaconsfield. Victoria, 
recently. The flower was a remarkably fargc one, being at least twice Ihe 
vize of the iioniial comiuoii SpiHer Orchid flr)v\/er. The con;ioueft )?ra7.iag 
oi cattle in tnany once interesting gulUes iiere. has caused the complpte- 
rfi-sappearancc of some orchids and other native plants, leaving these spots 
devoid of 

John M. Gray. 


Plate XVI 

Novcifibcr, 1933 

The Helmeted Honcyeater 

Mch'pJiai:^ (Lophoptilotis) cassidix .^Gould) 

;^,j;'m*J Ma<k. I he llcimcU-d 1 1 oucyralcr. iSi 


l.jy Geokce AIack 

{ XiilioiHil Miiscitiii. M ('Ihounw ) 

The onl}' bird peculiar tu south-eastern Australia (i)olitical 
V'ictoria). a rather sparse inhabitant ui the comparatively motm- 
tainous and heavily-timbered country on and south of the 
Dividing Range, the Helmeted Honeyeater is worthy of more 
attention than it has >'et received. It is a striking and beautiful 
bird, and its very lack of numl)ers should l)e an incentive to 
l^^ather information while we may. Undoubtedly, the advance of 
settlement, with its co-factors, clearing and cultivation, has 
taken toll and will continue to do so in the future. 

When first brought to his notice. Gottld described it as " one 
of the finest species of the ^enus Ptilofis \=^Mcliplia(ia\ yet 
discovered."' That remark is etiually justified to-day: the 
])eculiar crest and yellow-gold })lumage making it in a])pcarance 
probabl}- the most attractive of the honeyeaters. \ct. while 
admitting the ditificulties. we are without anything ai>])roaching 
precise knowledge of its distribution among other ])oints. and 
doulitless there are few institutions that possess even a single 
exam])le. It has. therefore, been cf)nsidered desirable to make 
available, in easily accessible form, all information at present 
known regarding this imif(ue bird. The essential references are 
given as well as a full descrii)tion of the male, with a definite 
statement of the differences in plumage of the female; and the 
life history and general field notes are treated as fully as 

Should the devoting of this issue of the / "ictorian Xafnralist 
to the sum of nur knowledge of the Helmeted Honeyeater serve. 
even in a small way. to arouse int<,'rest. particularly in the rarer 
forms of the Australian avifauna, the effort will have been worth 

Meliph.vca ( EoiMioi'TiLoTis ) e ASS r I) IX (CiorLD) 

Pfiiotis aissidix Gould, Hircls of .lust. Sti])p.. pt. 4. pi. v39. Dec. I, 
1867 (Western Port l>a\-. V'ict.); Campbell, Southern Science 
Rec, U.S.. 1. p. 55. 1885; Wilson. Emu, IX. p. 168, I'^IO; 
\\'ilson and Chandler, ibid., X. ]). :-^7 , 1910; Wilson. ibuL, XI. 
p. 252, 1912. 

Ptilotis Icadbcatcri McCov. Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist.. Ser. 3. XX. 
p. 442, Dec. 1. 1867 (Bass Riv.. Vict.). 

Lophoptilotis cassidi.v Mathews. Birds of Aust., XI. p. 503. 1923. 
Male (type of P. leadbeaferi McCoy)*. — Feathers of the top 

*Colour terms from Rid^way's "Standard Colours and X'omenclature." 


M At K. I hr I ii-hiictcd if oiii-wnlfr 

Virt. Nat 
Vnl. L. 

of the head erect, laterall}' e(.)nipressccl furniini; a rid^^e, and 
artteriorly cHrected forward covering the nasal grooves. I'o]) ol 
head from forehead to nai)e. expancHng laterallx' and terminating 
on the hind neck, ohve lake; lores, a hroad hand altoNc and helow 
the eye and elongated ear-coverts, glossy black; tuft of 
elongated feathers immediately i)osterior to tlie ear. wax yellow; 
mantle fuscoiis-black, inclining to fuscotis on the remainder of 
the dorsal sm'face and n|>i)er (ail-coverts, the latter laintly tini^ed 

i iclnicted Hoiicycalcr. 
A singk' spccinieii ( male ) in two position^. 
( I'Voni (jould's Birds of Aitst. Siipp.. pt. 4.) 

citrine; wing (juills and greater wing-coverts inscous. narrowlv 
margined on tlie outer wel)s with citrine. exce])t towards the tips 
of the longer ])rimaries. the margins of both web^ of wliich are 
white; le>ser and median wing-coverts fuscous-black like the 
mantle; tail feathers clove brown, narrowly margined t)n the 

J^^^-J \UcK, rth' Hitmcfcd Hofu^yratcr. 153 

onicr webs with citiine and sU, except the two ceinral feathers, 

broailly tipped white, which increases in extent outwards; under 
surface of uil sufftisf^d witli citrine, ear.h fe-ithei showini^ flarkct 
obsolete rraiisvcr^if, bar.s , icuthtrs uL the cWu). iiiiiidlc Of Ihnuil 
aiul a narrow ifreg'ular line, from the base ot the throat towards 
the car-covcrtj,, bhck, faintly t\\ip^.(\ yellow ; sides oi throat 
amber yc]low: npyer breaiit wax yellow,, merging una s>\}]pWmt 
vellow on the lower breast and ahdunicn and diirk ckrine on the 
flanfcaj Under tail-coverts amber yellow; nxillaries and under 
snsface of wing fuscTOui. ihc axillarics tinged nnd tipppcl riirnic, 
ourcr imcler wing'-caverr^. niarg)nc<l wax yellow, :irid, moro ot* 
leiiS. the proximal half of the inner web of the primaries, 
mar^jned ivory yelluw. the entire inner margins o( the 
secondaries tinged cicnnc- '* )"iil! and feet brownibh-blac^" 
(McCoy); wint^, 109; t-^il^ 112, cidnien, 14; tars-u:*^ 27 mm. 

Female. — Dirfers from Ihu maie in that the crest is kss 
(.n'onounccd and does not entirely cover the nasal gToovcs 
^nrermrly ; mrirkedly lightur '■■■n the di>rsai snrfnce. richer or 
btight^r on the vv-nuAl smfdCfe, and rhe winj qiiilU :iU<\ till 
feathers arc more Ijroadly margme'! with citrmc. Dorsal snrlace 
from the hnid neck except ioj a patch of fnscou-.i- black 
pnsierJni u* the c-Tr tufts, brownish ohve. merging into b^hT 
hrowiiUh ulivt UM lli^ tipper idil-covens. tlic feathers of which 
ar<; tingod citrine un the niargint; sides of the throat wax ^'cll(}w; 
The hiark cif the <:hin and middle of che tbrocit is. much le.^s 
apiiarent, tfie f^e^thers htuv;^' broadly tii'jped wax 3^elIow, and there 
is na irre.guUr bJack bnc irom the base of the throat towards the 
eur-cover:&; remainder of che ventral surtaee correspondini^h^ 
hrii^htei' in colonr. Win,^, KM; triil, 102; rulmen, 12i larsns, 
24 nnn. 


How lw<j eminent men of stxty 3-ears ago, one resident m 
VicTcina ar.d the other in hngland, came to describe tliis species 
in difTerent publications r^sued ou exacth- the same dare in 
London, ha^ ber^n recorded beiore, but will bear repealing for 
the sake of compteTanesp. 

.Among a number of ^nscralian birds examined 'i^ Edmhur^h. 
Sir William Jardiue. a frien^l of John Could, iound a singit? 
examp'e ot a hgneycater which ht: coufiideied (o he n«w Thai 
such ^vas Ihc case was confirmed bv Gould on receiving a sketch 
of tlie specimen, made l>y Jardine's daughter, .^t the DccembiT 
■mtering (186(1) of the Zoological Snciery of T.ondon. Gonid, 
who wa^ in iht^- chair, exhibited ihe specimro vo wliicli Jardine 
has ailaclied the naji^.e. PiiJoiis ittssidix. 

• ^ Racords of f], cgssie^ix. 

Map of V^ictoria showing Distribution ot 
M. cdssidh' and M^ meianops 

JJJaJ Mack. Tft^ Hi'hUiUed Hnncyfatcr. %^ 

Uurinjj the lollowing year additioaal specimens were r(xdv^<^, 
froiti Western Port Bay di5.iiict, VicT<iiia, and one oi these was 
ultitridtLly described and figured b.v Goukl (vide supra), the 
IHiblicution \>eu\^ issued on December 1, 1867. 

MeaitMnic McCoy — Proft^ssor (Vitt^.rwards Sir Fredk.) 
McCoy. Director of the NalJonal Musiiiaii — had also procured 
fine singk represeiitatwes of both sexes, rrt»m the Bass River 
district, near Westoni Port Bay i'hese he de^Jcrjbed (vide 
supra), iiamini^ the aycties PlUoHs lead boa tiTrij in honour of his 
"' ?iW<; and xe-ilnus laxidennist at (he NalJOnal Museum." 
UnfoMuTiatcly. fron) McCov'h, point of view, hb description 
appeared on the same day ixs that of Gould, and as Cioulri's 
description was accompanied by a figure, the name iossidix Irqs 
prcc<?dcnc€ over icadiwntt'n'. Further, as Jardine did not 
draeribe the spCLic:^, the former name unist be altribute-i to 

Regarding the unusual crest and the !iexnal difference in 
colour of pltunage. MeCoy verry perrinalely remarked — " The 
subcnstatc head, and the iemale dift'eriug in colour iroiii the 
male, ^nsjgest a new <ul>generK section for this fine bu*d/' It 
rrmaiued for ?.Talhevvi; (/Vof. /^ool^ XVIII, p- 411) to indicate 
that he iiUendet'. ici recognize these diffcrenceb by prupubiug 
LofyJiof>tihtis &s a new genus to coniain /*. rassidix, f.aKrr 
(vide supra) he j^vc a Jengchy generic dia*:c'iosis, concluditig as 
ioJiows: — "The ^peciei" known as Phlotis auricomh, recte 
jHchinops, seems congeneric, difFftiioi; only in ih^^htly smaller 
sue itrid sabcre5t not pronounced." N'othm^ could l)c fuilher 
from actual iact tliau the above slatuuent. M. m<;la)io{K< has 
not the -slightest indic:atioa of a cre.s^, and the sexrs ^rp ?Jflce in 

Lof>h(f(JtUohs is lierc accepted as a ^ubgenuv co recognise the 
characters first mentioned by McCoy, one ot which (the crestj 
is peculiar to Af„ a'lssid'ix among the Mclip-haijiditc, 

The colour pattern of the pJumage or ciL^xidix anri ijiehviop^s 

IS i-iuitlar, ]>ut the rdationship of llu'se two species, if any, is & 
niatt<rr on w?nch only a i-upcrncfal opinicu can a^ yet Ijc 
expteSied- The known range ot each in distinct and wide apart, 
except fc«r the southern outliers of M. inclanop^. south of t?ic 
Dividing Kan^^c in recognized loeahtics, tiuch as the ]\JeltDn 
disirict. 20 rnilci. north of Melbourne and the Vou Yangs near 
Geetoii^ There are also nne or two sporadic records (sck 
map). 'Che country iiihabiled by cassidix has a com^idcrahly 
greacea" raiulaJl than that uih:i^>ice<l bv tnehnops^ at least iii the 
^K\xh, It is prohable tliat the latter Bpecicss !»a> extmcretl ns 

iS& lVfi\CK. The Helmetrd Honeycster, [ Voh L**" 

range noithward, which is the opposite of the n-vna! trend of such 

movements in Australia. 

Considering the above, i f reUition.shtp nu\\ be (Menii.>c<l. H 
would appear tliat )Uchmof>s is the yoiinger. tiiore vitilc. species, 
iiud that cassidi-x approachevS nearer to the original stock, ami. 
even und<.T the mo^t THvourablc conditions, would f)e nntnccly to 
increase in numbers or exl^ind its nnige. 


Our knowledge of the disttibujion of most Australian birds is 
f^r from comp-ete. and as tlie pteicnt species is more ov less ft 
raiity, the lack of such knowledge is pronounced. Making this 
a^^pect more difticult. it would appear that cassfdix has .ilway< 
btcn found iu isolated " pocket?; " only, in that part of Vii.nori;i 
ea^t o[ Fori Plulip Kay and south of tlAe Divicling^ Rjuige. 

The type locality is the VVejiiern Port Bay district, which may 
lie said to include tbe Barss River valley, where McCoy's <i]Kci- 
mens were coUectecl. The first nt^i and eggs were taken ne^n 
Lilydale, twenty miles <::asc of Meiboiune. The region ot both 
lucalicies is now extensively cleared and settknl; indeed, the Bass 
River district, to a great extent, is I>anen aod ugly. For some 
years past the only known part where it is posi^iblc to ohierve the 
species is in the vicinity of Beaconsfield. ahoni thirty miks ea5i 
of Melbourne. Howe.^er. specimens have been collected much 
further atield, within the range staled- and it seems probable fhnt 
cassidix i.s to be found in ratlier widely separated groups 
throughout southern. Victoria. 

Towards the end of last year. iVlr. J. A. Kershaw observed a 
pair 01 litrds which were very easy ol approach, and were almo^t 
ctTtainly cif this species, at Nowa Nowa. in east Gippsland. 
A'.:cepted as a visual rci-ord. this marks the turtiic^l east th;it the 
-species has been obvServed. The known records of the presuiu 
species, and the most soulhern records of A/ mrlonop-^, arc .'^hown 
on the accompanying map. 

M. cQSSi^div is represented in the collection:! ot tha Jsational 
Museum by II specimens (6 males. 5 temales) ivom the tcUovv- 
ing locahtie-s: — Bass River district. Quttrim, Yarram. Upper 
Yurra River Healesville, Wood^ Point. Victoria 

[Tlip painting of which the colour plate in ihis issue is a 
reproduction, was done especially k'or the Naturalist, Mrs, V. H. 
Miller paying the artist's fee.) 


By F- Erasnacs Wilsok 

It wua ill chc yeai* 1908 that I made by tipi( acquainuuico wiili 
like rarest, and la my oi^inion the m»i<;( l^amifiil. of all our 
HtMieyeaters. At iku tunc 1 was jll^t Ijeyinniiti* to Lake ;in 
intelligtji)). intcrtrvl in rhc' stuOy uf onmliology^ *-ind already knew 
frilly wtll inijst uf ilie birds 1 Jiici ivith in my rajnbles. l"his 
had, however, was scjnieihing quite new to mc. and it was not 
utitil I had l>ai<l <t vi?^it to our Katioinil A'Jusi-nm and sx^rn tlir 
inoinucd ;^iou)j of Heimeted Honeycateis there [hr»t 1 rculuc*:! 
what t^^}0(l forinisL' had come my way. 

On ihis hist occasion J iavv two pairs oi birds, mnl alrao foim<l 
H nest in ciiursc uf construction. Cirinimslajiccs, liowevcr, did 
not ptfnnii oT niv invesug'aiinf;* my new find till the fiillowiiig 
.s^iason, :ind irom then onwards for many years ntost of my 
wee?%-coi.U w^rc sjjcnl in tht.* haunts uf t a-K^itiix" The ^yioz where 
I loL'aicd the birds wa.s on rlie U]i|jf.r reachc;? of tlie Oirdinia 
Cr^-«k :U Hcaconjifield. Thi!> bcauliitd Hltle sne;m* has its Origin 
ne;ir ihe Ccml)rauk railway line, and wends its strpentini- course 
d(>wu ihrouj^h the lJe;wunsfi<^^d 'ind Ofific<rr districts, to fin<l 
untK'l ('vtmiicdlv imu ih<- wnters t.>f Wt'stem Pari Its banVs 
arc ricMy clothc<l with a Inxunani vrgciation, and provide happy 
htmting j^ruunds for ;> numerous ;^nd varied bird fauna 

Eaiiy in October nex* year, in company with a friend, i 
rKvisitc'd tlie same spot, and wc weit; f<jrttmaif» in almost himic- 
dianrly findin.|>" a com]>l€icd nest in exactly the same shrub whicli 
the b3r<b had selected as a nesting site ihc pr*n'Jous scas4?n. As 
luek wntdd have it, ihe female wan sittin*;, and wf were iMtt to 
Stand close to the nest and gee our hrsi close-up v>ew uf the 
crested beauty. .So tame was she that we were even able tn 
gently stroke her l>r»ck- The nest contained a ]>ivr of eggs. 
togethci with <m l-;^^ of the Pallid Cnvkoo, a foster paren* record 
nm pi^viously noted. 

In all, about ten pairs of Helmeted Honeyeaters were subsc- 
ijiienlly loc<«tcd on Cardinia Creek, over a distance of abour five 
mJles^ but never an isolated pair. Thev seeru tci hke the company 
of ihcif own kind. ^n<\ two pans would frecpiently be foimd 
nesiij|f>^ wiihm Jift>' or sixty ynn]^, o) each other They appeal 
lo l>e inie»isely local, rarely, if <^ver, wandering a>:>re than a short 
dislanie from the citck side, even in the depth of winter. In 
my experience, it M'as always iK>ssil>le to go at any titne of the 
yc;n* to 1 given spot, ami be assured of finding the birds within 
an area <tf a few hundred stjuare yards Although typical 
Honeyetiters. tht;i' seem to lely mainly on an insectivorous diet, 
and I can ojily rccolleci seeing them visitinji'. bloisoms on Iwo or 

158 Wruov, Ttw Hchnvii'd Honcyrittcf m Htymv- \ vii. l' 

thfee occasions at the most. Few birds seem to rdisli «itittg 
hairy caterpillars, bul f was greatly interested to see one taken 
anO calcn by a cassidix on one occasion. 

If I were a-^iceil to describe a kypica) csissuilx Uabitat, my reply 
wfiuW be — H sparkling stream with its hanks begirt w:th 
Lcptosptrrnmn. Melaleuca, .■kaciit; PcniMderns and Prostbfithera. 
the whole shaded by the overhanging branche>j of stattfly while 
bolcd F-ucalypls Other habitavions of this Hnnpyeater will no 
doubt be fo'bnd, but I vctilurc to say that should anythinj? be 
missitii^ from my picture it will not be the ruaning :>trcaTri. nor 
the white boled Eucalypts. 

HeSmetcd Huneyeciters hve in arnity with tl\e ordinary 
<Ienizens of their restricted hahilur, but let any strange bird 
trespass, and they become fighting demons. I have ?een them 
sucLCSsIuily tackle Wattle-birdt., B^ack-Iaced Cnckoo-Shrikes, 
Parrakcefs, Kootiabu rras . and other unwelcome visitors. An 
dinusing^ sight I witnessed on one ixcasion was when a small 
flock of peaceful little Siltelas wandered into the (or bidden land. 
A aissidix soon espied them, and s*:> actively attsickej Iheoi, «»ach 
5ii turn, thai they were soon all on the wing, making £iir the open 
Ciouniry, with the irate Honeyeatei' pursuing them and kee[>ing 
them well bunched log^clhcr in sheepdog fashion. In mo-^r 
insfance:^ tlie casstdix home territories were also the habitat of 
the ^^uaily local Bell Miners, but F cannot recollect seeing 
squabbles between the two species. 

A most Eavourcd nesting spot i« in a shrub overhanging; the 
water, and the nest wiJl often be placed within two or three (cet 
of it. This has in some instances led to tragedies in the eurly 
Spring;, when Hoods have come down the CardJnia Creek. 1 
have records of the following plants having been favoured by 
Uelmttcd Iloneveatert; as nesting sites; — [■€iytosf>crmtmi 
.u n pariwkn _. OUaria lyraia, Acacia ircrticiUata, Goodema <waia, 
MdcUeuca crkifolm, Spyridmm pan-ifolinm. and the common 
Bracken Fenj. The highest-pl-iced nest th^t 1 can retnember 
WIS about fifteen fcet trom the ground, and in ilie examlrkation 
nl this home I met w\th disaster. Owing to a Urnb breaking. I 
fell broadside on to the edge of the creek bank, and then gently 
rolled over into thtj swollen stream, much to the amusement of 
my companion. Mr. A. J. Campbell, in his book, Ne^ts ijpifi 
^99^ <^f Australian Birds, records a similar disaster that bcfeH 
him also, when examing his first cassidix nest. 

Witii one p.xcei>iion, rJl the pairs of cas.ndix always constructed 
their nests along the marjgms of the creek, the exception being 
a pair whicli for several years favoured the margin o^^ a small 
billahong about 60 yards distant from the creek. iVfost people 
have idiosyncrasies o( some sort, and some biids also. This 


Plate XVII 

November, 1933 


\>r. The H^^lvtcicd HounctUer of Heme. lS9 

partkvilar pair never built a nest vvithoat finishiag ihc lining by 
the addition ot three or four grccii leaves of the nnlive rasp- 
berry, Kti0i4^ p{rnnfolius. In two or xhx^it days tliese became 
<lry and curled up. uikI cannot h^vc conUilHilcd Tn the cam Furl 
o( the Sitting bird. Mo othei" coxsidix known to mp. evci utilised 
Kaspbcrry leaves, akhough they were always available had they 
required them. 

'Hu- tul>jur of nest coaRtruction is wsiiaHy confined <o the «arly 
hours of morning and late afternoon, in one <iibe the buds carry- 
ing on until 7.30 p m. I have known a nest to be completely 
iju"h and to contain a pair of eggs in the si>acc oi o-nr week. 
The hi'St materials selected for the construction of the iKSt were 
nhnD5i invariably cwo or thrc;^ spidt^r cocoons, tltcn follow dried 
g^rass. fine rootlets, shreds of string' bark, occasional dead and 
skeletoii EtKvilvpt leaves, with somftimes a>so fine twigs and 
pieces of moss. Spider wch is tiscd largely as a means of 
holding the materials together, and adds decorative effect to the 
exterior of the ne^t Soft seedmg heads oi gross, fur of Rabbit. 
Koala. ;tnd Rin^tjiil t'Jposstnn. downy .needs of Clematis, and soft 
leaf buds of Leptosper^imHy and occasional fathers are tlt€ 
most trcKjuenily usct] materials for Iming purposes. As an 
cxi>crimcnl, ^>x\\t pink cotton wool was Icfft in ^ conspicuous 
place ore week-end, ;in<l ihc following wcfk was found neatly 
woven into the lining of ^ cassidcx nesr. On one cccasion a 
few pieces of ])ai>cr. probably from one oi my luncheons, were 
discovered in the external structure of one of their nests. Some 
paiii, of birds built much more substanLial nesis than others, arvd 
also used a much thicker pad of linui^ material. 

Two eggs ahino>)t invariribly constitute » clutch, aUhough 
otciisionally cinly one may be deposired, and the cgj^s laid by each 
bird arc wondertully constant in their markings ar^d shape. So 
constant are they, that lia<l anyone brought me a clutch of 
caAsidix eggs taken anywhere on a five-niile stretch of Cardiniu 
Creek, I could have iol<! within sixty or a hundred yan;!*^ ihe exact 
location From which chcy came. The !arge_st egg which I faun<i 
measured 98 X -68 inches and the snwilest S3 X 63 inches. 
The smaller eggs always kid by the same bird, were much more 
bluntly rounded ar the smaller end than usual, nwre resembling a 
Cuckoo's egg. 

The most memOiiihl^ cluuh that 1 ever look was one consisting 
of 3 pair of cassidix eggs, together with a pair ot eggs of the 
Pallid Cuckoo. This still unique set now graces the iamou.s 
H L. White Collection housed in our National Museum. Tn 
this particular instance, die Cuckoo laid her first tgg before the 
host, who had piomptly added an additiotoal lining to the nest 
and covered up the e^ The Ctickoo then, apparently passing 

160 Wll.^■n^^ Tha fhlan'tcii Ho^u-yccUcv at Hm'W. LvoI.Ij. * 

ugaiit^ "niM h<ivc decided that >-be had Fallen down nn her lob. 
bo proceeded tfi Uy an additiuiuil ct^g to rcclity the cnor. 'i he 
unusual depth of this nest prompied me to examine its couHtrliC- 
tion densely, thus reveahng the hidden eg^;. .-iiid the l^acr that rwu 
distinct linings had been addtd. and tlie wnll--; of tIr nest 
increased in heij;jhl. I know of no bird more htiuvlly panisitiiied 
by Cuckoos Llun the Helmeted Koneyeater, and in my ofvnnon 
this tact ha.s contributed largely to the ranly uf this bini. In 
favonred reasons nestint^ may comniencf in early Se[>tembp.r f»r 
even nnd-Aogn^^t, and ni such circunslanres the 
escape rt'iiring CCickoos. Nests budt m kle Deceinbcr and January 
flbo Similarly escape, but such breeding times axe unusual. 

X^T^en lh<' youn^ ait hatched, vvhctli*?!' ihey be ihe rinhTful 
uccupaiiib or Cuckoo iutcrlopL-rS; casstdis liefijiiiLS an tivcik more 
charming bird In a ]oiv^ ex])criencc of. bird ob.ser\dngf. tluring 
which I have examined many hundreds of nests, and watched, the 
yonug' being fed by the parents^ T Irave in;.vcr seen any biVd that 
seemed to have ttic motherly lovt mstiiict ^u highly dt^veloped. 
One hot <3o.y fairly late in the ^e.-ison. 1 lay on tJie creek hank for 
aboiiC two hcMirs with ^ fellow ornilhologisi, and watched Ihe 
cOaiiiigB and groiiigs ol thf; parent birds at a iicst contitinin^ 
chicki. The loving expression in the eves of the parents each 
time they ^azerl intu the nest wai a re^'efatinn tn lis. ;md T don't 
think either of ns will forget it to oiu dying day. 

At such times a sir-ecial c<ill note i«. nscd. wonderfully 3o£t in 
cadence, atid wiiich migrht be rendered thu;» — for Jot jor jiree 
jiree jiree ]iree. This note s^ems to come from the very heart 
of the bird, and is not used except when youn^ are in the nest. 
Two or thre^ different can** are utilised at other umes^ two of 
them being monosynabic and one of them ratliei harak in timlire. 
Anoiher no(c frequenrl.y used sounds like chiud churl repeatod 
jour Or five times. ik-^iv.i^ 

Althotigh my interest;? liave since turned from ornitJiology t^ 
entomnlojjy. yet I look hack upon those days *^pent amongst the 
Helmeted Honeyeaierri as some of the happJesl in TOy life. Ihey 
were days oV long* and ardnons walks w the bracing mountain air, 
and days of 6wcci companionship both feathered and trousered. 
For an ornithologist no better companionship could be wished for 
than that of this aviDTi gem neither conki one have a belter pal 
on a bush ramble than, my old friend L.'eslic.G- Cliandlcr. that 
prince of bird observers, skilled nature photographer, and author 
of tliat dcligho'ul little book. Bush Churms. 

jH-[ , 

The Committee nf tTic Field Naluratisis* Club of Victoria invites inenibers 
of kinrircO riociclies. wKo may he vioiling Melboiirtie. to attend the Club's 


By CwAKf-ES Barrett 

Xo observer, perlups, is iuorc familiar wHb n hird Jiaunt thaw 
r am ivich Olinda Cwek, which will always he ii^i^oviaietl with 
the Hc]meted Honeypater. On the banl-is of this su'catu. with a 
name as musical as ihc tipplo cA iis \vaiers. our Chih'ii rtist 
'■ cainp-oiit ■' wai> held, in Novemhcr. 1884. A4etiiorable. not 
rjrilv as zi '* cluwn pM:nt '' in nur histon*, but nljrft hcvauiC a nest 
arid e^ji^.s 01 the Heltueted Hon<*;t'e^rfir were t'ucen. the firist on 

Often I luLve heard che story of the And from tht t.iie A J. 
Campbell, whu remembered evpiy detai' ii^av^y forty yciaxs 

At ihe monihly n)ee<iiij^ of ihc Qub, held at the Roval SodcLv'.s 
Hall, Mclbounic. uii Novcuibci* 17, 1884, Mr C-amphel! pxhilnffd 
a specimen of Ihe Ilclm^ced J-lone.yeater, with niei-V. and t^i^gs. 
talct^n at OHikLi Crerlv Followin'j;; is the repori ol the camp- 
out on 0]inda, publishftd in the Vir-lcrlmi Nijturnlht (vol- t. 
p]}- rUl-]2). Mattel which does not relate to the Honey^ater is 
dtd^ited. RcQorii of uatings were firll of detail in those early 


0^\ the Prince of. Waltii* 15irtb(fay. Kovnmlier 9, 'V^d the days prcctdijig 
aud follovving:, tiic F.N_C llieir hrst catuying-out txcuri-ion. OliUili 
Crccic, ntar Libdale. wui tlic spot ciiuseu, Thf v;eaTher waK all that 
Luulti Ivc^ (jc-'jircd. and the oijiiii;;' was a pronounced iuccesa. ' 'fhe tnembtfri 
of rile Club wbo prOjjaitd Ulunj^ {va.r\ iti t^-C cxcutsioa haying: made J»'I 
Ihcir arraiigemems, two os their number piocet'ded lo Lilydale by nj;*d 
witli ilio heavier baggage vju i-?riday. NovcmlKT 7. und haviiig ^;eler.t.ed a 
auiiablo: si>ot for the ^'-iitip. vreUe<I Uiotf toiUi. I'he next contingenl 
-■Arrived by the early train (jii !:-aturday morning, whilst others followed Ijl' 
the mid-day anri cv^inn^ irnins SaUirday Wiib. dr^voLed to verleclinf* ihe 
camjiii!g arrangemeiU«. and making short ramhies ai^ioiiii^^t ihe :'<djaceni 

"Ihe ijjot iclccied for the Lajiip was vvithiit a vt-ry shoH distance of the 
tawn-thip of l.ilydalc, i^o tint in rjise of provisions rinining short tlicre 
AVyuM be no trouble in repleniihiug the slock; the creek, flowing cIosr by, 
afforded an nnlioiitcd supply of excel l<^nt vvti?er, l>esides huruii^hmt* -ait 
olJixjrtnmty for tht aligkrjf of the party to try their luck. On Siiiiday 
momlrtg: mo.^t 0^ the " cnmpistf. " were up v\l duybre;dc and enjoyed ihc 
awakening of the numerous 5i>ecinien& oi hirH life Qrpskfas? d(spa^ed of» 
parties were made up ror colkcting purposes. All department:; of 
;iaturjil hlstt-'fy wt:rr represented, zutd'.'yi>ts, <.imithuh»>ii3l'>, ootoRi%!3. 
erHoniotogist!.. botaniJts. elv., beiJig" all tbcre. Being Simday, the guui were 
left belnnd till the morrow 

UvE'in^ the day, Several itderesn^^S' v%iplvife« \ve»e imd^ "Hie oniitho- 
logut^ w-cre MKccssiul in lakinK' for the first time the nest and egg-', of 
ihe rare and certaiiily the most heatiliM of all the Australian lioneyeaters. 
yu., The belmeted or «uh-rfefilcd, VHiMn ca^jtidhv (Jaidine) or P. 

Uur.iOciitct'1 (McCoyJ, the taking ol wliich iifSt uivalvetl a i^ciuil ducking fot 
two of the riaiur.^lisfs. ^s (be iree i*i wbtiJi it vv-<s sitiwted ga»t wny ;^nd 
(>re<:ipttated the- captors, jie^k and aII^ iHto ih*> ruMuin^ sLteam. 

T?ie Um> was IhcTxtuKhly cnjt.-'yod l>y everyone, and (he valley of t'le 
Olinda Credt will well repay iUr visits, \ii naLuratiits al alinoil any lime 
Oi tfiK yetr. 

A;^ th'tr. was tlic first * r;inip-oiut'* of tlic Club |*crliaps thr nafiiw of 

lliose wJio took purl iti it may Ue imcresliiiG to aouie ol" our rea<lcr$. The 
foltt^wdij^ were H^o^e tliat ranipfMl nut — Messr-i .\, UonhM-'**'^, W A. 
HiiUers. N'. J. Cai^c. A. I. dnipbcllj li, Co^liill, J£. CornwaU. I- K. DiM>n, 
J. T. Gillespie, S, Halc-s. W, Hattnn. A. VV. Milligaai. G. Savage, and 
iUfKK fttvTifls. whibt Messrs. F. G. A. Borneird. C. French, ju".- ^-^ 
jun., J E, PriiKc. G. Ro'c. O A. Snycc, R. Symonds, w'lli several 
friundK joined on the Mtjnday. 

'J'urning to iVcsts and /"'r/gs of AtisirMkn Htrdx (pp. 400-1), 
wc find A. J CacnpbcH's own account ol the little comcdk- 
a$Sociate<l with the ftr5t known nest of McUphaga cassidix: — 

The ramp-Qiit tuving l'orni<<I tlit-uiselvtis itilo i,»a»'li<:S, I pilots the 
OOlogrslis lo the hazel pat'.h. which was hardly entTxed liefore. the honour 
fcil to Ihe Jaio Mt. ^V. Halioii o( 4eteciii^^ the tirii i>esi. wuh the rare 
Honcyeater sitting. The n^fit w;is i-ituatrH At a height of ahc-ut twenty 
ieet. and was ?i.ispen(i€<l lo an ouUiretched branch oi a har^l overlianginc 
the creek. With what ?i<iiA<>y of rlelifHit the. :small tree was ascenilccj ! 
The handsome hird still retained po?se5sion of its nest With Mr. 
H^tton's a5^i^tatIcc, i all hut had my hards vn the coveted pn?c. when, 
without n moment's warning, cr*5.Ji went the tret- by the ror^t, and -ill— 
the two naturalists;, tree, hird, nfst, and ncjjs — went headlong itilo the 
stfeani tencAlii Ala^! I thoi»ghl, fareweh \c the tgp of Pdhtis 
cfissitlix. So near and yi-t kd far I Dut im;iginc our astctnif;hmont when, 
a^ler diaggiitg ouiselves- out of iht waltr, and removing some ol ihe 
fallen dehri;:.. we finrl np«.t and eggs intact — ^thanks in the ^mtr lilrii, that 
bruvely stuck lo its home lill overwhelmed hy the falling foliage. The 
eggs, ill which incuLvatioii had jiHi commcmcd, were be-Awlilul bi»ecittx'its. 
and are now in my cabinet- Mr, Hatton and Mr. Gillwpie found a second 
riest that day, the eygs oi which were much iiiciit>ated^ The third ^e^t 
xva.<i i1i»*cover&1 by two field naliiralist<j th^: t'ohowinjir scasrtn, near tde same 
locality, also in a hazel, overhanging the stream; while the Cutjrlh nest 1 
found Octobei ^, '8S6, by ilie same rreek. huv m-.aror f.ilylale- l^-y hendiog 
tlie bush or wnall tree, tliij nest was readied irom the ground. The eggs 
— a i>aif — were perfectly fresti, and now adorn Ihe oullcttjoii at the Naumiwl 
MuseiPii, Melbourne. 

Up til! 1900, when Cainpbcll'5 great work publislxcd, only 
four tic:»ts of the Helmeted Iloncycatcr had been taken, all on 
the Ohn<la Creek Rgg collecturi, and bird nb.-'erveri;, year after 
yenr^ senrcFiod Oiitida Cveek countiy aiui other localitiei for nests 
ol' the rare and beautiful Honeyeater. flic only bird known which 
IS- exclusively Victoriun. 

For many seasons the search was fruitless. Then. P. E. 
V/ilson and L. G. Chandler discovered a small colony of Kclmeted 
Ilonuyeaters on the Cardinia Creek, thh-ty miles east ol Mcl- 
bonrnt- Sintc, raidis liavc been made by egg collectors; ajul for 

THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. l A'<rcvw6<.r. 1^3,3 


I*!u»to. hv \hc late C 1*. Kinanc 

Oiinda Creek Country 
'^Walden Hui" in Background 


Barrett. Haunts of the Hchiicfcd Haiicyajtcr. 1*^ 

several years it was feared that M. cassiffix liacl (lisai)pearecl from 
Ijeaconsfield, as. apparently, it did long ago from (Jliuda Creek 
valley. Happily, the tear was groundless. 'llie Honeyeaters 
had but moved higher up the creek : and to-day form a 
flourishing colony. Strictly protected, our " exclusive " bird may 
become fairl}' numerous at Beac<insfield and in other i)arts of 
south-eastern Victoria. 

Once only have I seen the Helmeted Honeyeater on ( )linda 
Creek. It is a golden memory of " W'alden Hut " days, when 
otir " thoughts were skimming swallows " and " tlie brooks of 
morning" ran, long bet(trc the war, and the beginning of week- 
end home building on the slopes of the hills and in the valle}-. 
The very name has been changed ; and Mount Kvelyn seems 
prosaic to us who discovered, as nature-lovers. (31inda Vale. 

Had only the place name been changed we should have cared 
little ; but those other changes, since first we saw the wattles in 
bloom on Olinda; they have robbed the \^ale of wild beauty 
that lured us so often from Melixjurne and made the walk from 
Lilydale. w'ith pack-burdened shoulders, seem only a step across 
the way. 

Wiien " W'alden Hut " was our week-end retreat, we came to 
it, sometimes at night, along the old gray road which went down 
hill from the railway station, turning sharply into the valley 
below a reservoir. There was no store at Olinda Vale, and 
settlers on the fertile belt between creek and roadway in the 
valley were so few we knew them all, and were acceptL'd as 
residents. Had we not a *' stake in the country " — the tenancy 
of an old Ijush hut? 

It was on a ramble along the creek that we gained just a 
glimpse of the Helmeted Honeyeater. I am not sure, but fancy 
it was near the spot where the historic nest of .1/. cassidix was 
discovered. If. indeed, the species still exists at Moimt Evelyn. 
it is very rare in that locality. I was familiar with the valley 
from end to end, and all the hills around, but of the Helmeted 
Honeyeater I had only that one glimpse, when breaking througb 
Silver Wattles and Hazel above the little bridge of logs which 
you will not find now. nor w^alk in ])leasant shadows where we 
heard the Whi])-bircrs call. 

In October. 1912, I really made the ac(|uaintance of M. 
cassidix, seeing it at close range and taking the '* iiioneer " 
15hotograj)hs of its nest and eggs. My companion. Mr. F. E. 
Wilson, has an oologist's eye for nests, and found five of the 
Helmeted Honeyeater during the memorable day on Cardinia 
Creek. The of the series contained an egg of the F^allid 
Cfuckoo and one of the Honeyeater: so that another uni(|ue 


Hakrktt. Haunts of the Hdnictcd Iloncxcati 

Vii-i. Nat. 

L V.) 

photogra])h was ohlaincd. Since then, of course, other nature 
photograjihers have l)een successful in the cassidix field, notal^ly 
Air. A. H. \\. Mattin,u:ley, who was the hrst to secure photographs 
of the hird at the nest. 

It was ahout the middle of October when Wilson and I went 
to ]>eaconsfield. in (piest of M. cassidix. P>efore dark, we 
rambled along the creek, on the day of our arrival, and saw, not 
one. but several Helmeled Honeveaters high among gum-tree 
boughs. P)ell Miners were calling in the Hazel and Dogwood 

W'st of M. C(i,:si(^ix containing an c^R '>' tlic Pallid Oickoo (on IcU ) 
and one of the HoncyL-ater. 
Phuto. by Chas. Harrctt 

scrub, a colony of perhaps foiu' hundred birds, whicli long since 
has mtn-ed to another haunt on Cardinia Creek. 

Before sunrise next da\'. we were l)oiling the l>illy. and began 
the long walk to the junction — Stony Creek and Cardinia — in 
piccaninny daylight. 'Idie track led through gullies and along 
mountain slopes where Sarsaparilla ( Coral JVa ) and Tetratheca 
varied with i)urple and i)ink or magenta the green monotony of 
the brushwood. On one slope we noted nearly twent>' species 
of orchids — more than seventy liave been recorded for Heacons- 
field district. \'ellow-tailed 'Idiornliills flew u]) from the grass; 
in the gums Frontal Shrike-'l'its were tearing at tliv bark with 
their strontr mandibles. 


Plate XIX 

Kovember, 1933 

W[^MSL Jf^^Ktl^ 



^Bv ^^^9SjlP^H£Lirift^A.-4^^HFttK%. ^^^By _ i 




' ^^^^^^^^^m ■^^^^^^JhS iflFi ^M ' '^^K^^^0 ..^M .^^' ^r ^K^B^^K 

Photo, by Chas. Barrett 

Nest of the Helmeted Honeyeater 

Nov, T 

B\K'i^FTT. Haunts i^i the Hclmctcd Honc\-c<;fcf\ 

At the junction we heard tlie " cherry-hol) " note- ui" the 
\Miite-erircfl Ihineyeaters. and ((nincl one of their ncst> hnilt in 
a small husli. Here. t(to, the Coach whip Bird was callinj^. 
\\'hite Asters shone al)Ove the water and damp hollows aloniLj the 
creeks were filled with jun^^-le-jj^rowth — Sword-.t^rass, Do^^wood. 
and Hazel. Our way from the junction was throu.i^li timbered 
])addocks, over densely vej^^etated plots, where Eniu-W'rens were 
at home, and along the hanks of Cardinia Creek. Mile after 
mile of hushland, and some of it not at all easy going. 

At last. Wilson broke througli a tangle of branches int(3 a 
glade, where the green of young grass blades contraste<l with 
gre\' ashes heaped around a l}lackene<l tree stump. ^lany camp- 
fires had been lit here, mostly by liird men, I believe. A ne^t 
of the Helmcted Honeyeater was found within a d(.)zen yards of 
the camping-s]:>ot. It was l)nilt in a small, ])rickly bush over- 
hanging tlie creek, and contained two eggs. I am not a collector. 
but delight in the beantv of birds' eggs: and looking for the first 
time upon a clutcli of M. cassidix gave me tlu* thrill of disc()ver\- 
—that of possession 1 did not desire. 

Soon the owners of the nest came flying titwards it. from scrul' 
on the far side of the creek. They were splendid in tlie sunliglit. 
Stepping back to cover, we waited for a whil'.-, tlien cre])t to the 
creekside again. The female Hone\eater was sitting on the nest. 
head up, watchful. She detected xis (juickly enough, but. after 
sharj), iiKjuiring glances, decided tliat the intruders were hai*mless. 
One leg of the camera 'tripod was fixed in tlie creek bank, 
slanting over the water. A ver\' awkward ]:)lace : but I focussed 
sharply the image of bird and ni'st. ^^os(^u!to -s covered mv 
bands and face, l)Ut I dare not l)rush them away. A creaking 
dark slide S])nnt the chance of a lifetime. TIk.' brooding ! lonev- 
eater raised her head, shppcfl from the nest, and flew <lown 

The other nests were fotmd within a mile of our crunping 
spot. All four held a com])lement of eggs, and were built m 
bushes, none being more than a few feet above tlie ground or 
the siu'face of the water where the bush oAerlnmiLi the creek. 
( )ne was sus])ende<k like that of the familiar ^'ellow-e;u'ed 
]Ione}'etiter. from sk'uder twigs, and swayed gentb; when little 
pufTs of wind came through the leaves. 

In Xovember. 1''34. \'ictoria"s CVntenary \v:v:. the Field 
Xaturalists' Club sliould. mark tht' jubilee of its fir^i CMnii)-out 
( N'ovemljcr. 1884) and the discovery of the t\*])e ne>t and egg^ 
of MclipJiaffa cassidix. A pilgrimage to ( )linda Creek wotiUl 
appeal to memljcrs ; and we might devoU" a ( 'lul) meeting to the 
Helmeted I loneyeater and reminiscences of early excm-sions. 
when our State was a colonv. 

lOf.i MATTiNtiLKV, Photoyraph'uui the IJclmctcd Houcyeafcr. [\^^V L*^' 



Having phot()^^ra])he(l many of the commoner species of birds 
found in Victoria. I thought that it was time to direct my 
attention to the study of the hal)its of the rarer forms and to try 
to photograph these forms in case they became extinct through 
loss of their habitat. 

To obtain presental^le photographs, to save loss of time and 
waste of photographic plates, it is necessary to sttidy the actions 
of wild birds and their reactions to their environment. One of 

Ph(.t<. in- A. H, 

Hel meted Honeyeater; 
K. Mattintilev 

at Xest 

the rarest species thai iias ne\-or been phot(tgra])he(l is the 
Hehneted Honeyeater. 

At Beaconsfield I observecl their habits, and thus was able to 
obtain a series of photogra])hs of Hehneted Honeyeaters at their 
nests. Xo opi)()rtunitv presented itself when they were engaged 
feeding, since they were very active in pursuit of their prey, 
continually on the move. I could not focus the camera on any 
of the birds, owing to the rapid change of i)osition. as they 
searched for insects in their Icafv environment. 


Plate XX 

Xovember) 1933 

1^ rC 

Helmeted Honeycater on Nest 

Photo, by A. H. E. Mattin^iley 

I'hc }loaeyeat<?!r.s wcr^ discovered on tlic banks of a creek 
wbich mn jRMrf^iing i^own the -^idc-N of ;i typical Gfppsland 
muimtaiTi mngc, where EuC^^lypt'J aboimtied. Jl was not lonj^ 
heioxc ihcir distinctive lalli were heard. Cuununsly ajjpioav'hinj^ 
-■•oine gum saph'ngs growing dose to tlie creek. 1 was thrilled by 
the sight ol a bird wi'th a distinctive, lho\igK ^mall. casque or 
holmet of feathers adoinnig its head It was acarchuig for 
insects, and about fifreen feet aF)ove the ground. 

I had watched a pair of birds for half sn hour, wiien one o£ 
them flew to jomc dead bracken fern growing on the cdyre oi 
lite creek bank, and almost oveilianginx Hie water. (Ifeeplngr 
up, I observed ilic bird siKiug on il;-» nt-^t, which was afterwards 
found CO hold two cggs- "My comiJaiuun. Mr. F. E. Wil&ctn. who 
lian ori^nalty discovered the hahifJii' of this pair of biriJs. anc^ 
J mad^ 3 lenft(hy ob^ei'vfttii')!! of the mate of the Nrnodiii"" 
lioncycater. Then tlic c.iiuera wa^ made ready, out of sight, so 
as not unduly co di^turl* them. As we iipjjroached the ne^c. the 
hiT^oding^ biTcl flew off in a VisnreK- maniiei 

The idHicr^ lOuUI jtm be placed in a favourable position for 
an effective picture, owing to che water ot the creek- After 
fvjcussifi.jj tn suit rl>e pose oi' the bird when it ah*gb(cd on its nC5t, 
a iit^cev^ary pt'eeatition to Obtain a presentable iniage, the shnctcr 
was 9ei at l-50tb ot a second, sulhcicnt to overcome any movement 
ut the hud. and die camera wa*^ screened with l\Vlf>.^ and 

After wc had vvaiccd for seventy minutes, one oii' the birds 
cautiously approached the nest, carefully insi'jected the screened 
minera, decided chat its glassy eye Wvis harmless, and settled 
dow!! on its egg5 coniplaisaoatly- A snap.shot wa.s taken 'This did 
not aJaiin the bird, which was allowed to brood on tlie ej^^gs fo** 
cwcnty raiuutes without being disunited before the plate in th<; 
camera wai changed She left the nest, but ere long was back 
abstain. The same thing iBipjiened several tinier, until e\.'entually 
the hird was left in peace In due titne^ rhe wexc hatched 
and the young safely reared. 

Returned aoldierSt \v!:0 served tn the Palestine Cajn|xiign. will 
renicnibcr the ficixc "spidcro" which were common in the desert, 
i.jid often were ]iin'?il ui^ninsr .^orjiionN r.r Pvich othe!^ A fine 
specimen of Gafrc/iirs v\'a?. brouf^hl home, preserved in spirit, by 
IJr Artbnr b">yre- 

Tbese Solofagids are fierce, and formidable 'o scorpions, sniaJI 
lizards and other Ihilc ca*catnres on which ihe\ prey. But their 
bile i> nn evidence 'Auix thc*r Intc is poisonous. A masterly study 
of. GalcDf^rK has hern mudf bv Major K. W. Kingston ^5ee liis 
book, A NaturiTJist on the /Jcscrt's tdr/e). Any member of the 
Club who may h<ivc oljscived these Arachnids in their haunts 
15 mviled to wnie a notoon them for the NafMr<iHsf. 


Rupp, Thrrc Rare Orchids. 

I. Vol.. T., 


By Tttit Rkv- H. M. R. Ruvp 

I tISe the Icnn " mrc " here in the sense that, the species undci' 
discussion are seldom seen in cultivation away from home- 
lands, and appear lo be imperfectly known iu Australian botamtal 
circles. If this statement is not justihed, 1 can only add that I 
experienced great difficulty in obtainnig any satisfactory informa- 
tion aboui them — ^apait from pubhslicd descriptions' — until I wtis 
I'oruuiatc enough to receive living t^])eeimens. 

Oe^^robimn ioffiii Bailey. Cairns, Que^nslaml. 

1. Dendrobium Toff til Bailey. — This " superb species,"" as 
liailey truly calls it, was sent to me from Cairns, -North Queens- 
land, by Mr_ W. F. Tierney. The plant bears some resemblance 
to V' itnduhdum, but does not attain lo the dimensions of its 
more robust and bcltcr-known relative, though the fiowers are 

JJijjJ Uoi-i". Thm- Kity.' Orchitis, Jc")V 

even larger — about 2^ in. in diameter. They lire wlute ot cream, 
iOiiKlinies suffnserJ w»Hi i'^;*!^ vinle> The di^k of ti>c large 
JahciUirn is traversed fongftttdinally hy Miree parallel dtef^ violet 
ridges, terminatitig at the base ot ilie small nud-lobc. From the 
rid;;^c^. forkiVjg veins of the same colour curve outward to the 
iiadulate margins. The blcndi*r pct;^!s. laperuig inwards tlie 1>ase. 
are oftP-ii curled or twisted like those of D. unduJoittw. The 
plant was nanied after Mr. A. G. TofPc. who discovered if on a 
cieek luntiiug jnto the Johnstone Kivcr. N.Q- 

2. D. Motyvc!- F.v.'M.— This and the foHowiug Orchid ^re 
denizens of Tord Howe Island, Mi.s. G. K. Perrit:. ui Launces- 
ton, Tas.. who ^pent Six weeks on llic Islai/d in 1933, very kindly 
bi'ought me fine. [ilaiUH of both, and are flowering ai the 
ilmG ot writing /7. t\fonrr,i reseniblfs in growth a Lltininntivc 
D grcur^licaulfj hu! the ^itrinfi nrc sioiu<»t. The riovvfi-; are Iviine 
tx) small racetne?, ;ind ale ffhstcfnin^ snow-white in fx\'Q\y part — 
absolutely the pure^it whi^e Mowers 1 lt«ire ever seen. Tht 
pcrianti) expands onK lu'A'ii'd^ ihe npicf.^ of ihe >.ea'ii<^M->. 3"^ 
IN chn.s s<5n)cwl;at cam pasui late, wilh u blender sput iis- long as the 
ndte. Mr.s. Perrin stau-'^ :h:n the prohfenut.-. charactci of th(c 
pUnt depicte<l by Pif/^en^ld i?; not nnjeh in evidence tci-day. D- 
moorci occurs only al rhe liighest e.leviuions on Ihe Island. 

3. !). graciliraule F.v.M- var. Howcanum-'Wsikitn — Tlie typical 
0. graciluaulc is very common along the coastal €ore<t5 ot 
NSAV. and Queensland. 'J'hou^h aitiaerive "in the mass," and 
possessing a d;nni.y jierfutup. the individual raccniea arc noi 
stDkijigly he^iucifui. The small flowers, dull yellow, usually but 
not invariably cvtertvdty blotched with red-hrown. do tint expand 
freely. The labelinm is- a diminutive replica of thai Ot p. 

./ipQ^iiosum. Tlie l-opj Hi.>vvc plaiH is sonicwhat more Icaly than 
3S usual on the nirnnlanci. and the rtowcri are very dt^liuctive. 
The perianth, which espynds witJcly. is ^ rich cream, quae 
un^pntted, but CKternally Linked w;th very pale greenl The 
lahellnm is heavily flaked all over with soft |>inkish purple. The 
perEunie is not qvnic tbc same as in the type, bu( is equally 
delicate anfl pleasing 1 regard this beautiful form as a great 
accjUfsilfon l<> my collection. Mfs. Perrin 5t;iies ihat il is 
abundant in the Core^ls of the iower level>-. 

k ]5 proposed lo devote an isaie of the \'iHur<xh\it to the Mallee 
Fnw7 nr f.owan (Lcllmct ocelhita). and records iJ original ctlrserva- 
rions nre requirexl. also good phofographs, A pai^e or rw<^ of 
short notc$ may he mebukd, Member^N id die Chih who are 
faunliar wiili iltt wavK of the T-owan are n.sked lo cnuiriliuie 
to wliat should be one ot the tnost inlerestiug mimher$ of OW 
journal to be oubllihed in Victoria's C'enrpriary Vear. 

}79 /^ttlihifS iuul >ViUii!c I'hru. r^'S'"i '^t"' 

L Vol. L. 


Anion^' the nwti)- detrini«iual forcM a^diii>c which our native flora — 
particularly herbaceous jvhnts— Is striving for an e:<iM£iKe t& the l^abbit 

Beside'; being ditecll> responsible ior nmcii tl-^struclimi of pUnt life, tbcy 
urc mclire'cti)' tlic cama of a init-'irlcrable <iinuun( of iUniaup To. arot 
<l<'?tnictioit dL plani-Iitc by bcrht/orous native animaU M^Vur^d grass- 
Inmls — llic-ir imai^I f^XKl-rcsourcc— bciiig laid bare by the TntrJtitude? 06 
Uabbju, these ottic? aniniaN itinht suh?-i6t on whaievet herbage ii available l 
(jf. driven from their iiatural haun;s to the Vicinity of scttlemeJits, they 
trespass 00 lArni-s and pasture-lgnct*. 

1 considcf it highly pmhrthle that ific iiiv^MaTH of Kaiig;iroo*» WalUbies. 
aiid Emus, reported trom various dis-trictj;, during recent year*, are largely 
^Uci^'UUble to thz Tal>lti!-pldyuc. 

In lliis locality I Spcrn> VVtialc Keadj it is 3|ipire^«i1 iliat some of ihc 
itrialk'T Ttaijvc f>lant5. which formerly vt^trtL commonly ^een. are becombig 
.^rarrc. Amotiij thojc vvhicb have tJt5a:'reartd. or arc disric^sar"'? w a 
noticeable extent, arc the following: -Bjachyc(}!7tc multifida. Corre-a ndjraf 
indtitojern a'^v/rti/u, Hny(fcuhey<ju\ fionf.-phyUit. Hchckrvsit*u apituhtuin. 
Keuwdya pfo.'>trnta. and 5/rtf/'/trt«.?f(i t>io}:oif\>nii- 

it is worthy of nole that, in a 5niall patidocic recently enclosed by a 
rahbit-proof iVncc. the Shckhou^fc* has ^ppcarH it) piofusion, beside-j 
vanou;; fpecics oi C'rcliids and othoc dolicstc herbactMis^ planto. Not 
only tfit SmaUtr plailt*. bw*. our taller shrubs and trees miist inevitably 
suffer to 3 greater or le>s v>cUnt frnni tlic r^v^gc? of the Rabbit. 
InrnunerHbic wedlin:^^ muit be destroyed in early stages of erowth, whd'j 
C"\"en quUe Urge tn:^^ An: rjoi inin-iimr Vrom alCatk f [awe sect' fvHy- 
Brown Bnrsarias and CoobiaMa^ {Myoj>ortiin insutafi-) completely rinp- 
barke<l. cki^e to the ground The propensity of Jvabbits for barV-ring^ing 
tcec«. is well i.'xernplil^.eo by the havO»: (hftt Ctlit be kvrou^hf ui an orchard 
should it be invaded by the rodents. 

In every diitrjct one will, ainiosi jn'.-artably. hnd sc^tral species of 
|_>lant$ represented by on'y otip or two examplfs; these arv: regarded. 
iiiually, -J.- "strays." ^^\^i the ijuestion ari5e5 — "How came Ihey there?" 
[\ i.s HQt unliVely iliat. in nuny nistaimcs. ihc-'^c '' f.irays " ^re ?.urvivor> of 
once common 3p<xfe5. 

The incrvav-e of Pabbils Uiroughoul Victoria is a mattct o< ufave 
r.onccTn to Ihc naturalise as -.veil a« to the fArnter. for it. ftssnredfy, is 
adversely affecting the welfare ot our native fiorA and fauna, tt drastic 
niea^nr<'£ are not taken soc-n to combat the Kahbit in N.utjorul Park^, ^iimr 
sanctuaries, forest reserves, etc., «och area^^ will inevitable become nothing 
3?!ore- or les> than sate retreats aaid breeding-ground^ Cor ihe pc:-«t. and ihp 
T^al objective of these reiervcs may be loi;t. 

Fff-o C. W. B.srtom 


A patty ol Kvcniy incniocrs travelled to Geelong by char-a-banc, on 
October 7. and went direct to iMesarf: Slnnen & Sons' nursery, at Moolap> 
jome four milCf from Ceelons. on the Quccnstliffr road. Here the- 
manager. Mr. Lcm-is. met the par^y and cottdwcled theni throngh Ihe 
TtyrscTT. explaiititi^ the different phasos of the work of raising many 
thousand* of bulbs. The ranunculus and the anemones uiadc a particularly 
brtUJAm dliplav. while the tulip? received a full share of adniiration. The 
party then proceeded to a camping spot, about a mile from Anakfc 
Junctiop. on the Ballan RoSfl, find, aflcr lunch, watidered thjough 
ihe bush in liie vki"iiy of the ac^uaduci li>rmiTig part of the Geciong 
Water Supply. 

The followini? trcAs wcri' noted; — ^Mes-icnatt Striiigybark (^.nc. oLH(}UfJ}^ 
Coinnioix Pepperinint {E. o^'if^f^fwtw), Rtue Ptjpjxrmint (E. fiwes]^ 
Yellow Ciim (/^ A'iirnri'//>i»J , Red Ktriiigybaik (t. nunfortiiync/ifj}, 
Wllow Hoy {E ii\cllii:<f\3rij), Swamp Gum (lT. o:'tft^\, Red TrO"bark (^. 
^I'rfcri? rr/on-) , Ma?ii7;i Gum J t. r^mhujlh ) , While BriUU: ijw<n ( h, 
uwatJo-in). BUick SlK'ok^ itosi/ariim uihrtuxui). CI'CTTy Ballart {Eto- 
t-(tTpt(s cu^r^vsifiinyis), Palt-fruil Ballart f, /:. strict^i). antJ (Ititileri Wattle' 
(Acacia ^yaiantha). 'J'he Fairv XA'cir.-l?ov<'Ci <i:ViV:--fM?/t/)« oKypot^i) was 
"1 full b*Ortm, .^lul attratrtc/i much axTrntion. and namerou- o'.hcr pUnf; 
iiiadi? a nnc sIiljw oi 'tolour. inchidme ehe HoUy GrevilltfA (u. ^'.'iVi/t'f.'ti ) . 
PricUlv GrcviHea (6". nonifafinni) , C»"iliVi! GtvVt^l"* (.C~- rhryAitphnpn)f 
Rr..«v**mar.v Grcvilica (6 roTuiannifotia). Laverder Oevillea (f.*. 
/nT.WHrfiJnrrfl), Eutaxia (/Tv/n.Wn mi'-'rohlty'Jtn), V.Cd CtMica (ri"v^ii 
rr/6/'*i), Piitk-cyc {T^''r'Mhciv rU'ioOf), PeAcli Jitsith !. ^ii>\<uf/*c J-fryj^yi^)^ 
and Prickly Cui'ica-i^ower (Hibb^riiv ticicifhjnj). 

In trav-^riSHi; a sTeep'-iicltKl yuUy, tht: [ollo\vitit; plttnls wei^t noted: — 
Roiifti; Busli Fea {Pnlt^.tuii) .^,:ohi'a)t lftrj5c-l<^af Fl\i;li Pf*.;) (jp, <^^/>/?Hof<ft>^), 
.Vlatujd Bush Pfd (/^. pcd.'aunhila'), "IvviKg) Dui'jy Buiih ('->/ri?»'fl 
ruHHi/ii/fl), Cut-leai' D^iisy (Hroi inrofUf ifni/iifith), Fnnged O^nisy (7>. 
rifiorl^), Aj-\rr.'il llldtgo {{iuHfjolt ni aiutiolt.^'), ftulden Tl^j {Good'^iX 
lotiffiti<i)y l-CaugAroc Appk {So^ouuii^ nvwntatc'] , ar.i! Commnn Cassrncn 
iCoi.'iincii acu-featai The twimuii plants tKilcn Du.iuded i\\c Puryk' Curat 
Pfii (Wtri JiTi(''L-yi>io i)-"tMi/{?h\'I!a)^ the Lovt? Crir^rpei' 1 Pti'ffynn'ri'f •I'ohtl'ufi:), 
and the Srarlct Cora! Pea {Kritu^uiya f^irs'trnta). The underi;ro\vth wa* 
maiitly the Auslral Gf^ss-lret; {Xfjifhorrhovi^ on6tfa!'S}^ 

The foiloxviiicr fcnis were iiott'd : — Nocklaco Pmi iAsplcninni ftahM' 
foiuau), Screw Kern (l.u\cisavu ltn(fnris'\ , Teiidtr Bracken (l^le^i.^ 
trt'fm*iG), ConMnon Br^-rVeri (F'Ji'rifiivm '".'('.i7fi'/J-. DflKatc 'R'Up Fcni 
(AfKotjro?>tif\r UpfrjpJiW.'o) . 3ml the Koclv Keni ( Cf'teilantht'i Utiuijoha). 
About tfii Aarieiie^ ol^ orcliids v.'Civ. seen, lltr Wa^-lip (Gtossodirt tnapv) 
iKiny lUcseMl 111 huttdrcd-s, a.t5i> a fctv oice spcciMK^is of the (jiial On.hKl 
{Cu'tosfyli.'! -ri'uiiorinu!). Pink Tin^err. (Ca'affunh cnrm^i), Blur KaiTirs 
(C //f/ffn^tT), Leopard Ort:ii>d (V^ufrr* macukita), aiid Uic Ucaxded Greeai- 
liood iPf/>y{>^fy!h bot-h(ft(t). 

Many birds were noticed, ihe riiuyt frr^queiit buijig Ihc Gray Thni^k an<l 
the Gang-gang Cod^nToos. One vVo1lftl>y '•va* olso ^eeo hy some of iht 


L. VV. C. 


The. wcatJieir was cnruinly unpropiticms fur onr o\it?no: on St,r>^e»nl^er Mk 
1 saj. advLiedl-.*. it wai uot a iUilable day iot our j>irtv. lout ftir tht dwiris-t 
iC'C pi licit laiit tiriJ Allien N;»nir;Jtsf<. of uonrse, -Jte moI io nnich 
uinccriicri wt\\\ a nnc driy for an ouiing- a!> Jot a rdjny day fpr Ihi* potiinty-- 
A kindly orchauiJit, whose propcny adjoins tl-.c railway aatioti. a^surfu 
the- lci*^cc (( had l.»tx:rt a dry iv'iUer, svlide iOorht.T {jici'd of tlK riu*\ wh** 
^a<. weJconied its on fortncr occasions. Rave \ir ihe run of hii- paddock-^ anil 
IJf.rmiifiion to pick flowerf. TKis ycrniisstou A-a; not abused hy rnthu?iinst^ 
Ot vt;nor>. We liAve again 'o 1banl^ our fvit^iC kit lieivnt ȣ> 10 ciuoy 
awr day near liirn. 

*j'lie grey Oay caMsed ns to <:n(vsult iln? barograidi fre<ju«fnly in ihe 
tliortiftl^i'. x? '■huw-i-ri coiumoiced hi fall at f>.?fl, wiiidi roftt-inufd uij 1i^ 
the time of tl>c irzlu leaving" Flinders Strttr. A welcome i.jr]>nye- awaited 
Ihe leader when ihc ri>ll was cnJIcd a* our dcsiinatioti, for there weru sorwp 
Uvettt) piTaOiia, titc?uding oor pre'iden' ^tul thv asslsunt jrvrclary Tbi^ 
damp only caused Hip mosses and hcheni. to extend ih^ vvekomc by a 
suanfier aroma Ihsii usual, whidi waf iioiic^d by ioiuc *jl iKc yoiingesl 

members of ihc party. Tlii? was ilufy tiot<Hl as an. itKlK^kiOn. o( atcession 

of strcuH'li (o our Club membcrsbip, The four hours soon pa^iscdi 3<i<i 
dainpiie%s 6U\ nor mar out enjoynieut. iiur did the showers, which wccv 
vcfy slight. Over If'O planifi vvcre \\%tc(i. o^ wUhU 60 vvere ioimd in 
■flower. uicliKling nine species of Acacus. The ka-Jcr eKptaiufrl several 
hotanicv»l leaiui'e*» en pus.wni. such as — 

The romponcnf p.irts of «*» papihonKeo":- ^lowvr. cuMfu!>iiig tO lh«r ^yro, 
becaua* 50 6fteri ri'ferrcd io m botanical dci^crfpfwii? Tjiesr were denior- 
siratcl hy nk-king lo yieces ihe Howcr ol a showy Dillw^uia ami tiaming 
ihe j/art=.- Somr of the n^^iny cluiiges in n<>me»c^Rtt.irc as .t; preoctit 
M<1opte<I- .ind ihc reatOHi. The a<lvantagc ot the language adD^ttii by 
lwt;iriists as sn rtl>cn bi:t|Miiv by Ihe (tifjaiHiig of .1 word, lo (JeiCTTb*! <t 
peucra or ipecies. 'J'lie icv^irAl Uirins (if Itavt-s illusiraiccl !>y (»hyll'iJinfri 
t'raiU'jlc, <tr slipulc. Sonic o» "tT>e effects ol staxch. sugar, ciuyme, ancl 
tiUnds and \\k likenc?s 111 flAfit hk m thai rcsjicct 10 aniniMl liic. The 
reff rente by Amw to the mycorrhwal reIatioii^bii> hmcI lo llio great 
flUatHity C'l^ 3ec<l3 v^'jJuceil by i>rtiii<!*i and the apfviremt svasUjr^ by 
Ijrodncttijn as compare*! with tliose seeds only iliai produceiJ planis. Dr. 
Rogers rejniinds us thai soriit Seed dpsules coittain nol kss thari 4.f)00,0t)0 

Many bir<ls wenp >een, heard, ainl riiited by fiird-^^ver-^. TWpkc i'.H:r<; 
tiaincri by Mcsdames Miller and O'Neill. A \Vliile-lhroat€<l Tr-rir-trecper 
■^eardini^ i<'»r fooJ «rnl jK fcix^tod viv'ni^ itUrrtcletl ihc i?yirly. »*r. 'lid the 
flisf.avcry ul a newly-fornied nest of a YeIK^W Robin on ilie liaci. side Ihal 
could te bnished by a orint This tieslV builder was first idfiuitted Ity th? 
youngest of titc p^^ty A flash r.f t«l rcvcflted a Sc^rl^t T^obtu .ind hi> 
nt'dlc. watclnns the party quiutly iroin a rcvpectabl*^ ilisuincf. 

A- J- TrincTyj. 


Tw^nty-scvcr* Tl^en•ber$ and friendc- loolc i>Ari in tV:e evcuriion to 
^raukiU'M vti S^tur^tay ^ttcTnOoii. Srptcntbcr 3vl Prtn.tT'J«itg »i» « 
%^ulltcih" dirvxtion. wc pa-^tsc^ llvfouaVi ibe r»anlisuu» ParV, nod nlons: tlv 
T'ca-tree covered roafi tci the Irrankiit^ni Heights, litre. \s/t had vxleniiive 
view; ov^r the Bay, ^ntH the infCi've'tirtfi co»wtry, 10 the L)aiido»i<^ng Rangrs 
behind u<5. 

Adv.incing into oprn heathy courttrj- and sandy ridftes near sea ciia";! wc 
notetl the Wedding -buslt, t^icinoritvptrs ffwifoUiu. growing prohuely and 
flowering (rcrly ; al^* /ff('l,'erttox or nnM'ca-fioucr^.i of vvhiv:h were seen 
llie ^i>ccie-j H. foxcinihuu. tcntfo adi'tiUftx and st/Uiu. Thf> Cra'it Tra- 
tree, LcptoSpcnnttiu hcvujuii^m. 'Aras in tuU Mooni, and ni i> llonnshin!: 
t.<>»idit»On Tire Shovvy P^/rrtl • Pci'i Oiihayum potihtnida. (^ijuirntiri Flat- 
pea, i^latyliyl'unn 4jhluiii-*tgnhw\, Comrncm Ccjrre;i, Corrco mhtu, 
ii<)rM)<i'/(y. Piuk-cy<". 1 i'trothrct% r.Hiata. CoinMum TTeatli. I\i*aciis iin^r'.ua, 
Common Beanl Heaih, f.cnc6poooti virijahts. Sho^vy Bosses. BctsMca 
cineyett. Common Actus, /fiitnj ztHosa. ;imi Shyrt TuryK- Flag, Paivnoivn 
fifiStUif. were in li»e lieifclu ot condition. ai>i made :» j;:orgo'io.- di::play. 

On a hill r/ver which a fire had spread, 50me btie &iwciinen<i 01 the toJI 
Leek OiCllkl. P/as^MtylUtiti /fV/iht«i. and th^^ Tall Dioris, Diiiiis icnittifoHn- 
wcrc srcn A few ipecintens- of the Hare Orclnd. Citlaf^*'n-'P- nictf-\crit. 
Blue hairies, CaMetua rf*r/(ir/MM. Pink Fingers. C iornca, vVax-lip 
Orchid, Cid}sstydi<i »nia_/Vjr Mosquito Orclnd. •IriWnKnii iMnM/r.'y. Goat 
Otihicl. -'I. ^VMf/<^'■i'l.•J. and R;ihbit-c«rt. TttctytuOra tidtUnuifi^7a, wer<t SAxn. 
After a minble oJ atunl Iwo miles w^ made our way ro Eriseeliffc Cliff 
Read, live residcnre of Mr. and Mrs. C. K. Long, and diif-int? a shoTl 
cofis^rsaiounc \rt enjoyed a fiifk of Jii'evi>oon tea. 

) W. AUPAS. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. L. — ^No. S December 5, 1933 No. 600 

The ordinary meeti!"^' of tli.e Club' was held at tlie Royal 
Sodely's Hall on Monday, November 13, 3933, at S p.m Tlic 
President, Mr. V. H Miller, presided over an attendance of ahoiil 
130 inc-mhers and frlcads. 


(a) The S(*cretarv annon-nrer! that Mr. K. F.. PescoTt, F.L.S., 
had hiitn appointed ac the Club reprcsenlalive of the Lc^pine of 

(b) Malacooia as a sanctiLniy. Mr, C J3a!ey reported that 
the. Mini.slcr lur Lands very favonrabiy received ih.e. idea (A 
reserving this area as a sanctuary. 

(c) Sbjerbv(Xil.-c Forest- — Mr. A. H. Chisholm rrpoired a very 
•iavourable reception hv ilie ATini-^^er for Lands of the ?vtgj>"^.siirtT-. 
diat Sherbroolce ]'"ore^r he reserved as a National r*aik. 


(a) Letter from IS^jtUi Queensland Natiiialisis' Clnb givin^^par- 
ticulars'of a forthcoming camp al Low Island, on die Great Barriei* 
Reef. . •• ■ 

(b) Royal Society of South Australia. Field Naturalist S&c- 
cion. — An invitation for a representative to attend the Society's., 
jubilee. N"o one voiunleered to alieudj but the Secreraiy wvi** 
instructed lo send u tetter conve>Hig ihe Chib's congratulation?. 


Reports vi'ere as' Follow: — Wild Karnre Show: Mr. V H. 
Miller gave a brief report und thanked all who assistcd/especially 
the Jadit^i. South Morang;: Mr. A. R. Proudfoot. ■ VVilson^s 
Promontory: Advance report by Mr. Siewart. for Mr Kershaw 
Gisborne: 'Mr, A. J. Tadgell/ Beiiconshcld;' Mr. A." S. Chalk. 
Tht' Frenrh hhmd KxeuTsion was cancelled through lacl^ (if 


On n :iliow of hands the following" were duly elucii'd ; — As 
Ordinary Members : Misb T. Smith. Mifs A. Smclair. Aij 
Country" Members : Lt.-Cnl. B. T. Goadby. Mr. Raleigh, j-l, Hlack 
A,s Associate Members: Afiss D. Merry. Mibs S. Wiedenleld. Miss 
M. Owens, MiaS S. McAlpiu, Mi,^s S. Payne, Miss j. Dunhni, Mi>s 
j". Mathers, Miss M- J)ew- 


Proposed alteration oi Rule 4c. — To enable Country Members 
to use the library at less cost to themselves, it is proposerl to alter 
this rule to reatl : — "and also may obtain hooks from thti library on 
payriieut of postage one way". To pass this rule it was annonnce^l 
that a special meeting would he- held before the ticnI ,:;;ciieral 

It was aJitiounced that in fucin'c each Icctiirer would be n?,ke(l 
to submit to the Secretary a frecis of his, lecture tor publication in 
tbe Naiimilisi. 

Tht Secietf^ry reported ihac a geological section at West 
Hawthorn, of interest to students, hacl been in danger of 
de-structiou. but on representation by the Club, the Council had 
;igreed to dear thr bank if the Field Naturalists' Club woulrl pay 
for lettering a stone slab stating the interest ot this .section, 1"hJs 
sUtb would be supplied and erected by the Council. The Com- 
mittee had agreed to this» and, further, to report on other 
Geological features in danger of destruction. A conunftlcc had 
been formed, consisting oi the President, Mr. V. IT. JVIiUcr; the 
Secretary. Mr. F, S. Collivcr; and Mr. S. R. Mitchelb This 
cornmilrtee would be pleased to receive reports. Vrnm members, of 
any such sections near Melbonrne. that it may inspect and report 


The President reported that a fCookaburra hud struck down a 
Kestrel on the wing, with sucli force that its skull was brol<en 


An illustrated talk. "A Naturalist in the North'*, was given by 
Mr. C\ Barrett. A Gne series of lantern blidcb enabled meml^erb 
to see Ihe country, inhabitants, flora, and fauna of this part of 
Australia, and Mr. Barrett gave a great deal of information. He 
was thanked bv die President on behalf of the members ot the 


Miss Currie: Orchids from ].^irdner. also RIack Wattle. Aravia 
inoHssuiia, a Gippsland native transplanted to Lardner. 

Mrs. Savige: Geraldton Wax Flower, sent from Lardner by 
Miss Currie. 

Mr. D. J. Patttm: Finger Flower. Cheirnnthera liyiectris^ irot7i 

Mr- Chas. Daley : Mountain Musk, QUana angophylla, Common 
Huz^l. Pcnnml^rris npr{ijJ<s, both garden-grown. 

Mr. C'. J. Gabriel: Marine shells, Murcx budiuiUi, Brez, Port 
D<\rvvin ;: Mitra jukesi, A. AtJ,, Port Ditrwin ; Amoria galliffi, 
Sby Port Kecits; Hrechiies' dkhoiomus, Chcnu, N'orth Australia. 
]_and ?^\\(i\\s,: Pi^pidna poinUiana, Pi'., North Quccnsl'and ; ThcrsUcs 
mgnlabris_. MatU-'n.i, A'orthcrn Terntory. Fresh-water shells; 
yivapara ampullarioidi'S. Rvc; Roper River. 

Mr. Harokl Smith, Horsham, pet Mr. A. ). Swaliy . Wheel 
Flower, Gyro,'itemon auiralfmnis; Broom Heaih-myitlo. Ba^chiit 
Hehrti; Flexile J-Iakea, Jiakro firvihs. Slender Jiush-pea. Pultefia?<t 
tcnujfath: Woolly Goodenia, (>oodcnui roOusia: Stickey Gooderiij, 
(ioodcnia voriQ-^ R(>u^;]-i ParK^t pea, DUkrynK.i Inspida, Gre.y Mver- 
lu^ling, Hdirhiyswn obcardofum', Soily Eintt-bush. hremophila 
gibbifoda: Cnimou. l-Iuncy-myrtJe.. Melalcudi idlsoni ; GoUlcn 
Pennants. Loodoma Bchrii — this imladed a red {rcHls — all froni 
the J.ittlc Dc'Scri, near DimhooLn. 

Mr. A. H. E. M,attin;jley. liull-ruuitr. l'rom Lantch:'. TriFjc. 
Norihern Territory. 

Mr. A. J- TaiJgcll: Oncoffraptm Hpstlon. a large-branchetl 
GnifMolile from VM hed. Darriwell. Suhfli vision of the Lower 
Orriivician. n^ar Ihc slate quatry.>oriio. 

Mr T 5. Hun: C'olwsoga- porvi flora. h.\hitac South America, 
naturHl ^tecHiTigs fit* 5n»all Dodder Laurel, Black Rock; MeMfrtica 
ip.. showing different Torms gf foliaiyfe, 

Mr H Stewart: Botanical spc-ciniens from \V!l»tin's Proniun- 
tory, Including l^^y^ir F]owcT,Tlro-masia pcttUocmyj', Saw Ganksi?k, 
Ban hsui serrata ; Coast Uanksis, Banksia i}ftc>jf'ifolnt ; Wool ly 
GrevilKa. GroviUca hiiiffi*rit; Tasiiel Rope-ru*Ii. Hypnlcrtni 
hutujintu: White form of Tctrdtht'ca tilmia, 

Mr. F. S Collivcr: Variou's ])hotograph.s of Tasmsmian Floi-a 
fsenl by Mi. W. Rhodes, of Lak<: Margaret). 

The leaves of mow «T(.nvth, aftur C/'iitmon Paper Bark iMrMviai) ha.3 
l)ccn cut Hnwn, differ ni slnpe and arTangemeat from ide fvli<t^c of the 
mature plaiu, mh\ sliow Cjiistd'srabk diversicy. The tvpjral folinge is of 
sonicx^'hat rounded rr<iss scvli-'in. b(U On tliit yoiiti^ .^.towth narrow lance- 
^hap^id l^avt:s occur, and $oitietiTnes broadisfi Ifsv^s with the inkln^ 
jiramitient l>e|(uv. The Ica^'es ••*' mature sliooU am icatterwl though near 
together, hut on this juvenile jiruwlh Jc-ave-s arc romninnly oi)po.-iite. r;oine- 
litnes in whorls of three. Fhiwer.% m;iy be found occa-sionaMy, not (at ;»hovc 
leaver arranged io threes, so Uiat there nufjht be anomalous ieaf arrange 
inent*. even on a specimen bearing flowers. 


The Comm»t<ee ot ihe Field Naturalists' Cluh of Victoria invites metnben 
ui kindred societies, who may be visitittg Molbourmi, to attend the Club's 

. T. XJii^(5Ui jc; ov I.AKli CORANCAMriK. 


Corangamiie is a huiidrcl miles away, but 1 can hear its "voice". 
Yoniig Silver Culls that were born on an island in the Lake atie 
r.illin^'^ out in the garcfcn- And the sniolce frcin my old clicrry- 
wood pipe st.'ems to shap^ itit-df into flymg iMid.s, as it drifts 
towaixU the ceihng. Tb^. finest plcaituv. oi bird observing is in 
memory picture"^ of thinfjs seen: more durahte. these than the b^joil 
of (he c^g-co licet or. and the naturalist. \vho needs a specimen i^nn 
to further !iis studies. 

Wh)' have, so few of ns seen ihe Cnranqamite rookery of Silver 
Gulls (Larus novoe-twtianduie)} Every y«^v. for ^ cconiry 
iliaybe, the birds have nested on isiarub in the Lake; yet I can 
Rnd no reference to the fact in any book on Australian birds, nur 
can I remember n record in this jomnal or The Emu. Doubtless 
other observers have given suitie account of the CiiKs oi 
Corangjimitc, aeccpc mine:, then, mcrejy as the latest reprivt uu 
an inland city of sea birds, 
^lu his Htrds of th^ Distnci t>f Ceclomj, Sir Charles Belcher 
writcis: "t am told, though I have not seen it. that there is un 
immense c*olony (of Silver Ciulls) on Le^slie Manor Station. 
L'ressy; and no doubt the bir<is build on other protected we:slcrn 
waieri-'. which (act would snftice to aecounl for the uxunber^ ol 
Culls that we be'e at all times olc the ycJiC on Curio Oay " 

A correspondent at Sea Lake informs me that hnndre/ls of 
SfiaGnlls iie?=t every year on an island in Lake Tyrrell. 

A schoolgirl. Irene Gauge, of Rerry Bank, which is hut a feiv 
miles, troni ttie L^ike. ^[escribed, in a letter, her visit witJi other 
children to Gull Island. I was eager to see what these young 
natnre-iovers ha^i seen, and avraugement!^ were niade by the head 
teacher o^ Uerry l^ank State School, iVlr. Walter B- Wilson. On 
« Saturthiy in Noveniber, I motored down from MellK>urne.* 
and- with Mr. Wilson uud a party of ttii> pupils, waded ^crcjss 
from the Luke i^hore to tl)ull Ii>land, 

Slvi1lc)W Water, but die bottom of the Lake is covered dcei>ly 
hi black mud. which sucks at one!:, feet. I found i( very hi-^ivy 
^oing in waders, whUe the hare-Utoted children splashed alouy 
hiippily, leavMig^ the naturalist behind. 

Our first objective was a\i islet, where Oi\ly a tftw Uundrc^l 
birds were nesting- The mam rookery is mn an island, wilh an 
area of about three acres, not tar from Litde GuH Island, which 
may he rej^rded as an outer suburb of the city. Another %ubufb 
is cvn a ' penin.snU" of Big (ful! Inland — a group of nests being 
Isolated there. 

•1 ivas accoTiipafiied by Mr Ben Kadtia, oi the i'uw Nht'S'Pkt&ruti suff, 
4omc o{ wllOiC photographs ;ir<: bcnr rct»roclnce<l 


Plate XXI 

December, [9"^] 


Plate XXII 

December^ 1933 



Bakrktt, 1 lie Gulls (''" Lake Ci)raiii{aijiif, 

\\t^ made a rcjiigh estimate of the nuiii])er of nests in tlie main 
rookery, and the total bird poptdation, Proha!)!}- more than 
10.000 Silver Gtdls frequent Coran^aniite. and between 3.000 and 
4.000 nests might be counted on Gitll Island. Xests are thickest 
towards one end of the Island; the central portion is not much 
favoured, thotigh nests are scattered over it. We had to walk 
carefullv everywhere, lest eggs or young birds be crushed. At 
the heart of the rookery nests were crowded, and we liarl. 
literally, to pick our steps. 

The sky was full of Gtdls, while others rested on the water, and 
hundreds stood, perturbed and watchful, around the fringes of 

A "Four" clutch oi Silver Gulls" eggs. 

the rookery. We were able to lake group-])hoto;4ra])hs at close 
range. Some ])irds were l)old enougli to swoop at us: and I was 
l)ractica]ly "mol)bed". when alone on the Island, by scores of .'uii;r\' 
Gtdls — I lingered to botanize when my companions had 
gone. Hird afti'r bird, often several at once, darted owr and 
around my liead. Their cries were those of alarm; there w;is 
anger in the swish of their wings. Even when the intruder was 
wa(Hng awa\' from their Island many sea l)irds flew after him, 
scolding and swooping. a> beft)re. 

Alostl}' the nests were scan tih" -lined de])ressions. under a low 
bush, sheltered b\- a urass-tussock : or built in the midst o\ 


r;.\K!;K'rT. 7'hc (niHs oi Lake Corautnunifc 

Vict. Nat, 
. Vol. L. 

tratiiijled sain]^hirc. Sonic were fairly isolated ; others close 
to^^ether. Competition for home sites was evident; and nests in 
exposed spots, hut a foot or two above wind-tide mark, l)elt)nged. 
])erhaps. to dilatory birds. Xot all. for some of these outlying 
nests contained chicks, while many in cosy i)laces held eggs. The 
season extends from September until nearly the end of the year. 
We saw fresh eggs ; clutches heavily incubated ; eggs on the very 
l)oint of hatching; and }-oung in all stages, from the day-old 
chick, a feeble but delightful little bundle of down, to sturdy 
\'oungsters. in mottled ])lumage, that dodged and ran swiftl>'. 

'J'he rookery was a continuous moving ])icture. While 
hundreds of nestlings remained c|uietly at liome, others, as 

Photo, by Chas. Karrett. 

Silver Gull Xestliug. 

numerous, made (^uick little runs to hide under herbage, or cluster 
in threes and fours in one unsavory nest, or around a bush or a 
tussock. They were easily captured, these frightened wanderers. 
for. with heads alone sheltered, they thought they were hidden. 
< )nly the very young (ndls, though, behaved in this manner ; 
older birds were ui) and away the moment one stepped close to 
their resting-])lace. 

I>irds about a week old. and those more advanced, paddled 
around near the shore, or formed charming" flotillas anKmir the 
liost> of adult (iull: 

cruising a^"tmd the Islant: 


Plate XXIII 

December J 1 933 

^^^' 1 Bakki^tt, The uu'Js of Lake Corannamitc. 179 

To ol>Lain flight jjictures (exposures were made at 1.000th of 
a second), we left the Island in a body. \''ery st)on. there were 
far more Gulls among the nests than in the sky. When we 
shouted and waved our arms thousands rose, but not all, and 
continuously birds were alightin^^ Evidently, thou^di people of 
the surrounding" districts often visit (juII Island, the birds are 
not much worried by mankind, else they would be more warv. 
In island rookeries in Hass Strait I found it difficult to get s(3 
close to adult birds as I did to those of Lake Corangamite. 

The Lake Gulls are recognized as useful birds by land-owners : 
and we saw hosts of them following the plough at Cressy. 
Berry Bank, and in ctther localities ; saw them also dotted about 
the green i)addocks. foraging f(,)r insect larvae and worms. 1'heir 
food-territory is extensive. Miles from the Lake. Corangamite 
Sea-gulls go gleaning. We were told that it is not unusual for 
hundreds <jf Gulls lo follow in the wake of one plough; nor for 
many to perch on the plough itself and fly arotmd the horses and 
the driver. I*!veryl)ody we talked to down Berry Bank way had 
good words to sa}" for the Gulls. 

Returning to the rookery: some nests we examined were 
fairly elaborate structures — for Gidls t(» make, (irass and other 
herbage was the nest-material : and the " cups '" were neat an<l 
nicely rounded. In other cases the nest had been formed chiefly 
by tranijjling in a tuss<K'k. 

Three eggs were usual, but there were numerous j^airs. and 
some clutches of four. I was rather ])leased to hnd those 
" fours." because Gould's statement is by them partly confirmed. 
On Great Actaeon Island. D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania, 
Gould found a colony of Silver Gulls in 1838. *' I^ut it is 
strange," writes Campbell. '* that sueh a careful oi)server as 
Gould should state that this Gull lays four (»r five eggs. On no 
occasion have I observe<l more than three to a nest " {S'csts and 
Eggs, p. 861). Well. ])hotogra]:ths taken on Gull Island. Lake 
Corangamite. prove that, occasionalh', four eggs are laid in one 
nest, though no clutch of five was n(»ted. It is possible that the 
same nest, in some instances, is used b}' two female birds; for 
two of the eggs in a " clutch " oi four ditfered both in ground 
colour and markings from the others: so definitely that even the 
children who saw them called my attenti(.)n to the fact. Of 
course, generally there is variation : and a collector (d* series 
wotdd have taken heavy toll in this rookery. The groimd colorn* 
■of eggs in sheltered sjxtts was darker than that of eggs in 
exposed nests. There were exceptions. howe\er. to this rule^ 
One of the great nmnber of eggs seen was nearb' round and no 
larger than a Cockatoo's egg: 

If all the young birds hatched were reared, the Gull po])ulation 
of Corangamite. in a few years, would ])ass the limit marked by 


B\KHKTT. 77/,' (iiilfs t'i Lake Ciirauihniiilc 

Vict. Nat. 

rvict. > 
L Vol. I 

available food supplies and nesting area. As il is. numbers of 
youni^r birds each season must seek home sites elsewhere. 'Inhere 
is a surplus population. P>ui Nature keeps a check upon undue 
increase. Deatli stalks throuj^h the rookerw and his victims are 
not few. We saw dead chicks — scores of them, in nests and 
scattered all through the vegetation and along the water's edge. 
If a young (iull wanders from its own t(j another nest — and this 
freciuently ha])pens — it is liable to be savagely pecked by the old 
bird on guard there. Many chicks had ugly wounds on head or 
neck. Alany had the appearance of having been tram])le(l to 
death or smotliered — pitifid little objects half-buried in the soil. 

SiUxr Gulls. al>uut tive week^" old. 

Xo sign of furred enemies was noticed: but we know that 
foxes, and i)robablv also rats, prey ui)on \itung Gulls on the 
Island. *' I have met people here." writes Air. j. C. Atlee. head 
teacher at Foxlmw State School. " who state, quite definitelv. 
that the\- have seen traces of foxes on Gull Island, and can tell 
that foxes have killed birds there. P>esides. the black-headed 


Plate XXIV 

December, 1933 


Gulls (Marsh Tern^) fight Ihe SiK-er Gulls, which may account 
tor tiK wonnds which we noticed on the heads of young birds." 

During 3 recent; visit to the tookery, Mr. Wilson, of B6rry 
Bank. I'ountJ, in one ni:^>t, the remains of a smaU crax'fish 
(Yabbit*?). '^A young bird V0!nite<l u? cl:jiy's lakiru:;^ — a ram- 
inch centipede, intact, se^'eral black-and-white wood-grubs, and 
various tiny heelk^ atni othe* ui^ifects. Another young Gull, 
which- was being held, did likewise. Ic -had beca eatang small 
citerpillars — about two dozen. Grults. centipedes, iiod cater- 
pillars must be li-antponcd to che Island by the uduli birds. ' 

Corangainitc i3 a salt lakCj and the waterfowl that frequent 
it dfink at the <mall frcf:h-wat<:r S])ritig5. tirad sTn?<ini5 that run 
into It. Judging" iiy my iwo pei Silvers, Gulls :iie Toad of freih 
water My birds drink frequently, and, a.^ a rule, run straight 
to the hi^d-bath after a meal of chopi>ed raw tnc;it. 

Years ago, From j iieajiier*3 deck, I watdied Silver Gulls 
among their nests on Sea Gull Rock, in C«rrie Harbour. King 
Island. A J. Campbell mentions thi.^ rookery' : also another on 
a lar^e rock ntar tlie itniuth of ihe Ettericlc Rivei'; and a colony 
on the Samphire River reef, in Franklin Sound, Fourneaux 
Group. Silver Gulls nest on Albatros? Rock, in ]3aiS 5tr<iit; on 
Laurence Rocki, off Portland; nnd on the " Meep declivities of 
that irownin)^ headland," Cape Woolaniai, PhiUip Island, where 
Cani]jbcU had his iu'st adventure _among these sea birds in 1SS4. 
It is humbling to a bird ob8crvcr, who believes Uiat he ha& enjoyed 
novel experiences, to turn to " Nests and E>|,gs,''' ^nd read again 
71 veteTcan's stoiie^^ of his '' adventures '* among birds. HMfitbting 
i& not the riglit word ; I ihould liavc written salutary Apart 
from the pleasure, it is good to browse ofttin over those pages 
of earJy ornithologv- A- J Cainpb<?U wa? a pioneer, and his 
wonderful book remains without a rival. Some of the younger 
generation, who delight in detail and comment on or formulate 
theories, would benefit by a C5ir>*fnl readioj^^ of " Nests and 
_Egg^'/* MoVf i(> author wonlil have enjoyed a visit to Gull 
Ti;land. f^akc Corangamite! And he would have given us a 
picture in words of the rookery more meinorublc than any among 
us can give of multitudinous sea birds at their nebtH- 

A little-known description of the Silver Gull, wiih a large colour 
plate shownig a dead s[Detimen lying upon a r<:fc.k, 15 that in James 
Wilson's Illustrohons of Zoolo<jy (London, 18311- The aurhor, 
regarding it as ::ia undescribed species, uanied it Larus jamesonii 
(Jameson*-^ Gull). He says: This Gull was brought to Leith by 
one or ll\e Australian ships from the shores oi New Holland. T 
am unable co indicate its locality with ^yreater precision, nor am I 
acquam'ed with ;my of the particnlars of its historii . The speci- 
tnen i> now in the Edinburgh Museum. 

m Knr.RR«, The CrHM C'hihsxitisia. r.imJl. [^y]^ ^^' 

By P. S. RoccRs, M A.. M D.. F.L.5. (Lund.)- 

The Editor of diis Journal has invitc<l me fo oorr^tnr^. ior the 
information of readers, the botanical fact$ as Tar as th^y are 
?ivaila61e of the genu.s ChUascftista, which has a cufious atid little- 
ktiO'ATj liistory. The uarfic dues not appear on our census, and 
to most Australian botanists it was quite uniarhiliar until the return, 
in August last, of Mr. Charles Harrett from hi^ wandcrin^^a in 
Nortliern Australiri, when it \v^i> di.scloi^d ihat we have at least 
One representatrv'e of this genus 5n tlie Cuiiunouwealth. 

It is surprising how soon statemenis of fact arc foiifuttcn ur 

Turn up your enpy of the. Froffmcvin, vrtl. V (1W6), p. 201. 
And you will fnid llic Karon's descfiption of San-ochUxtx 
pkythrh^eus, immediately below the title of which is the section 
{C hit OS c his la) in which he considers it should be placed The 
habitat of thts plan! was Capu York. Another specimen in his 
iietbariuru came frotti Fiuruy Island. F. M. Bailey, in his 
Queensland Flota, adds as other localities Johnstone River and 
Hammond Tslani-f. - - ■ — ^-- ■ ■ 

Bui to start al the beginning. The g«rui& itself is an old one, 
and was cslriblishcd by Lindky in the Bofamcal Re^^ist<^r os far 
back as 183^ It was illustrated by Wight m his 1cohc.\\ in 1851, 
figf. 17'U, where he inconsistently spells (he name Chilo<hlstti 
'foelov/ his iJlustration, but Chlloschtski in his letter-press. This 
is probably the origin of the incorrect ypeUing by certain later 
author.'-i. Llmiley's description h as follow.-.: — 

''Perianth somewhat spreading. Petals larger than the sepals, 
adnate with the lateral sepal*, to the nnjch elongated base of the 
eollimn. Labellum articulated with ihi: claw of the column^ 
tripartite, crested in the middle.' Coinma very small, erect, 
seniiterete. Pollina 2; candiclcs short, subulate; viscid gland 
minute. Low> hairy. Jeafies.s epiphyte^; roots flaUened, green 
(qua5i-Ioliaccous)j Spike erect, flowers wtiile. sccnlc-d." 

It must lie remembered that at this time the ^enns comprised 
niily one species, \'iz., Ckiloschisla usaeoidcs, Lindl- 

Apparently the green chloroph\llifcrou.<3 root-s of this species 
(as also in snbseqaent one^) perform the functions of leaves, of 
which Reichetibach slates there were tto traces in his specHmuns 

About twenty years later, II. G. Rc»chentKKh in li'^alper s Ann. 
VI, 497, rcducetl LindJeys genus to SarcochUux. of which it forms 
the iU'^'l 'Section. Here, too, will he found a very detailed 
dcscnphoo by this author of Chiloscinsla {Sarcochiitis) UMU(A-des. 

Benthani in d^nt^ra Phntoriunt HI, 1883, p. 575. agreed to this 
reduction. In 1905, however, J. J. Smith' rein.slated f-indlcy s 

I r PfC QTchide«n. von Javat p. tfi^. 


Ror.KRs. The Genus ChUcschi^t<^, Lindi. 


Chihscliisia iLsneoides (Lindl. ) 

genus when describing the Javanese species Chiloschista lunifera 
(Hk. f.). JJ- Sm. 

In 1915 Schlechter^ again transferred Chiloschista (which lie 
spells incorrectly) to Sarcockilus, R.Br., but neveriheless a few 
years later** he admits that without doubf, although the two genera 

2. Vie OrcHidacn. p, 540. 

3- Qv^kidvlaffia? Sintt'Japonicafi Frodr., p. 275. 

are very closely related, it is better that they should be separoled, 
and rcler:? (o the vct)- short column in CtHhscftisfa, the cmthet\ and 
lh<; petals dcnirrent on the colurnn-foot -as distinctive characttrs. 

Stdl later. 1921,* he legards the last oi these characters as only 
ci' spccirrc importiintc, Imt expresses the opinion that the Taenio- 
phyllnm-habit. the fl'it, li^amentc-us r<a(»ts, tliC anther and 
polluiariuin. are useful features by nieans of wliich a-sepaiation 
nuy be effected. 

The recorded species probably dn not exceed nine in Tiumhct, 
and they aie distributed from India, tbrniitjh (he Malay Avo-hi- 
pckigo. Northern Australia and Easlcrn Asia to the I*alau and 
Fiji Islands, in the Pacific. 

There., for the present, the. matter r^st.*;^, v.nless material from 
Mr. Blccser's new discovery in thr: Tcrnlory should again disturb 
the unstable existence os Lindley's centun'-cdd genus. I have not 
yet been aftt.>rded the opportvinity to =,ee ot exairiitie any of ihi& 
inatorlal. but Mr. Earrcit lias ]it his possussiun sotne vvfuch he 
collected on the &pot where the discovery was originally msidc. 
These plants have- ni»t yet ficnvercd. b>it Appear to be thriving 
happily under their new conditions. 

The plants in (ht^ locahcy were qiricc nunjcrous, thougli no 
flowers were observed. They sverc luaficsa^ with narrow, sagfc- 
grcen, ribbon-hke rooti. and ^^rowing on water-mangroves At a 
place allied Bunker's Jungle, Konlpinyah, about 30 or 40 mifes 
SJ-'. oI Oarwin. 

Mr. Barred was successful in securing a photograph of the 
tree fiutn which Mr. Bkcscx's first spcciTncn.v were collected. The 
discoverer inform?! us tliat Ecnie of these specimens, including 
flowers, were forwarded ro Professor Diel?. ot Berlin, about iS 
inotitha 'ago. Thai higli atirhuiity had pronounced them to he 
tep resent at ives of a new Chiloschhtii, which he proposed to de>cribe 
untter the loamc of C\ /?/rrrf?n. Prof. Diels ]s well known to us 
a> the aucJ'ior ot a valuable work entitled Die Ffhmsemvcit- von 
West-Austyclien siicUich des lVe>idckncses, 

No copy o{ his description apjjears to have reached Austnilia, 
and I have failed to fuid any notice of it in. botanical litetature. 
It h, therefore, doubtful whether pubhcation has yet taken place. 
Thus it js- atil! uncertain whetl\<;r the plant is actu^lHy new or 
merely a rJfeisco%'ery of the Baron's orchid ChilusLkiAta phyllar- 
hmis (K.v.Ai.) -Schitr, 

If Prof. Dtcis' deijcnptiou should become available, or if Mr. 
Barrett's plants should bloom, the que^itinn wjH, I think bi: 
dflinitely settled. In the mtantime, we wish our Editor the best 
<if luck in lus horticultural efforts. 

Mr Rleeser stat;es that the orchiti is very locaii^d in ie?t giistrs- 


Plate XXV 

December, 1933 

Mr. Bleeser pointing to a plant of C. Blceseri on a tree-bole 

Photo, bv Chas. Barret 

j55^3 J Uxatrsmi frr Cctrdmui Creek. IBS 

liutlou, and he knows of only two localirics where it ckcuts^ 
jncladiiig the o-ae visited by Mr. Barrett nndcr his guidance. He 
Savij the flowers are white, and has kindly promised to Scn*J aiWj 
tngterial when he reaches Darwin. I anxiously awaU (he fulfibneut 
of thJN pt<3nii%e. especially if it should includti the covcltd flowers. 


Eleven meinhcrs ami frJ^^ivis made lhc tri|> to CafHifii* CreeV; on Saturday. 
i>Ioveniber 11, The weatlier was perfect and the countryside v/an l^caufiitil 
in It;. vcrJant s|>r'inx drc:is. The -scenery alt alon^ the Pfiiiur^ Highway 
was trnchanting. while tht view )rorn the water tower M Btfrwick presemod 
one of iVie nnost e.cter%;ivc ;inrt colourful fanoMmas to be founil iifar Mc-J- 
twtifiie. Out hmiting groutid on thiit occasion was u blare o( wlul*i with 
ihc hloom o* Lt'Altu^i'i'j;ifi»i< -iCi'O/'^ifM^m. vvUi(€ along the hank^ tif the 
Carditiia Creek. L. lamgcrum and /.. T><i:^jfH(?iifox grew in [>rofusion. Orcliirls, 
IHuris siUfhurcti <vnX D. p\im*ato were plentifuJ. Among oilier \sM fiow**fR 
the B!u4.'- Pmcu^liifvn. nU4lo a firetty show. 

A greiit many nests ot the Ringtailw? Opossum were found, mostly 
coiuaiiiinif pjirctrts ;imJ youtig. It was a mof-t mtcrcstiriK ^li^ht Ic act llircc 
rir ^ven foi». young clioging to tliir motlieif's b^k as -Ak kit \.\\c t>^5t iind 
ItiApt tram trce to tree- One nl the young wxs of 3. hright red nolour, about 
l^ie shade of an Irish i<Uer dog. Although J havt seen liitntJreds oC tliese 
lutle aiiimah, 1 have nc.vrr hct'ore obfiiervcl one o^ rliift folowr 

VV« li'ad a v«-y successful day among the birds. About (orty-tJiree species 
were TistcH The. ■^long' of sr^me wa"^ constant And rteliK*''^!*^!. M^pie^, 
Whistleri. Grey Thrush, and Eell Miners treated us to an ahnost coti- 
IlIujous ouljiourjnt; of their filwsir.f^ melod»ev. Wc located corwKlirratJy t>v«!f 
TOO nests, moslly wiiti eggs or yowiig, ^^nd nearly all of them were close 
^nuiifeh to the i?r*>und to jtcrmit of inspection without r.hmhinir. A mirror 
proi.xd ^ gre^t Ai<I in th.s r^sv^ct. 1 he following is a list ot bn'ds ior tlie 
<Jay ;— 

VfafifMC Lark and neil; BUr|f-and-wl)iic F^niail and ycMing^. Yellow Robin 
and 3it-4i)'iJc-5ts with eggs or >oung; Blue Wren, thrLf^ nosl:^ with eggt or 
yoiuig, Orangc-win^cd Sitclla, ruTons Wliistlcr and about a dozen ne^tSi 
with egg^ or young; HarmonioH& Thrush, ltalf-a-do4:cii nofi. two wi<h cyiis; 
EAstcrn. WHiphsrd :ind severat nests, one with an egg ; Rt?Il IVfiners, 20- JO 
ncftt?. soflic with eggs, others wiUi yowiig; t7«fey Faiiti^il ^rid Iwo lle»l^. one 
with three eggs; ncit of Whitc-naprd Haneyeatcr ; Kookaburras, 5<'.vcr;»l; 
Shotted P.irdatore':; r^t^t; BUck-taced. Cu<koa Shrike, with nest huih iasUle 
that of a ij/tad Lark; DusUy Woi^d Swallow and seveial rvt^^ts and C|i>ysj 
Wlnk-phimed Honeyeatcr, ne?l and youner: Easltni Spinebdl and two wests; 
Wrlcoiiiti .SivaHow .md ocs-* , Aiurc Kingfisher ainl two nrsis tn s.ind-pit; 
Song Thrush and ncsl; Red-browed Fire-tail ^ind about a Jtrore of i>e^l3, 
nc^fly All With eees. Vellow-wiUged Honeyeatcf ; VVhitc-backcd MaKpie 
((plentiful), and n<";t.s; (ioldfinch aivl a cf^uplc of nests ; BUckt>ird and r^evtral 
oesis with eggs or young; Au&trah'an Croimd-ihruih aitJ nesit Goldcu^r. Littler ThornbiM, feeding young-; Pallid Cuckoo, hut althon^li we 
saw many hkcly neits in which to find an esrj?, none was seen; SiK-ertye 
With nc^l and eggs, Striat<.-d Thnnibill; YtlEow-lajLcd Hfirreyeatcr u.-ith n^4 
and yoimpr; Whitefaned Heron. Yellow Tailed ThornhiU and nesi;; Rtd 
"Watlc Bird, fodar^us wilt* iie^t mikI yoitng, fAU-tiilLHl Cwtikoo; Rron^te 
Cuckoo, Whitc-throatcd Trrc-crecpcr ; .Sacred KinRlisher Srartei Kohiii:. 
Wh!le-«arcU HoneyeDier with Two nesis, <:gg5 and vokme.. White-brow^ 
Scrub- wren. 


Conrributed hy A. H. S. Lucas. 

Di*. W. H. Ilarvey. F.R.S., land Professor o: Botany, first at 
Cape Town aud later af; Trinity College, iJuhliii. wa*;. with 
Aq^rdli and Kwctzing. one oi "the world's ontst^nriinj; 
phycoUtgists, or. lo inceqiret, inve.sti^ators of scawvcdb. In 
hS34-5 h^ tiiade a long voyage with i\\& purpose oi collecting and 
studying tht seaweeds of Au^t^-aJia and the South Pacihc Tsl;, 
His experiences in the Victoria of nearly 80 ytiirs ago will be o?- 
interest to ir.eiT^hers of the Field N^vturalists' Chjl>. 'I'hey are 
taktrti [loni the Mci^oir eotiipiled from hit, letters and publi>hed 
in 186*^. 

Knrvey atrived in Melbourne m Augusi , I^^-l, and the Rrst 
rc-cord IS a ride of seveu miles lo Mr. A.'s diggings. On his 
way he ohscrvcd the St. Mary's Thistle abundantly diiJuiC-i and 
of gigantic size. "The botani^.ing^ ground near Melbourne 
proved but seamy, Ihe fields being; too well covered with grass ta 
allow of ni;4ny plajUs save. Buttercups and daisy-like Cvmpositxe, 
When carefully looked for, a few minute plants may be Funnel, 
among whicfi l^ H little Vevonka. scarcely two inches high, hur 
with lar^e blue flowers. About Llircc miles from town, where 
the road srruck into a j^um-hee forest, the cjrass was gay with a 
little starry flower {Hypoxis '^'Ofrirmii^). anH a blue scjmll-liVe 
plant (C<i'sui unthciHalij). A ^c-w Onhidetr aud a h'tdc Dri>scra 
were also picked up. On a sandy healh^ Hpacris imprcssn. to be 
Seen at the College or Glan'tevtn Gardens, was extremely 
abundant, and very beautiful. I liad nut met wdh it Ix'fore. 

■"The country around Gcclong is like th':' cuiTagh of Kildart, 
a resemblance which -struck me at once, and 1 suppose ha>' -^tnak 
<»4hers alsOj for one of ihe neighbouring villages i?? called )*vildare. 

"Oct. 15. — I have had two weeks of experience of Port 
F'airy, and have luadc a considerable collection of algae, but nut 
Ko many new .species amon^ them as T had anticir^ated Feihap.-? 
the most iriterestii>i^ one to botanists will be a new and perfectly 
distinct BaOia, which I pnrpt-Xve ca^Hng b robertiiwa, a name 
wliich will include in s-^und, ihough not in sense, both Robert ancE 
Mi59 Ball. It is quite as bcaiuiful under the microscope as the 
old one [probably B. callitri-:-ha]. but. being of a hrownish-rcd 
colour, it is not so pleasing to the eye. Strolling on the beach nf 
Port Fairy. I Iveheld for the fn'St (ime the famous giant C?tarweed, 
Sarcophyms poin-torum, wi<Ii a seem a5 lonjE; and as thick as a. 
niati's leg, and leaves like covv-hides stretched out, but measuring 
Iroixj twelve to twenty feet long. I sliaJl be [nizzlcd to find 
ispedmens sn^all erinu^h lo preserve, hut mu.^^t al least hrillg 



Li.'CAs, ./ Pioneer Botanist in I'ictoria. 


** One day Mr. H. and 1 rode from Melbourne \sic\ to Tower 
Hill lake, about nine miles from town. On reaching- tbe steep 
bank of the lake we looked down 200 feet into what must have 
been an extensive crater in old times, but is now partly a lake 
and partly a marsh. In the midst is a wooded island, rising like 
a cone 300 feet above the lake. There are two or three summits, 
in which there are said to be small craters. The borders all 
round the lake have similar marks of volcanic origin, and all are 
beautifully wooded. We had only time for a hurried scramble 
down the steep sides of the lake; and the ground being covered 

Dr. W. H. Harvev 

with rich grass T got ])ut few flowers, but among them was the 
little Australian forget-me-not, with white floM'ers. the beautiful 
Ajuga aiisiralis. a fairy vif)let, a nettle, and an indigo. On the 
waters of the lake myriads of a little floating fern, looking like 
duckweed, were swimming. The name is AzoUa. For its size, 
which is (jnly an inch across, it is extremely pretty. 

" In a walk to Toorak. where the Governor lives, a very pretty 
place, I picked Briiuonia australis for the first time. To the eye 
it is like Jasiouc uwntara [a British Campanulaceous ])lant], but 
with taller and naked stalks, and deeper blue flowers. 

J88 Li i-AS. J Pioneer liohvtisl in rirt.^ria. [^Vol. l"^' 

"Brighton Hotel, Port Phillip, November 5 [18541. — T came 
here yesterday, and am settled in a garret room up in the roof, 
lighted by a skylight of one pane of glass about twice the size of 
an ordinary ' ])orthole." I can stand npright in nearly half of 
the room, and sit comfortably in most of the rest. I do all my algae 
work at a little table, liiding the pa])crs and parcels under the 
iK-fl. Tiiough only at the opposite side of Port Phillip, some of 
the commonest of the Geelong weeds are not to be seen here, 
and vice versa. One fine Polysiplioiiin. two or three feet long, 
which I gathered here, was new to me. and I propose to call it 
/*. vktorkma, either after the colony or the Queen [eventually 
this became Sarcomcma victoruc (Harv.) J.Ag.]. When fresh 
it is like luxuriant tresses of pale auburn hair, but almost 
imniediatel}'. if left in the air, tu.ns to rose-coloured slime or jelly. 
I have managed, however, to preserve it pretty well. [It really 
has to be mounted as soon as taken from the sea water.] 

"On the return of the Wyvern, Government tender, now out 
on duty, the Governor will send her especially with me to Phillip 
Island, Western Port, where I am going to land with my hat in 
my hand, and to say, * Dear Mr. MacH. [MacHaffie], here I ani 
landed, but in want of bed and board. There are none, you 
know, to be had on 3*our island for money, so pray give them to 
me for love. All I want is a comfortable room, as many tubs 
of fresh water as possible, and plenty to eat and drink, etc., etc' 
j have a letter of introduction to this gentleman, ancl on the 
strength of it am going, if I can. to quarter myself on him. 

" Queen's Cliff. Port Phillip Head, November 30. — I took 
three places on the post car from Geelong to this place, two of 
them being charged for my luggage. The other passengers were 
v(*ry good-natured, and submitted to be hampered hv my 
ungainly bundles of paper, iron frames, buckets, bowls, dishes, 
and baskets. ' I like to be accommodated myself.' was the polite 
reply of one of the passengers to whom I apologized for my 
buckets pressing against his legs in the well of the car. We had 
a pleasant drive of twenty-one miles, which we accomplished in 
three hours, arriving in time for the hotel dinner. 

** I take my meals with the hotel people, and sleep in a sort of 
barrack-room, with four beds and a narrow passage between 
each. One of my fellow-occupants is the driver of the omnibus. 
but the other two beds are dependent on chance. One night of 
the seven I have been here 1 had the room to myself, but on all 
the others two or more beds were filled. Some are a little noisy 
going to bed, but soon settle down, and on the whole the 
<lisagreeability is not excessive, as they let me alone, and I go to 
bed generally first and rise first. The most disagreeable thing is 
that the sheets seem to be changed only at stated intervals, no 



December, 1933 


objection being: madr In* the chance visitors to sleep in thoi^r of 
th<* iornie.r tjccup^inr As i arrived in the middlt- oi ihe wf^^k, 
I found sucK as I did not choose to lie in, and ao, not to gjv^ 
offcuce. I slipped lu l>efcwecii the blankets; and tJiis I practrscd 
till 1 observed that a change of linen had supervened. So mucli 
Jar personal accoimnodation. 1 am much better oJT i.onclnng jnv 
collcctiotib-. US the landlord (a Litncrick nlaii) gives mc t!ic UM; 
of a sitting- room, in which 1 can make a mess to my heart*;^ 
content. Hitherto T have h-^d it imdistnrbed. bnt ro-day a hoat 
from Geelong, wiih a picnic party of excursionists, ha:^ filled the 
hoti^e witli diinkeri> and levellers, who, of course, have 
prcLerenee over a WAter-drinlcuv^- algologist; so 1 had to put 
away my affairs and turn out at a moincni's notice. 1 am 
thrreftire writing »ii my quurrrT-lit?drut>m (or more liJcially uiv 

" I hai'e, of coLU'-iC, been mU(.-h occupied with alfi^. si'd havt; 
a lair c^>liection. though mostly oi known species. i got one 
rather inn?resling novelly, a new species of Sarcomcimi. almost 
completely uneiiny iliat .^cnus with Dasya-, and yer with ;> 
dirterenee.' \S. da.^yojrl,:s Harv.l *i'his is t!:e second species^ 
T have :^<\r]c(\ to the genus, whicli is j-cuaarkable n: lis peculiarity 
ot rapidly changing colonr in the air. All the species, when 
gpi^wing. are a [jale fawn giey, with iridescent lints, bnl a Few 
minutes aUer they arc brou^lit into tlie air iJicy bcctjme a 
betuuitutly clear rose red, and they preserve ihu- colour in dn-iny. 
Tlic ivLMS in this* nLi^hh(.»urhood are prinri]tally she-oak?^ 
(CasuarlrK^), whieh have raihev a sombre look, being m<irc liK*& 
arborescent horselads than auyihing else. All tlie twii^s are 
jointed, and have Ifttle teerh at the joints, where thfv easily 
separate. I have found bm /ew addidoual land plants here. 
The only Ceni ii ttic commun brake (P'm.v Qijidthu^)^ exnctfy 
similar xo outs- at home. 

"1 sailed in the Wyvern on the Sth IDcc] lor Plii21i|3 I^knd^ 
and we entered the harbour at eleven o'clock next day I Inund 
MrK. MacH. ar home, who assured nie her htjsbatid WOUld lakfr 
me in, and that T could Jiavc c^=cry facility fur nic planls, etc. 
and so I returned to the vessel and landed after dnmei . wiiii ba^ 
and hagyage. wei.uhing nearly live cwt., which the sailors luad lo 
carry On their backi over Ihe iandhill^ ior a qijarh^r of a mile ro 
the house, poor tilings I 1 have called M\\ J\lacK.'>- dM'ellitijr a 
house, btit in colonial phrase it is onlv; a "hul,* being a llircc- 
loomcd ' wattle and dab' erection, hkc a small ccitiagc .Vothiug 
tXiuUl ej^ctcid Mr. nnd Mrs. MacH/^; kindness lo me the whole 
foitnij^'ht 1 wa=. wirli them. T liave nvade a very good colleaioT\ 
nt the valg.'e of the Island, and liavc discoveicd one vcty cunotis 
«ew species, resembling in iorni the many-headed cotton grass 
■o£ the \x:i^h bogs [Erioplionftn^, a Cyperooeous ^enu^^lr 

J*K) FAtwt'a. jV£7«f Rcconh oj Fiauts .HUirkcd [^v«V. ^?*' 

CoIlLK^uially I oa]! it ' liob-lails.' but botAiucallv I am going to 
name it Bellolia, in tnemory oir Litutcnaot Bellot, tlie yoitng 
French volunteer who was last in ihc search for Frnnldin. and 
I mean to send it to a frietul in Panii, to Ik: nodced by the French 
Instittite and published fiisf in that city. L havr. called a very 
beautiful [green} pJunt Apjohn\a, partly aFter Dr A. ;ind p;»rtly 
after his wife/' file also named, one is glud to think, Ojh: of 
the handson^est of his new Dasyas D. haffiiV, whether after his 
good hostess or, as bccnis to liavc become a habit with him, after 
husband and wife conjointly, T cannot say.] 

Harvey left Phillip Island with no small regret, after collecting 
his algx. a l^arrel full of sponges, and samples of Aicidians aiid 
sea-urchins. He left MeHxvnrne on Jantiavy 13, 1855. having^ 
spent more than lour monlhs in Vjcloria, at the end of whicli 
time he expresses him"icH to be " in he^dth and spirits, not 
hnnipsick or tired [ rise at five or six, and go to bed before 

INSECTS.— No. 10. 

TuE Elephant-beetle of the Ohange (OythorthinUs 
cylindrostris Fabr ) . 

By C- French (Guvertintcnt Biologist). 

The Elcpiiutit-bcetle of the Orange is ;i native insect. In its 
native state, it feeds upon dead or dying Australian timbers, 
ijccaskmally, however. aUacking sound trees This insect has been 
recorded now as seriansly attacking' orange, lemon, apple, peach, 
pinm, apricot, quince, tamarix, elm, and pine trees, as wdl as grape 

The adult msect is a lypical weevil> possey^lng the long; snout 
and also having the lore Jcgs very much longer than the hind 
If^S- In $i/xr il is very varialile rani^ing between one-third ot 
au inch and one iiicli in length. The hody is densely covered in 
scales, mostly f>rown in colour, but varying almost to white and 
black. The female weevil <lepo.sits her eggs in the bark in the. 
trunk of the tree within a foot or two of the ground. The 
larvae tunnel into I he limbs of the tree. 

Mr W. W. FroggaU states that " oi the native insects that 
were ftrst noted as orchard pests, this is prol>Hbly among the 
earliest, for. Olh'ff says, ' Scolt studied its life history, and 
recorded it as an orange-tree pest in 1862 ' " 

Fairly recently a fuie row of tiariarix trees planted along the 
foreshore at Altona Buy, near Fpint Conk^. wa^ prjic-ticnH)' 
<l€Strnved by these insects. 

urn ] Tnwt.K. /Hiorujinat Dmiifmij: Ni'nr Glfuhrook. ll^l^ 



By C. C. TowLK. 

Thft "Red Hand Cave" -is suital«=!d ncur the head of u ^iill,v 
about two and a half miles south-wesi of Glenbroak railway 
Station. Until lec^ntly, thefe was no dcfiivid route lo ihc c<*ve. 
and fe^V ventured to cross the intervening gullies and ridgcs 
without an experienced guide. Nowadays, there is a trick — 
abonr four nnks in Jeogtii — thniu^h the gullies, and access to ihr 
cave is ea^y^ 

This cav£i or more corteclly, rock shelter, was discovered niany 
years ago. After a long period of neglect^ it is now }3ei:oining 
well kuown, not only to students ot aboriginal art, but also ra 
other visitors. It is situated in an outcrop of MaAvkesbury 
saiKlstune., on the soolh &idc of Ihc gully, and laces^ ?ilmost due 
norih. U meri>ures alMiut 40 leet in length, about 10 icei in 
breadth, and 10 feci m lieij^hf Phe pirto^ra]}hs are. *:m tlK.' Mrall 
of the t;hek(r, the highebi being about seven feet ^ibnve rlie flnor. 
At the eastern end of the shelter, there arc iK^ markings for a 
distance of abooL 15 icei. 

The pictographs may be divid<;d into four groups: 

(1) There are ;T.hoi3r forty-iSve Ixand markings, both left iind 
right. Some of ihem are the hand markings nf children. In 
many instances a part of the (orearnn is also shown, and in one 
instance the entire forearm 

All thcvse markings have been done by the stencilling method. 
Aboiic forty of them wore done with re<l colour, and the 
reniairidcr with white. With t»ne exception they point upwards; 
some are at an angle of about fortA'-hve de^^rees, and the lemaindef 
are more or less verticab In one instance the marking of a 
han<l and forearm is horizontal. The precise position or angle 
of inclination of the Iiand marking does not seem to have had any 
special significance. It depended on the attitude adopted by the 
one M'hosc liand was being stencilled. In tlie shelter there arc 
many instances of hanfl markintys havinjj been super-imposed on 
earlier markini^s. Ir shotiid be noted thai Ihc figures mentioned 
in groups two, three, and four have albo been super-imposed on 
setme ni rlie hand markings. 

Jn jny opnii<>n, iherc arc no clear instance:? of nnnilat^rd of 
abnormal fuigcrs. Wv should exijcet In find a --.mall numljcr ot 
badly executed ^tendls. and vsmall defect? should not be interpreted 
(in ahnornjalines or mntilation^. 

(2) The second gronp consists of four ontlincs in red colour 
0J[ circles or ovals, which on their Knv4ir «.hies meet two short 
parallel lines I have no explanation 4o ofter as lo Iheic meaninj^ 
or significance. 


1W^ ToW'Lr, Aijongmol Dra^itfir Nt^r Chitt/roi^t^ [_ y^-j j^ 

(3) The ihii'd group consists of one pictogiaph in solid red. 
colour.' At its top end the.s'e is a V-shaped notch, and its bottom 
end is truncated. Its meaning is unknown, although it is 
somevvhat fish-ltke in form, On the other hand, it may represent 
same sacred object. In his *' Aborigines at New South Wales," 
John Fraser-has stated' that the bull-roarer was "sometimes 
shaped and marked so as to make it look like a fish "'' (pp. 12 and 
19). He dnts not mention the area over which this ]"or!Vj wa-^ 

(4) The remainin^tr group consists of two human fignresr 
(males) outlined very lightly in white, the body o^ each being fdled 
in very crudely with a few hatched lines. These figures are so 
lightly sketched that it is not possihic to trace clearly iheir eniire 
outlines. Both Irnve been drawn with arms outbtretched. l»ui 
without bands. At the end of Q<iCh arm oIl <he lary^cr figure there 

Human Figurts in the "Rpd Hand CavV. 
— Vhotc^g. by C-. C. Towl6. 

are three short lines pointing- upwards. Neither figure possesses 
feet, but the legs of the smaller figure taper to a point- 

These pictographs are interestinE,"^ because they are such crude 
representations of the human form. Not only arc the tumds and 
icet absent, but the taces have not been delineated, and ccrtani 
{Mirts of the body arc out of ix^rspectivc. They appear to havc- 
been intended for fidl-face drawingo, but both show the buttocks, 
greatly exag^geratcd, on tlie one side of the body, and the sex- 
organs on the other. Two or rbree Hues appear to have been 
drawn under the left arm of tlte smaller figure, but they are 

It would be interesting to know whether this rock shelter was 
connected with ceremonies of any kind, but on this question wc 
have no information. Any attempt which wc mav now make to 
ijiterpret the series depends upon the mcatung which wc read into 

tlK^ni. Siicll a JUet]\ocl is ^\niti imsatisfaclory liecaiisc we know 
very little conrernin?:^ Iho dtiongiiics of liiat area. It mny a)50 
-b<: j^ecessa^y to decide whether vouug chiUlren would hi allowed 
10 Iiavu ucctia 111 ii ]>lact^ itsed lor reremonsal pnrjioscs. 

Although now hidder. <iw;^y jtt ilic gullies, the shelter was nol 
situated in an isolated place in tlu^ day^ of the aborij^incs Acvcs:* 
lu Clcnbrook Creek and the Nepean River U noi difficult, ami 
ilaete t^ plenty of evidt-ncc that ilic ahoriguics frcqucntwl all that 
region. Ill ncarh' all tht, crtieria, hix<:-^rjnding g^ruove?= have been 
I'.ouiKl in larg'e numbers; anti, aljoiit one mile from die shelter. 
Axes and flalreR have heen found oil the bajjk ot ii small creek. 
Iri and near the shell er. cSpeaaMy on ;in t<rea oS flat °jrtiund 
inuncdiaich' Jtbovc it, .scventl ;ixe.s, sratie lt<iinniei' sionci. and lar^e 
number^ of flakes have l>een found. 

Withniii doubt ihe sliellcr was accessible to the IocaI uUoYl^UieM 
from several directions, ^ud w:\^, ujjpniveinly, mnrh ireqtieuicd by 
them; and they alone t-ould have eoli^fitened ns ns to thr? meaning, 
and piupose of the series of piclo^Taplis whxh 1 hciv<r iiesciibejd- 


The Si. Kitd* town Hall, ou the vJc;:asitMi of the Wild Kauire Show, 
yres^-nced *< most .■it('rr4rfivc appearattre. a pvran]i<l of WarfiUhs Iw^.iii^; the 
ccnual leaiure. Sc-.dtjm. it cwt, Ira-s a rnotr. rc-prcscntipive and beautiful 
exhibition <.tf Auslralian vvildHcwera htzm'i asseii:l)iwl. 0\^ Iho cts.P'i' wa\ 
;^iT:in)2;ecl a bush hLt'iic, li':hiin.l whu'h ^^!■. Fltfisy's Hvuip irifirsupials were 
oil view. 

Ihe bhuw vvds ffjrniaJly ui>au:d on Thursday .iftcrnoon. Odoher 13, \x7 
Sir John Macffitland, Ctiaiicellor ol the Mcllvjurnt University, whn 
cougruiutcitcd the C.\ub upon the fi'ic display, and iifged ihc )ie^(l Oi 
lircserv;-.tion o* naiivt fauna aiKl Horu in perniiiueut :ianciuurion. 

Tlio conttihinion <>i ihe Sbeit C<>nipaiiy» imde-' ihe ^nvet'^i.chi ol Mr., H. 
Brown and Mr-i. C. Barrel!, was exceptioioally bcaulifU and varu-4. T| 
Mi:!iiiri\tT| strange iropvcal plants from i-ie rain-tonf^t >ji Ihtt Atht;r*:ui: 
t;il>le|;uul, Quecnslaudj Uirtnigh Un: i.our1e-->y uf Mr Jii<--i T;n*dr:nl. i.»f thL- 
.St;ite Forestry Deprirtnient, nnd Mr. H. W. Foretnan. of the .^JieJI 
Coini);juiy at Athcrlon. T'.icsc cxbihits ir<»jn olhcr StalC-i were ^ihippe.d m 
ice foi the Show- fhrough the good olhcc& oi Mr. J "iKort. of Continoii- 
vvVaith Railwiivs, Port Augusta, plant:: from that art-.a, tiii>cc',ially Hrilh;int 
>|Jeciniei"*i of Sturi'5 Desert Pea, \y*^r*i on vitvv : vvhik* Irwn Mr, L. A^;!^by■^ 
^>rn(*n. inclvKhnft dainty fi^alhny flinv<r>, K.-inj^arofi-Paw^, r-Srinnia:;. vie. 
chert; wis Hi: adinirahle exhihit. \ divcT^e e>chibi:. the -letit vot seen, ui 
the TaMn;ni;an flora was v'=eH ^la^^d. As tijiial. the f'.owrrs finti-. Wc-;tt-rf 
Australia. wtTc c^ulitilit-Ljl tri q-ita^nintii itf lorin, ^'Arietj, . colyiniiiiti, an»l 
beauiy tti bloom. From Kcw Sourh Wnle.'.. aUo. came floral siimmtuv 
iii <li.^tifii.1ivr rharactur and irilereie 

'flic " lihcll ■' exliil>ii5 (,>fO\'cc1 * very iv.tim'aT feature nt Iju S'lvvv- 
VictoriiiTi i>lam?i from every pari ol the ^Ui\*t were in ilie f-jr'.'fronl d'* :i> 
I^e5(^lly and varitty, Wrorn' ffffWi.fsirtiO' wa* noti*d ah 4 new reojrcl foi tlie. 
Wef-r of Vicfori.T. 

A ubie of Victorian plants under cuUivviliiMi <'.IIo^^et3 Me yreal process 
uWc m rtiar dircili'.'ii Planli spL-ctl'ied iin-^cr ihe Wild Pl-iw-.-r t^rolettioit 
Ai:1 wt;re dbu di^^idnyed. \)r. C. Sutton, Mmcb J. OalUraitb aud P. Sniitli 

Nfl the linforinativc scctiuu, uiving the cbssificatiiDn oi plants, aiw! provid"\K 
a ready and convenient riiferenrt for lH>lanicdI st\idcnt- and -pUnt-IcrvCTS. 
_ ^fr, A. J. Sw^by Miowwi, in a \velUi(i.=infe:*e(.l 3iid illiiUnilo*! <:xhibil, 
"The Plant Kin^<}otii ai a Oancc,"— CiypUigam? jml Phancroe:fiJTn.^, with 
(heir -,uhM'diaru^s. The Si:Hr»ol o( Horticulture. Buniley, lud a ftne 
A5<sor|tner>l of native Hovvers. a^lractivcly set out. WitJ' a ii;iiiily section of 
mojvcs and thfii mitiufr ns=aciaied plants Ihdi uiijsht have ldqic from 
Ohtron's fairy^Und Mii iL Colerr^in'^ pTHseiitalion of orrbids, always 9 
dclig^ll"! feature, included 37 species, one of which. Mutchi ovbicHJtitis, 
\va*t a new record tur Vi<:toria during the Ia>t ve'ti'. Vr, Thomann, ot 
W'anfha;;pi, far iht ihinl y-ejif i»i snucvsioii. 'supplied & rvvrcictitativc 
iJOlU'ltion cC Orchids ^rr>n: his district. 

A sncxi exhibit oi Uie Hora itoni Broken Hill and txoiti Mtuagong 
aseracted irilercil and admiration. Mt , P F, Mofvi?'. of the N'ational 
HcrUF»rit)nt, contributed spccimeit!: of the commu'ri grasses-, native and 
intradui_ed, foutid Amund the environs of Xfelboiir»ie, also a citar! of 
Vi-^ioriaa aquatic plaiifs suitable for aquaria tank*, and jwiidi- 

For cut ii]i!it:> I here wjis a Iinsk demand, also tor native plants in puts 
irnm the nurserios- ,\s a r€?i»H of the Sliow being held dori&ts now 
cultivate an uifreaiinffly hr^t. number of species, tor winch Ihere i« much 

Mr. 7>. T3. ^'Icay's umt|Wf nulkc.tion of marsupTaU wai a ainthiual centre 
ni attrnctton. For convetneiu mspecuon. however, the lyjiition w.ts 
Uria-UitaMp, leatliag to frciiUortt coiis;fKtt<Hl among tlie c^-^^t sight-sof^r^. 

Undf^r Mr. H. VV. l>avo''& over.^ieht were the Rcptijia, etc.. ictcluthnj; 
iow Tii;f:r Snakes and a Carpel Snake, iirovirjcd by Mr, T E-adci*. who 
afrciideci a^^i ;?ave informalion aS?i« ottates, their poison-inngs, anr* the 
milking jirocesis, also descriiiTiK the inccharrical snak-i-catchiiig rods 
*xhibi!ed^ Liz^vdfi and .Ainf-hdiiAn*: wcr*: t^tliihit^d ^>y• Mr. Davsy. Mr. 
Normau MtCanoe showed thd Ax-jlotl (ToetanioT'jhoscd). iwo rare Fire 
Salamanders, and three Ti^cr Sahirnanders 

Mr C. j OnbrjetV- ccnlccticn o| shells was beautitui and oiittnjctiYC. 
The sttiallest Victorian shcU, a thirlidh <A an inch in si/v, was -ix^ntrasUil 
with the liiri^c^t :?hi:|l of tU'^lvc inches. Ship-borers (Tt'J'cHo) >*/ere ?.howu 
as- dcstrurtitT; apejits. 

the Ltfafiue of Naiive-'over^i. whose Icatler vi thu Rev. Ccor^c CJcix, 
rcViialod the. wide rangr of activities in ii5 ohitiiis, inainJy oi shore hfc» 
winch wrre diverse a"c1 we'l-arraiigcd. Close at hand phi.vU'ig.raphi) oE 
lyjrical Victorian iortst trees and oi the dire effects of eror-ion =irid 
denuriation d'.!c to detnrt-^lrttiLtn •A-ere nxhihiLeO by the Fureslry D<:t*anmont. 

At the \vriitcf*n ^rtU oi ilic hnll wj-'i the*ini> Scrti^in, with 
.•ioecimere; wcl? selected to ijlustrate aLx'rie'rnal ^loile Odd vvood C'Univc, In 
its raried develofirtieitl Tins was suppliml Uy Dr \V*i:ihart and Mr. K. 
Sniirh- Miss Brown. Han. Secrctat) oi *he Vtctorian AhnrlRiisa! Crnup, 
aho-wwl the hattdiwork ri aborigines io native aitf. aiid crafts, while o« 
view waK also a misceliarieoui- collecliou, luitivc maX^ trom iScw ZcaUlOt 
objects from New ijtOnca, QuetiisUivJ, drid btill-roarecs Uom Vjclorla. 

In Rcolo^y, the tNhibjts inrludeH fossiit. varied crysta"] (otms, agates,. 
yeiriHtd woort. the occurraiLc ol' gold. niodeU of nugm:;ts. Australitcs, and 
a p<irtioii of a iiiettorke f»otn Craahouruc shown, bv Mr. ii. f<. Milchell 

From the Aquariuni were some Australian p^rr^ts; and the North 
Queensland i^atiir:*lists' Onh sent a selection of Karrier "Reef corals. The 
micntologi^al seclioii had a wide range ut cxliii'ils — casc^" oi ijcetlt-s. 
nCaraU and jcwcU, bultcrfiits. inolh-s. cicadas. P-nt-lionF.. rcibbcr-flies, *mprX 
<iddUie&. ct(. . J'orrniiif a pnpular and compreheniive exhibit of ediKaliona! 
valije. Mr F. E. vJilson and Mr A N Burns made extcusivv displays; 
and Mr. J. A. Kcf^haw showed cases o( i-epidopiera. 

Tlic room set apart lor the nMci^osropc^ was under Mr. B. Blacfcboiinrs 

care. T^>c fotlowiofe exhibi'.eU darint one or more o( (he sessions:— Mi&scs 
A. M. Ball, K HaII, j. Hi^rvic. and G NtiR-hhour: Messrs. B- ■RtarWbf^uni, 
H. McCIoske)-. A. CBrieu, (i. Ogilby. ti. WnJe, J. VVilccx. ?.ud Mess-rs-. 
N- H SH\v>irH Piy. r td- We lender (harilis rn fhcse IipIjuts, aii/l alsn tf> 
Dr. C. S- Sulion. Messrs, J-cr^iuon. J. Tilgrani, and J. Searle lor ihe loan 
ut rnivr-jscupcs. Mif,s Harvie exhibttifd coloured photo^Taphs oi native 
Hewers with the b-lere'^cujic, aud MiiS Neighbour v''»"i*iog5 oi hjulierflt*^?. 

The Inquiry Riireau fiiviii;ihed :^encrAl irtforni;itiriii as tr» nature subjects. 
e:';Kiijits, Cluh ain!& and nrenibenship, etc.. while abo 56llii\g booVs Ji*i(t 
fjrocluirc5 on ii9,utrri1 l^i&t<^ry Mibjecla Under rl^c ilifc-'sion of the 
PriisicJcnt, Mr. V. H. Miller, and tlir active «;rviccs oi Oie Show 
Secelar.v. Mr. W. H. I't&ram, Die Show svns c;ii>ab^i; org-.^tiiztt], and 
Willing Wiirkers rltcrj fully 3J^i,ibtcd in all sections in ensuring it?- sikccsa. 

Among others not nbove menrioned wUo contributed id the sucucs^ of 
the Show were Mestiafiict* MiTcr, Pcscotl, S^'aby, Cooper- Mi^-^ci Bokon. 
Hvsiop. Harvier. Mes^^r;. T. Hflvt, H. Huftlies. J Fn^rjm. Salou. Pnmdiool 

'Jhe natitbei^ of vli?.itoi'i fo** \r\(^ tvvo da\'f wa5 e*?tinure<i ai (iver Jiix 
Ihous^srid, ami chc :i|JiJraxitnati; receipts it i290. a very satisfaclur.v result 
To all who helped to nchicve this, llie btsi tlt;»nK*'5 of lli« Cominnti-p j.rr 

leiider'x' ^<if thrir tnisflftsb scfvitV. 

T|-.e iollowirijk! coiitril>.:ted .'lowers or i^lanciv* — Mr. SlauRritcr, Thirl:jnbt*r 
Queensltind: Mr. *\ W MtivLTh Sl Arn;iud: Mr H. Sniitft, Horslinm: 
fiiK collection froni Ruse's Grii and lltile T^e^crt ; Mr. Hon>aii:i. 
W<Mnhaftf^i ; Mr. DArman. Taratl;ile; Mr. .SuffaRl, L.iii»: t: Mr. C 
RiV^LTs. HalTi Ciap, Ciruiiiiiiaii-S : Mtss i:!anfi»:;ld. ArAr^t; \lr. F. Barton, 
C<raiI(^I Ki.-nd locci^ fiUnr-;, Spc-rni-'X'hulo head; Mr. Ilixlgso?! Hcdiev and 
Miss Rossitcr ITfdley. Gippslaud tior^i ; Mr. T*escnTt, pJanr=. _rcMn Vryer^- 
town ; Mr. A. J Sw^ihy, iohhT;*! |.tUots : .VI ibS Lars^jn Mr, Saton. 
FrantcAloi^, Mr A La<Uun, Bcecliworth; Mr- Alorgan. Cobirni^ra. AlpinL* 
flora: Dr. C. Sulion. Brisbane R^iiatT pbuls; Burnley tlor1>Culiur.-ii 
Gardc^^^. very fitir disijUy; Mr. Li>we» Mitiaeoivg; ; Mr. A. Morns, Broken 
Hill, fine Qianthiis Dafifiert; Mr. J. Anda.s iivjm AnakiC Gurge. South 
Aa&trnlia, plaac survey; She'! Ojnii>3iny. Jntcr£(3tc colle":ti<?n Ctilrivatod 
iVaiive Fl'jv^'erS :— Mr. Kobincott Dntson ; Mr. <,. ('ogbill. Mr. Jnnkins. 
Mi-.f. Willif^ni'.on. Miv.-; Cralhraith, Mr. .Hildas. Mrs. C. Barrett, Mi. C 
Daley, Mcssri. HaitimtU. Hode^on, BUlcc, SaIoo, Uuli2. Pitrln-r, Ciomb, 
Mesdames 3 . Sniirh and Dill. 

Tlu- Cumrtiiiitic desire to thaiiW Mc^bts. Dott ffe Co for (he Iwan of ^Ihh^ 
tanks; Mr. R. R. Pitt. Qm^ LAHi<ru\^x for gl^<s cases; the R.A.OU., for 
.':a»e*i of hirdN. yho tin? Motional Muspum. for c:\-hTlnt5, Mr. Olircr, 
E>&eodort G-ifden^. kindly supplied iiifontiauo)) ior llie Bitr-li Scene, and 
thai^k's arc t^mk-red tO the Afjc. t)ic .'^'■^yus, t/ic fhvald, ami the .S'lm for 
the publicity given yn prcs^ notices, and to rtie Agt Ofiice tor I he supply 
o» ]iap«r '01* the tables. 

f:x<:ijRsioN TO gisrornr. 

>r.ovrml»cr 7 fCup I'ay) bniuj^ht s oarty of Melbo»iriie tnc-mlvri and 
frieiidf to GCsboriip to ineet friends and member^ of the L!ub chcrc. VVbto 
a.^scmtilc^ wr numbered some 30 jti-T-ioiiN- The dav was n^i^al, won'n and 
pl«iiant. and did wc not i.t.tu^rntul.ntc ourselves wlittii. on the morrow rain 
felJ steadily nearly all day "r \\>. thought what mighl liave been. A" ihc 
local «rr»niicinents were; niad^ riud c-Ri'iied our by our Cisborm* (rit;i4di>. 
They lud fixed ^ovenlbe^ but probably in the tuiure will decide mi an 
Octolirr outiiJft; as the September Show Dw hc-Jiday baa, III \\\t past, 
tti'oved too eany for many loi-ni^ nf lollc-cling. 

Although (iisborne boa.its •>! an nnnual ranifull ij\ ^ i-.u li*-:., or five 
more thai' Melhuuritt'. the .season tiaiJ becM ^ dry oitc suid apnloKies lAnepf 

made bv our counUy fnetiOs for seascnat ?hoTtcoinii'iif?-. as well as lor. iliC 
:>lranifc' disepfc (IKai natl •?xcrci3a! the minds ot fcre«i cX£rt*rt^ foi some 
i'tm^) affecting many of cite EucaKpts along tht roaO;.. the trees bhowiiig 
RiS»\s ofa. prerriatLir'- tier^y. Right tlirough hh? cliytricts '..| MaCcJoii and 
^/istwnie it is gf-parctU fhat fcnu:duil i.t*ip5 shoulil be taVca hci'orc !t Is. too iiotwithitaiiriing the great wQrk amcl cxpcntc. The liisex'.e woulil 
-Nceni t'> -be recurrent, a.*, it liss ?pi!n rctunied 1^ Cislxjrnt ^ftcr an absence 
<.i| a season 9r two. 

By their great kindnesp. Mr Swinburne and toe local t>arty made up for 
fl\>>thtn8 UK:king. suid proved to us that riicy v^crc not only yrUeiil 
'■'h^cncrs. bat also ent|-ii«iAs!ic wnlktrs. Mr. G. i..vcll» the veteran 
Itpkloptcrist. stiti shows ania-?iog activity, As with IVIt. li. I^ixoiK a local 
tirttundu!, ::trd Mr. Granl. the District Weed Tmpcctor^ he conducted 
the general p'lrty- ]£ Ihe walk proved a tridc U.ii^ fcr some unu-ed Ut 
\valVjMi;, it was niade most jn^^/cstii-ig, a.$ ItifSe g-uidcs ioM nothinc .-lo T>ic 
win^> whcdier i.abect> iu var>ed formi, or the loan/ hirds thdc calkxl <•*! 
hanimiijcuslv- A second 5cc(i0ft of the i>arty became geolrtgu'ts, under the 
lucvil vtleran AivA ctifh\i^i;ii,t, Mr. VV. Cra^yford, who w$3 ably i^ccoiulcd 
hy Mr- F Singleton. B.Sc They enleiUinu-d us after lunch by explaining 
;ind luming. tnos;r interesting fcinns of Ordivicnin Gr:iptoli(es. slrant^e 
treflturcs, Llie (u-s-l iomis oC life in hygone -iges, .vhici': Mr. Crawui"ord bad 
VoHectcd I'joaltv ]l3t:1c$oit'*( Crcfk and '.he Gisbf-TiiD Creek nnd their u.orgev 
offereil many oi^iiorl'iniities (y the gcfilo^iftls First a t!'"svel l>il was 
cxanntied. which exlcndi iVtr acveral miles. V'arir-.u.<. hict^ vw(n<' woicc,. 
Jacksnii's Creek showed suh-b^s&Uit; clfiy. and inovided carbonjKed 
ve^elnble tiiatiirr and Ordivictan shales, containing fjidyvii^rtfupins ro\iuCi**i\'. 
and itirther down 5tre<oii Oncof/rapu^-i itpsJoii. 

At PhjIIipfi' Dridcfc 'n^c cnjoycii -.ihar'e nM lumh by the iHtttntn^ ilTean;. 
•fV-lttre Ihc Real-gist? laltr lound Ouco;jtyit>iiiS ■\if*/Hon ana Didyiti^-^ifiuttHuf 
V Jtprrliis Thr geologi^Ti later explored the- raiivva> cmiinff. ami lovatud 
many sjiecunens there for future invrstigation. Al Itit; 42od n"»'lc pu^t 
s<verfll ^yell-t^reitii'VCd Mitcituen*. oi Lower UarnwcJI grautnlvtcs wrrc 

Ovps 1,(^1 bomnical ■-:pecirnen5 were observed and named, *>R hein^r in" 
Howef- TIk; Iftlier incluikd the hiwEy Roi'chia piHy^fiJijx/fiit, (he buiutiivll 
Uiuwy Ted pea '3r trailing Oxylnbittm procumbcns (worlliy of fjriUtLtidH; . 
Btid ihc rare nrUitd CaioiUUn^ it^licrhti. Moit oi u& did rnyt iee th.c group 
o< six plants of the lascnained iu situ, but Mt*pel^tvd a. flovvrriny spi^:imeji 
at the train. A* the cx^Uector^ were orchid eiithmiastj., u'c have no dottbt 
Mil iliHt iKc rifcid insisKPre of this Cluh to c;irjy out the Wild I'.owers 
Protcclicn Act did- not allow their enthusiasm to violate tht;ii' fthliKi^tioi'?' 
oy disUirbiuir ^^"^y '"'f ^he lober^. To .-Hay ra-'e. Club niu^t very act3\xty 
iosisl un its mcniberfr and ;hofrc who accompany the c?ccursifHi<i to ^acrc4liy 
rcafe^'iiard fn-iir re.xE>?iL5ihd:tic5 to itie public and future gcnercitions. This 
Club i> one of the fe\v instihitions posterity ivll! have Jit thank for 
thirtkiuR of ;l. 

I would like to E^fo on a suggestion made at thi.% outtnf by ^n intelligent 
younger member m the Bolamcal Section He obtnins, like M\vs>;li. srvat 
ai3iitaiice froni aii cirly ^lounding in boyhood of granimahcal r<K»»f, 
ulVtxcs, Miffixes. We Tnul thcst invalujtlj!e in o*.ir determiuatiroo. when 
wc f\rst cnme on bota-iT'.^l name? w>: ar^:* not Uuiihar with, antl ottcn n^n 
recall the plant from th._^ Greek rrr I.atin root iiideHhIy printed somewhere 
Oil our brain. The n4.tTic seettit to uxwt with the OKatitii^ oi tlte root. 
Perhap*; joinothiag cf>uld he done lo draw up sudi 3 glossary- oj- mnemonic: 
U:\| to whose callma <Joe5 uor hrlng ihem to loueh wnli scif-iice or 
its tcrnif. aitd supply a want not only to the beginner, t-ui a ready ;»id to 
liir more advanced. I siqf^eat i feft 93sc$ ^ &i» -ftnrtci' l<> our Census. 
, , ,.-,. . ' ' A. J.. TAncrm.u 


Plate XXVII 

January, 1934 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. L-^No. 9 January 8> 1934 No- 6or 


The ordinar}' meeting oi tht; CKib was ht-id at the Royal So- 
ciety's Hall on Monday. December 11, 1953. at S pw. The Pre- 
sident. Mi\ V H, MiUer, presided over au altcndauce of about 
100 rnt-mhcrs and iricTids. 

Previous to the (general niectin^^ a special meeting was held at 
7.45 p.m. About 30 membei's v^'ere presf^nt for this meeting, which 
had been- called to alter Rule 4c. The Secretary rerid the rule aS 
i( -stood, 2nd then the proposed amendment. Ou -a show of hands 
the ntle wa5 altered ro read, "and may receive books from the 
library ou pvaymeni oi postage one way . - . ," 


Tleportb" wei'e as ioUow; — ^Waudiii, Mr. E- S. Hanks; Bn'abaiic 
Rani;es, Mr. L. W. Cooper; J.^iamond Creek Mr. L. W. Cooper;, 
Kinglake West, Mr. A. A. Brunton and Mr. T. S. Hart. 


On. a show oi hands the foUowmg were duly elected; — As 

Ordinary Members: Mis.s Ethel trails, Mr, A- C Frostirk. Mi. 
Cecil Le Souef, Mr. W. P. Wheildon, D\: Krancis K. D^^rcy* 
As Country Member : Mr. J. Lidgctt. 


Mr, J. A. Kershaw spoke on the proposed opening of the 
Quarantine Reserve to the public^ and remarked that as this h 
almost the only piece of natural Tea -tree coast rtmainiui; near 
Melbourne, it should be preserved as sucli. Mr. E- E. Pescott, Mr. 
Geo. Coghill, and Mr. A. J. Swaby spoke in support, and on a 
motion it was decided that a letter he sent to the Minister in 
eharge of Health, asking that this area be left as it is. 

Mr. A- n. E. Mattinglcy spoke of vandahsm in connection with 
abong;inaI rock drawings, etc., and .^taced thar rare examples at 
Ararat were being destroyed. After some little discussion it was 
deciiled that letters l)e sent to the Ararat Prugi'csi: Association, the 
Field Maturalists' Club at Ararat. Ararat Town Council, and the 
Shirc Seeret^ry of the ]4;^iiiilion nistnct, askinj^c whether some- 
thing could not be don<! to preserve <he*se relics of a last disappear- 
ing; ract-. 

Mr. E. E. Pesvott said that the Brown Quail -was rapidly dis- 
appcarmg from its known haunts Mr. Proudfool mentioned thai 

i|& Field Naturcdsts' Club Froceedings. {^^^^ ^"^' 

domestic cars gone "bash" were responsible for this disappearance 
m many cases. It was reported ttut Mr. F. Lewis, Qiief Inspec- 
tO'.' of Fisheries and Game, was iiivestigatin;^ the position, and it 
was decided that a letter be sent Jroni the meeting, supporting any 
action he may take, for the preservation ol the bird. 

Mrs. J. W. Aucias recently suffered a bereavement, and the 
Frttr.retavy was asked to send a letter expressing sympathy. 

A paper by Mr. J. W. Audas, entitled '' A Week amnu^ the 
Wildings;' was, in the absence of Mr. Audas. read by Mr. E. E. 
Fescott, who, with Mr. H. P. Dickens, showed lantern slides in 
iUusrriition ui ihe paper. The paper dealt with a trip to the 
-Dcnalla district. Little has been piibhshed in relation \o the 
fauna and flora of thl:s district and much intormation was g'iveo 
to members. Tlie thanks of the Chib was accorded to^ Mes^i's. 
Audas, Pescott, and Dickens. 


Mrs. M. E. Freanie. — Snrike-eek eggs of Cuttlefish, and Sea 
Anemones; all from Altona. 

Mr, A. H. E, Mattingley. — Churii-iga. Aruuta Tribe, Cenvi-'al 

Mr. Geo. Coghill.— New Zealand Rata. 

Mr. Ivcv Hammatt. — Insects on a Melaleuca. 

Mr. H. P. McColk — ^Vee and insects, 

Mr. J. A. Kershaw.— Noctin'd moth, Amut disjungcns Walk,, 
captured at Windsor. A Qticensland species not previously 
recorded ironi Victoria. Possibly introduced, Lepidoptera 
tram Wilson's Promontory, includino; A^gynnina hobarfia 
Westw. (new locality). >}^ eolucia -acirkola W\-slw., and Tisiplum? 
ubcona Don. 


Onlv a siHiiU number ol tneuihers took part in the walking e..KCuc:-.ion troiti 
Diammitl Creek on Uctxnnbcr 2. The weather was pleasant, thoucrh vVMrtn, 
nnd th*f walk lo St- Hekiia and Gfeeafrborough was most uittTt-stuiy, WiliT- 
flc)wer.s were not at their best, hut several "Rudflyhood*;'* (Ptcrostytis 
pttsiiJa) were noiiced. and also a fair mmiber oi other fioweniKi planis, 
Many birds were seen, iiud also icvcrul ivests. Thcbc were idcntificrt by Mr. 
A. 5. Chaili, who captained the ch-iractensrics ot the various b>r<ls. The 
■party .^topped for a time at tlie little church at St. Helena, where Mr A. R. 
Proudtoot rccounitid same of the early history cannfxtcd with this iniereshiig 



Chandler, \olcs t*n the Malice I-oi<-!. 



By L. G. Chandler. 

My first visit to the haunts of this remarkable l)ird was in the 
district now known l)y the name of Cowangie. in X'ictoria. This 
was in the spring of 1912, when the Mallee was in the grip of a 
drought. Most of the land around Cowangie was then in a virgin 
condition, but closer settlement had begun, and already a number 
of settlers were on their blocks. The bullock-roller had crushed 
and levelled miles of Mallee scrub, and a few farms had been 
planted with wheat. 

Photo, by L. G. Chandler. 

The Mallee Fowl "At Home." 

I^ven at that date the ranks of the Mallee Fowl had been sadly 
depleted. Shot-gun and rifle were undoubtedly the main cause, 
for the settlers found the bird was good to eat. Foxes, cats. and. 
at one time. Dingoes, have been responsible for much mortality, 
but against these enemies the Lcipoa could hold its own. ^lan. 
with his deadly weapons and materialistic outlook, is the chief of 
all destroyers. 

At one time. Cowangie must have been a wonderful haunt for 
the Mallee Fowl. During my visit I saw dozens of old nesting- 
mounds, and about twelve new mounds were found. Before it 
was opened for settlement, the country to the south of Cowangie 



January, 1934 

200 C'm.smh 1--1'. Xt^tt'x i>u the Motfrr !-in<'l. |_ ^^^^ y^ ' 

was particularly rich in hird-hfc. For miles, it consisted of 
iindulatinj^^ ground coni])oscd of flats between a series of sand- 
ridges. The vegetation was principally Malice Gums {Eucalyptus), 
but in places were fair-sized areas of Murray PJne.s and Iklar, 
(Casuariua Icpidopliloca), an<l thickets of "I.'>room ]3ush," Tea- 
tree, Turjjentine Bush (Bcycna) and Myall (Acacia liomalo- 
phylla). Xearing the desert, the reddish-coloured sand merges 
into a white sand; the Turpentine Bush is rarely seen, and its 
])lace is taken by a species of Heath and Tea-tree; the Murray 
Pine degenerated into a dwarf si)ecies. but the Porcu])ine Grass 
[Trioiiia) grows luxuriantly. 

1 presume that the last Mallee Fowl disaiipeared from 
Cowangie many years ago. What ha])pened at Cowangie is being 
repeated now in the newer Mallee. I refer to the IMillewa. The 
sad part, to a naturalist, is that much of this land may subsequently 
revert to scrub-land: but the wild life will have passed, and then 
Lc'ipoa will never be seen again in its old haunts. A few pairs of 
birds still remain on aliandoned blocks, or perhaps I should write 
they w'ere there last year, l^y this time they may have gone the 
way of most Mallee F^owds in settled areas, and fallen to the gnn. 

On November 5 and 6, 1932, I spent a very enjoyable week-end 
in a section of the Millewa, now being used for wheat farming, 
and on an abandoned block where a friend had located a mound 
of the Mallee F(jwl in use, I was successful in obtaining a series 
of photographs of a bird at the mound. Watching the species at 
close cjuarters from a "hide", is a pleasing experience, for it is 
then that one realises what a handsome and remarkable creature 
it is. I was intensely interested in observing the scratching of the 
bird around the rim of the mound. There seems little doubt that 
this scratching is done daily to keep the soil loose, retain moisture, 
and to assist the yomig when it is ready to leave the mound. 

I had the unique experience of seeing a young bird come to the 
surface at a spt)t where the old bird had been scratching, and 
I secured a ])hotograph. The chick only rested for about ten 
.seconds on the surface, and then ran swiftly and hid under some 
leaves. The old bird appeared near the mound at a quarter to 
8. A settler told me that they usually come to the mound about 
8 a.m. 

The l)ird. when scratching, uses first one Um)K and then the 
other, each three or four times. The bird that T watched and 
photogra])hed was absolutely silent at the mound, and this silence. 
combined with the deliberate way it went about the work of 
scratching, gave it a sedate and dignified appearance. My "hide" 
w^as rather a poor one. and the bird was susjMcious. and several 
times left the mound and the vicinity. It went away quite 
unhurried. an<l ap])arently not nuich disturbed. 

(Jne finds the mounds in all kinds of situations, but there is 
usually one side more or less open where the l)ird has an oppor- 


Plate XXIX 

January, [9^4. 


Chandler, Xotcs on !hc Malice luni'l. 


tunity to ^ct away quickly, if necessan'. The debris for the 
mound is swept and scratched up from all arotuid. In one case 
that I noted it had lieen scratched from a distance of about 25 
yards, and had been left ready to transfer to the mound in one 
long line. The presence or absence of rain must affect the nesting 
activities of the birds, for moisttn^e w(juld appear to be necessary 
to set up humidity within the motmd. 

Photo, by L. G. Chandler. 

Close-up view of young Lowan. 

One of the favourite haunts of the Lcipoa is among the Turpen- 
tine Hush, and the seeds of this bush are freely eaten. The green 
shoots of plants, fungi and all manner of edible insects are 
included in the menu. One finds places where holes have been 
scratched in the ground after insects, and rotten wood disturbed, 
possibly in search or Termites, or White Ants. 

Under existing conditions, the Mallee Fowl is doomed to extinc- 
tion, and man\' other forms of Mallee wild life also, l^ird-ltn'ers 
and natnre-lovers in general should awake U) this fact, and ])er- 
sistently agitate for a large park in the Mallee — the area around 
the Hattah Lakes would be suitable — but any park without one or 
two wardens, who must be carefully selected, would be more or 
less useless. The lakes are a sanctuary (?) for game now. 
Actually the lakes and any water, including the Murray River, in 
the north-west of Victoria, are a '^sanctuary" for sports ( ?) all 
the year around. Occasional raids by the Fisheries and Game 
Department are of little use. As an important breeding centre 
for game the north-west requires constant surveillance. 

202 Mack. The .\follcr FtK.'L [^VoL U^' 

By Geokce Mack (Xational Museum, Melbourne). 

To do justice to this, the most southern representative of the 
mound-builders {Mcyaf^odikiac), would require patient observa- 
tion of the birds over a number of years and the collecting of a 
series of specimens covering the wide range of the species. That 
this has not yet been carried out is to be regretted, for to do so 
is becoming increasingly difficult as time goes on. In recent 
years no other bird has been so reduced in numbers and deprived 
of its habitat to the same extent as the Mallee Fowl. Within the 
boundary of the State of Victoria alone the greater part of the 
Mallee country or the north-west has been cleared for the 
purpose of wheat growing, which, in the o])inion of many well 
able to judge, will never be an economic success. The result has 
been that the Mallee Fowl, while available, has formed a 
substantial part of the food of many misguided and impoverished 
settlers. .According to some of the latter, the birds were often 
penned like domestic fowls and killed as required for the table. 
While there is no necessity even yet to indulge the habit of 
declaring that the S])ecies is about to become extinct (a statement 
frequently made in the past when birds were comparatively 
common), nevertheless, that any species should be so wantonly 
destroyed at this stage indicates a lack of ofhcial appreciation of 
the great economic importance of birds as a whole. 

At various times the Dingo, the Fox, and the "wild" domestic 
Cat have been ])ut forward as the chief destroyers of this ground 
dwelling bird, but it is foolish to ignore the fact rhat the one 
enemy, worthy of the name, is man. 

It is only to be expected that the Mallee Fowl, with the 
peculiar habits of the mound-builders, should have interested 
manv enthusiastic bird-lovers in the intervening vears since it 
was 'described by Gould {l\ZS.. 1840, p. 126). "That author, 
in his Birds of Australia (vol. 5, pi. 7S), and later in his 
Handbook (18f)5. p. 155). gave very good accounts of the 
bird and its habits as supplied to him by Gilbert (his collector) 
and Captain Grey (later Sir George Grey, Governor of South 
Australia). Probably the best and fullest account since then is 
that given by Campbell (Kesfs and Eggs of .-Itist. Birds, 
p. 608), although a number of corrections are necessary, because 
of additional knowledge gained from the notes and records of 
other contributt)rs in recent years. For instance, it is now clear 
that the mound is not " usually placed in a water-track *' or 
similar depression. They have since been found in many very 
different situations, such as on rising ground, away from Mallee 
(Eucalvpts). and in the midst of a "sea" of Porcupine Grass. 
It is also clear that only one female deposits her eggs in any one 



January^ 1934 

i^^,] WyPiriM Nah'vmi Park iHS 

tnouftd, aiKl rcgubltis the pracess oi incubation by .scratchiilgf 

away or piling up the sand an tnp. according' to the temperanirc 
of tht atnKv^phcrre. In confinement, a female lias laid as many 
as 29 eggs, hut tm<itT uaitsral condilions 20 or kss is the number 
usually tiikcn. Further, there would appear to be no doubt thy.t 
the young bird releases itself irom the mound unaided, though it 
is conceivable tliat some may be ;issisted, inadveriently, by the 
icniale while attending to the mound ntomitig and evening. Thi.s 
constant attention to the mound en.sures also tliac the sand and 
debris oi which it i.s composed is not allowed to set. hut bemg 
kept loose, che young birds find no diificulty in emer3;jing. 

The extensive ranj|e of this most intcre-Stiiig ipecies is my 
rtiisou for sUcing- thai there is no neexi yet to say that it will soon 
he extinct. In addnion to sniiable areas in Vnat sull remains of 
the Mallee country of bontlitrn Australia, it has heeti recorded 
near Herman nsburgh and aI)out 150 miles norlU-wc5t of Alice 
Springs (the nio>t northern record) in the cenrre of liic 
continent, so that it is probably an inhabitant of favouiahle. tracts 
of coiuury we^t to the c-jCLSt of tnicf-wcst Anstruha. Anofher 
part of the latter staK- where its greatest enemies, human beinfjs» 
are few and far hcwcen. Iie5 south and south-frast of Kalgoorhc. 
Tn Victoria, the cmc sound hope v\ retaining' the species is by 
providing more re-serves similar to che \V\'pcrfcld National Park 
in the north-west of the State. 


Al a rec^-ril vi&jt i<s Ihe Wypcrfeid Park made by the Chief 
Inspectoral Fisheries and Game (Mr. f, Lewis), Professor Wood 
Jonet., Sir James Barrett and Mr Mellington, of Jeijsrtij the 
Park- was inspected to.y^?ther wirh the cnunrry north to Pine 
Plains homestead, and about eight miles lo the north of the home- 
stead, toward TJnderbool. The Curator of the Park (Mr. O'SnUi- 
v^n). accompanied the party. 

The Biack-faccd T\^ing;uoo h more tiumetotjs and is e«.pecially 
ro he seen near Brambruck- Emus have increased greatly m iium- 
biir, and were seen chiefl}- near che Wonga Hut and to the east of 
it. Twenty-four were observed during an allcnioon. The birds 
showed their ir.quisitive nature by clouselv approaching the car, 
but dashed ofi* the niomenl any one left it. There is no doubt 
that the Park has deiuinely preserved the Smoker or Regent 
Parrot. 'I'his Ijeautitul bird wun ^een in inmil.ters. Many Kin^- 
iieck Parrots ami .smaller hird.s were sef*n. 

The plague of rabbits on tl\c Park has disappeared, only uvu 
heini^ seen in two days. Oft' the Park they were fairly numerous. 
U 1.S noteworthy (hat on the Park the.y were destroyed by gassing, 
atid of! ii; with poison. 

?Pt ! WyPerfM Naiional P<ifk. '[^v^. u'^ 

The Murray Pine is abundant. The country north of the Park 
for about five mites, until the Pint* Plains Baunslary is reachecl. is 
flescrt. being composed of sanJ and Scrub. It is us«*]ess economic- 
ally and sfiould be inchidcd in the Park as it is a feeding ground 
for the birds. 

White Cockatoos and Galahs are abundant, and Major Mitchell 
CnrkiUoos were seen nesting iie<ir Pine Plains. There are some 
en the Park also. Water is provided for the cattle and ior the 
birds wliich tequire it, in troughs at Wonga Hut and at VVonga 
Lake It is proposed to erect a proper slielter with water troughs 
Hi VYonga Hut and to p3an camping places ra«nd it So that canipers 
may have a comfortable rooj)i Tor r<:st and meals and wdl b<* 
provided wkh a supply of ram water. 

Avahority is being sought to destroy any dogs found on the Park, 
as. in Ht>ite of the abundant notices, people occasionally take dogs 
wth theni and the possible damage cannot be over!r)oked. 

The area reserved is a remarkable piece of country, and though 
dessicated, carries an astonishing amount of wild life and excites 
the interest oi al! people, who appreciate the complexily of a-nirnal 
hte and the amazing nwaner in which plants and animals adapt 
thcinstlvcs to dry conditions. 

The ramfa'l probablv ih less than 10 inches. The evaporation 
IS euonnous, and the soil, except alonp the ancient nve<l be<l. poor 
and largely sandy. 

Around Pine Plains Kangaroos and Emu4 are to be found, and 
eight miles north Lowans' nest-mounds and l'.ow;ins rlicmselves 
arc to be seen. At present there is abundant iood for the Kah- 
garoos, ynd lor Eiuus and otiier hirdt> 

The Curator states that, at the end of siunmcr, when the grass 
disappears, these animals live on the grass seed which is spre^id 
in abundance. The ICangarOus do not seem tn require water, but 
it is available in the trnu^hs if they want it. On ihe Park uself 
two mtst-tnounds were found in course of construction. Off the 
Park» foxes are present; oti the Furk there nre few They were 
probably destroyed by gassing, which will be undertaken again 
this winter. 


The portion of the Bn-Mmne ranRes chosen for this excursion on November 
25 was that nearest to iHc Staughion Vak Stale Sdiool. Only seven 
iWfmbc.ff' Bitended The weather was alJ that could be tJe^ir^d, and. though 
the .^eas-on was a httic loo Ur advanced to see the wildflowcrs M their best, 
the pariy was able to examine nearly 50 differcat species. The blooms oC 
die Common Fr*uge Lily ilhysanoim (jiherosHs) were particularly tine 3»nd 
were picsenl in himcJreds- The pow<?f L-f 'he sa^f ot the root of the citiinrDon 
Bracken Fern to alleviate pain ior the bite of a "HulMog" ant. was proved 
hy onr mentbex oi the party. 



Plate XXXI 

January, 1934 

'iSmJ Lnwiit. -VaffM on tM i,ow(in\s \'cstinq fJohitx, Jfl^ 

By F* LtWJS (Chief Inspector of Fisherk-s and Game). 

Th<' Ij^wan's habitat is the arid r^girms whf re the various. 
roT'!n.s oi dwarf Eucalvpcs, coninionly known ii$ MaJli.'c. grow, 
The soil is usually of a ligbt, sandy niiturc. A very large 
proportion of the Mallee h^ Victoria has been cleaved for 
purposes of whEne-growjng. and this factor, more ilian any other, 
ha-s resulted in the griidnal decline ot* the Lowan in titi.s State, 

J I is safd that foxes caust- some deshucfion by opening" up the 
mounds tor the bake oi the eggs ccuitained therein, hnt o[ thss 
I have no definite personal knowledge. Peojtle living im the 
veig^e nf ihe seJtle<1 eouniry ate also alleg^ed to have n hlcinc; for 
the eggs, but I should not imaguic that they u'ou5d go very far 
ijiCo the (by country in their search for this arriele of food- 

The Lnwan :^eenis tn h;ive no. natural enemies, and were it not 
for the cpread nf selilenietu and opening up of the connrry, the 
species woiihJ liave no difficuliy ia maintaining its nuinbers. 
There are lari^e stretche?; of country, parricularly in Hie western 
part of Victoria, winch, luider present, conditions of cnhivHiion, 
arc rxlrcnicly unlitxcly ever to he Opened up ior .setlknicnl, und 
in these the Mallee Fowl will probab/y find a permanenf: home. 

The tie.snng- habjt? of this bird ni<iUe it well worthy of 
seientific invest igadcni and study Many ohscrveri cUiitn (hat the 
nest is always niude in open country, on a sandy hilUide. 
Personallj', I have found them *n all f^orts of situations, both on 
sandy hillsules and <.n\ iVM arc^^ .snrronndcd by licavv scrub. 

The !>ird apptiari rti eommejiee prepHrations fur htiilding hs 
necitin.qf mound ahnul April, when it opens up a hollow in 1he 
sand some six feet in diameter and a foot or two deep. As the 
winter comes on. the Lowan begins to scratdi and drag leaves,, 
iwigs, and dcbrij gtr\^s;i)\y into the hollow thus formed, lb is 
iiiiercsting to note the verj- -large area covered by the bird, or 
birds, in this operation. I have seen complete nesting mounds 
18 feet in diameter wi^h the gr()nnd carefully swept np for many 
yards round about. It is x-iid ihat both the male and the female 
engage in this v/ork. The leaves and twigs, liaving bcie.n awcpt 
up m^.o (he mound, are covered with dry i^and, l-'rom October 
onwards, the large pink c^^s arc laid in a circle m a de|*Tessi'>n 
in the tnf>, always with the small end downwards- the reason for 
this bem^of that the chick develops with iti head at the large end 
of the cgy;. and. when it hatches, has in scratch it> way out 
thrciuj^h the .sand. li, otj ojjeDini::; a itcil Jut exaniinaiionj the 
eglfs arc d^iherately placed the wrontj way round, the parent 
Wrd will later Oil replace them in the proper position 

Many ornichologists be?i>ve rhut fhe heat nece.s.sai r to incubate 
the egg5^ is obtamed, and muiniaincd, by the fcrmcniation oa the 


i-KWift, Notffs (ni the Lonatf^'s K^itmi/ UnlUis. [ yli^' 

decaying vegetation placed in the mound by the parent bird. 
I hes!t?ite to believe this It must be borne in mind that iheS^ 
birds live in and coumry having a very small rainfall. Al^inugh 
there may be same rain in the winter moiuh^, wlitin the dthris ts 
•tiping ccillected and plucvuj in the mounds the eggs arc not laid 
^inlil summer is well atlvancecl— about the end of Ocf<.iheT, af^t^r 
'■which period very little rain i-^]h in this area. Any tnoiilure. 
•hcreiorc, which was In the mound in the vicinity of the eggs 
would suon evaporate lunler the rays of the sun. 

i have Qpfcned up and examined neslinj; motmds at the. Wyper- 
fcld National Park, situated beyond Rainbow, in the nortlvwea-t 
ot Victoria, where many of thci^e birds live ami breed, and in no 
instance have I fnund any tmce of icrmeiiting vegf-tation. As a 
marlei of fact, the mounds have been singularly fiee itoin moh- 
ture. although quite hot lo the touch. I believe that the heat n£ the 
yun is the main factor in the incubation process 

The latp T. P. Hellchamhers, of Snuth Australia, who had '^ 
large experience in the observmg o( ihtsc birds, wrote. " For 
sunning piurposes, that is, "solar Itcau' the ucst is o])cncd almost 
to ihe level n\ the eggs. This may he done as often :i\ five days 
out of seven. The refilling is a gradual process, and takes all 
day. as -It is replaced m layers a:> souis as k gets hoi." 

Mr. Edwin Ashby, the noted umithotog'&t. of Sonlh 
Australia, <jUotes a case of a mound tlut Ixad been wire-netted in 
•to 5ecure the yonne^ birds on hatching, but these all died in then* 
shells, dvK-. it was believe^l. to (he fact ?hai. ihe parent birds liad 
not been ;ib!e lO open out the ncst. It wOUKl appear that btcuLisc 
this opem'ng up had not been done the mound had gradually 
cooled off If tlie nicubation of the e^'t^s u rhe re?.id< of heat 
jcjeneraied by the fertnetitation of vegctiuion, these egj^s should 
have liatttied, although the ptirent:? were prevented from 
attending to the moimd ; but the fdct tliat they did nut do so 
indicates, to my mind, that the attention by the fxirent birds is 
essential, and the lack of it results in Jiome unfavourable 
eoriduion which prevents the eg^s from hatchinj:^. 

There tntiy be. i^iicl probably is, some" moisture in tile mound. 
due to the winter rains but il is well known that the c^s of 
domestic poultry require sojne musstnrc tu facihiaie hatching. 
Persons hatching eggs by incubators realize this, and the eg^s 
are moistened regularly an<l the air kept at a certain decree of 
hutrudity. TF ihese precautions are nej^lected the eggs fail to 
hatch satisfactorily. 

The small amount oi moismre in the m<:>ul)d uf a Mallec Hen 
IS [itobably necessary for the well-being of the eg^s. but does not 
uiUie sUtTicient fermentntion of the vegetati(m tc> result in th^ 
formation uf sufficient Jieat to incubate the eggs. 

As against the view set out above, it has been pointed out that. 


Plate XXXII 

January, 1934 

j PoKination of Sfiiranthes Binensie 2<V7 

in a drought season, ihe birds do not bretd; hut this is quite 
in coi^sonance with the theory advanced above that some tuoiiture 
is necessary for the wellbeing of the eggs. I bchcve that the 
vegetalion and sticks aud debns used by the birds arc inciuded 
in the mound to prevent the soil from packing logeUier and to 
keep it loose af^d p]jal>le so that the young birds ma}^ escape 
ciisily fi'ou) ih^i mound after liatching. 

In the Wyperleld Natjonal Park, which comprises upward-s of 
30.001} acres, the Lowan has n<^w become so lame that as one 
drives through the Park on the sandv tracks, the birds will stand 
imconcern^^d while the car slowly parses them. The Park, up 
to the present, has been very little explored; the only mounds 
cx3imined have been those in close f»roximi1y to the Iracks. 
Thftie are thousands of acres whitli have never been examined, 
and this area must contain a great number of Lowan mounds- 
It is difficult to find these m the thick scrub, as one walk 
right on to them before tlioy arir setn- Then* st-^m.^ to lac ^ood 
reason for thinking, liowever. Chac m this siinctuary the birds 
•uill have a jjermanenl home, whether or not thu remainder of +1ic 
MaJlce in Victoriai i« ullimat<'ly o])ene'l up and strttled. 

Explanation of ])lace facjng p. 64 Vkiorian J\-(Uurtilist, July, 
1933 The leifers A and F Jwive been transposed, A is Coeliox^^s 
albolhumtO: 1^ is Apis mellifica. B and C belong to Codioxy.s. 
G and H belong xo -^Ipus. Thi:;; necessuaies -^n nhcration in the 
text, p. <jl. The proboscis of Coi'lioxys bore uve pillinia, (our of 
which are seen (Fig. C) protruding from the ora? cavity The 
proboscis of Api.s bore six pollinia. the glands only of which arc 
shown (Figs. H and G). 

A !io1<. on ihc irid Ktymnka that emanated oui of the diKCov^vy of ibe 
■yellow forir^ — new lo Ausiraiia— appeared in the I'-'ictovinn- Nnhtrahsl for 
October i [.-. UfV). Jy^r R F. Morris, oi the Nattunal Herbarium, added 
a liOte regarding syiionymy. colour foru>f;. and thf mime'i of many worl<.ers 
Oil varioui- speuei ul the plunl known as Onion Grass in Vrctoria. 
Apparently olticr workei^ think it worlli while (o continue the investiga- 
liotw. In a letter from Sir Arthur Hill, the Director of the Royal 
Botaiik Gardcits, K<;w, London, received by the writer and Qate4 October 
26, further informaliun ',u yiv^n Acknowled^nig the yellow specnnen 
conccted .\t Harcniirr, Victoria, in Seplt'inber last, ihc Director *t4te<: 
" Thr specimen J5 Ihi; species ui^ually regard as Komn^ea rosea Ecki., a 
native Ot Soolh Africa. Mr C H Wrighl considered ihe specie't was 
identical witli /V. buffyh:odittut, a pUnt oceurrin;; m Asia Minor, hut I)r 
K. E. Brr-wn does not ajrrcc with this. KeCcntly T.*f. I3i0wn ha:^ pi^dc 
some fiirihc:r fuggesrSons with regard to It toscn, b\;ii he has hot yei 
written ;i sy^cemacJc accoufit. It is therefore uol po:i:;il>le to give a rcal>v 
filial opinion on the species of this K^^^w^f winch '5 in need c** rci'i^iOM. byt 
for the time being I think you may refer it to the species inennnncd ^bo^'e." 

A. J. TajkiEll. 

420a BOKU. f-'crns m /ft« Crcsimck VistrkL (^vdi. l!^* 

By R. W. Bond, School oC Fore^^try, Cteswick. 

Looking through the list of krns in the Censtis of Vki/>yian 
PIftnlSf we are struck by tlie num^jer oi specieiv \vh<?sc distribution 
is given as *'AU but iiorth-wc5t." As Crcswick is on the southern 
fringe of the nortli-westcr.n djvision ol the State, anfl differs 
widely from GippsUnd in rainfall nnd rdative humiJety, it in very 
iriterestmg to find ^ tiutnbcr of fern species rommon to both 

The essential features of the Creswick dinxatet from t\it^ poirtt 
oT view of the fern floni. are: 

. 1. A moderate wiiitcr and spring raiuSaJI., averaging 27 inches 
per annum. As thk falls almost entirely in wintefj the buramcr 
\< dry and hot, with a low relative hnmiVhty. 

2. The forest cover ccn&ists of a sclerophyllous Messmate- 
l*eppennint-Box and Gum forest, the chief species being 
tucaiypt-us obliqiHT, E. dtvcSf li. Stimrimm- v^wA E. rnbidiX. 

3. U adere;ro w th is unt f or m [ y snial I a n<i &par>Pv ot abf^ nt, 
except in a few shcltcix^cl gullies, and even here it .sometimes 
consists of the introduced Cape Broom, Cytisus arnaricfisis. 

4. Many gullies and hiilsides hyve been sUiieeil out during g»dd- 
minin^ operations, to depths up to 20 feet, and nnne shafts are 
nnmerrvus- Elsewhere, the soil is usually -shallow and clayey, 
WJth fre<jUent oukT0i;5& of metamurpkoscd Ordovician .sediments. 

5. Creeks in th^ district nearly all flow interniiltently, or in 
autumn, winter ^nc\ spring. 

The fern flora of (he dislrJct falls into three broad divisions^ 

(a) H^irdy spteies growing in vidleys. 

(b) Hardy species growing on sluiced areas. 

(c) Mine shaft sppx:ies. 

The hardy specieiv o^cnrrhipj chiefly in rock crevices with a 
v>utherri a-^pecr. and along creeks, includL those which were most 
prob'nhly the only fern specjcs Occurring before gold mining 
slartccl, over eighty yeara ago. 

Occupying the damp, narrow flats along^ some of the n>orc 
sheltered cieeks, we find Ptcridhtm aquiUnum, Common Bracken; 
Hypolepis punci-ata, Ground Hypolpis; Sletfmum discolor, Fish- 
bone Fern, B. capause, Soft Water Fern; Alsophila aiuttaHs, 
Rough Tree Fern, and Polyslickiim aculeahtni. Common 
Shield Fern. Hypolepts and both tlie Hlechniims are ioand 
m welUshftltered places, a<i on erf*ek banks, and below the walls 
ot dams. Folystkhum is very rarely found oiit.side of mine shafts 
at present, but may have been commoner before minint; com- 
menced. Alsophila i-^ found now only as small plants, but jt 
undoubtedly was more, common in suitable gullies until removal of 
the forest cover, shucmg. and the common desue tu have a tree- 

Sail. 1 

BoxD. TiYMf ^t^ Mir cvtf^ttTT^^ J:?<^rt-wr. 

fern in the garden caused its vjnual extinction. AH o{ these 

specfes, except f'ttrriMitnT.. are oF restiici^J distribution in the 
foreit, and <*ven this very hardy iern is usually o[ stnall size, 
althoui^h iiKlividual fronds, up to seven itrX long, have been 

Species favouring rock crevices arc commoner, A4pimn*m 
fiahclH folium, Jsecklace Pern, and Adiantiivi (rthiop-tcunt, Maiden- 
hair, beinc; of rrequeat occurrence on we 11- sheltered rocky slopes 
near creeks. On the basalt j)l3ins. to the i?orlh, >ve iind also 
Pienrosorus ri<tifo!iMs, Blanket Fern, in fissured cliffs oi basalt 
alonj;" <he Creswtck Creek, and a few plants of ChLilaftthes 
iemfifolw: Reek Lip Fern, which was undoubtedly commoner 
bcfoje settlement and grazing look possession oi its habitat. On 
Mounts Baltyn and Beck worth, to the west, this spedes is 
abundant among granite boulders. 

The ierus occurring on siniccd areas iire also hardy plants, most 
oi thent obviou.sly out ot cheir natural habuat. Thns we Un<i 
neMhng bcsie^uh i.he kindly shiide of a ^juart^. boulder llie dainty 
Lindsayh^ Hvcans, Sctcks- Fern, and deirhcjtia^ civfumia-, Coral 
fern, both much dw;^r^cci. 

On *imilar clay ^oils. but rigJit oiit in the open, i^ found 
Svhiso'a fisfuh^a, Cojnb Fern, and her r^irrty in the diH(rit^ ; 
while AlsophUa atatrfdis and C!h'ilanfhes tcnuifoHa are occasion- 
ally seen beneath boulders. Liv4sayci and Schisc^i have been 
found only on two hills of very inter<'^?tiu.e formation. Both h<ive 
SI capping of pebbleSj boulders and fine sedimenl, probably laid 
down in the bed oi a nver dammed back by a fault in the Teituiry 
per'od These sediments, as they contained gold, hvivc been 
extensively alujcetl.. and the boulders pil<*d into heaps over the fine 
clay and soit clay roqk remaining. This clay, kepi damp through 
the winter and part ot spring, has provided an ideal germinating' 
groimd for fern spores, and those fortunate enough to he growing 
in a position ."iheUered by boulders have been ab?e to mature, more 
or Jess. 

Fern loveis, no doubt, will remember how any clay bank in 
moist localities becomes clothetl with moss and young ferns in 
till stages, from pinthalli to planc:b with spores Alsophila and 
Clinfimihcs liave been found in other places, one plant of rhe 
latter growing on unsluiced ground in the Creswick Planuitwn, 
on the Ordovician formation 

Another uncommon fem^ found on a shnced flat where the 
Ci*e.swick Creek flows alojig the edge of the basalt flpw, is the 
tiny Adder's Tongue, Ophioglossum coruiccu.m.. Tins species lias 
also been found on the basalt plains- UndoubteciPy the most inter- 
esting, howt-ver, are those Occ:LU'ring in mineshafls. How such 
species as Aspleiuuut buUvferum, Mother Spleenwort; PolypndiuM 
bUhrdieri, Fitiger Fern ; Hyyn<!nophyUum tnnbridgc>u<e, Tunbridge 

210 Bi>2tf»# p£Tiu m the Crcnfkk DxstrkL [ voi. i* 

Filrry Fi»Tn, anrl Dick^onio- a-niar'tka, Soft Tr^^e Fern, can live in 
a distl'icl ^uiv^ng sudt a low sunimer relative hiimidiLy ritid rainfall 
would tie hard iuclf^ed, to e.xplnin. were it not for the iiiine shafts. 
many ot whicli may drip wafer even in the summer- "Ihcy arc 
always coo( even on ihe hottest A<\y._ and the air is iisnally huiTiid. 
Complete ptdtettion from wind, and usualh^ frntti direct -^UJiUyht. 
IS atforded to pbnis growing in \^wu^, trie iii^ht. being diffused 
according to the 5i2e ol thic opening, the depth oi the plant, and 
the cover above. 

Shafis favgijm'hle fo fern ;^rowtIx iisuallv appear in hatches, the 
besl occuirmg in t})C Tertiary 1o recejit utiinctoniorphosed scdi- 
UKnts, which g-ive a more or less ^vermf!;\l>\e and watcr-rctaining: 
iiufwuil. A norahle exception i^ met wirh on tlie eabtem fl^ of 
the forest on the north bank of Slaty Cfeclc Here theie \^ a thin 
surface capping of vokamc material derived Sroni the activity oi 
i-cvcrcd vent6 to the east, in the tertiary period Soil conditions 
arp- uhviously moiEstei t!ian usual, us (he Manna Gums, Rux'dlybius 
vmmiahs, and Candlcharks, £. ruUda, ^tsccud the slope=. inbiead ot 
being resrncted to neai the creek. 

Over a large section of this iiill are dotted mtne.vhnft^ containing 
a fine aseortnient of ferns and n^osAes. Hei^ we aiay almost 
imagine ourselves \w a nimiature km gully m the monntaiiis. 
Here and there, the walh of the si'ujfts an:; draped with filmy 
terns, tnoss*;s and liverworts, such as we see ctrnmionly on the 
^•preadin^ Dicksonuis and dead logs in fern ^uliies. The rtchiiet 
(.)rchid5?;, so oi*en 5een ip sinri^ar suuutions. have not yci been 
lound in the stuiits, ulcliough Corysanihi's dilutatu- occurs in 
qn-antity nearby. 

OfJitir specie.^ foutifl here in the shafrs are HUchnmn cafn'^nse. 
Soft Wa?er Kern: P. lantcohiiim. Lance Fern; Aiptvnimn hidbi- 
fermn, Mother Spleen wo rt : Ihcki^oma imtarctka. Soft Tree Fern; 
Polypudhun b'dlardicri. Finger Fern; AlsophiJa anstraliS. T^ou^h 
Tree Fern, and Falyjticlntm Qiuleatum, Comnion' Shiekl Fern; 
while rear the creek below. Adw,ntmn itthiopictim, Common 
Muidehlkaif Feriu and Asphniu>H {laheUifoliunv jijracc crevices in 
the ?teep. rocky slope. Whde all tlicsc ^pecic^ ,i^ro\v under faulv 
favourahic conditions in the shafts, it must be noted that very 
largf specimens are ncvtr ft>und. Fur in^fancc, the tree-ferns 
never develop a trunk, and the Shreld Feriis are usually small. 

Further down the creek, on the southern si<^e of the valley, near 
a track gom*^ towards Ballarat, are several shafts oonlaininp good 
ferns, mixed up with a greater number containing only dwart 
mosse^i, or noihing ul i\\\. ThOxe contairing ferns appear to be 
ill a fau"ly dehuite line of underground see^^age, as shafis separ- 
ated by only a lew yards may show a complele contrast as regards 
the pbnts they coniam. Tlic range of (em species here is rather 
limited, hut inckidcs Hymenufihyilum tiwhridgense . Tunhrid^ge 



January, 1934 

J kit. 

J BoKTi, hi'TtiS ill tfic Cffswir.h DtstricK 2J1 

Filmy Fcru ; Polysiichnm aatlmium. Common Shield Fern ; 
AlwpMa, Dkksonta, and Potypodimn bilhrdicn, Fingor Fern, 
ihU last: rn dervsc masses. 

Ne;iiLT the to%vni<3i!|>, jn a Tertiary deposit of day and glones 
surrounding the "Portuguese Blue" Dam, is another Tiuc collection 
of sfiaits. Several of the speries already named nccur here, and 
albo Dryopicris dccompasitn. Shiny Shield Fern, and Hisiiopieris 
incisa, Rat-swing Fern. Tin? last species appears to grow very 
poorly, and is rare. It has been found in a rather ihy shaft in the 
SchcK)! of Forestry Plantation, on the other sidr* of Government: 
Darn Tti similar ground, in a line e-xtcnding approxinnitely north 
and south frot\i ihe railway siaiton, are several mnie shafts with 
good fertii, the gcowth being ^t times more luxunaid ilir^n ^^t 
Slaty Creek. A' few of these contain tine specimens of Til{'i'h.mim 
pctersonii. Strap Fern, and f-hrihnfhes tamfoHit, Rork J.ip Fern, 
us well as AdUnttun and scvcr^J other species already Oy»ied, in- 
eluding Hymenophyllnm and lUsHopteris. 

Further north, at arid hevond the "^tarion, we find Dnodin randafa^ 
Rasp Fern, one shaft coni;<mirig liieraDy scures of plants. .Several 
of these northern .shafts arc often dripping watet. but seepage 
appears to be intenninenl. and. as a rule, only dwaif ferns, such 
as tiny Common Shield Ferns, arc seen. A ecntribirtory cause 
inny he the nature of the warcr, which cuntwins a Sair quantity of 
minerals in .solution. Wh.en seen in any quantity at all it haa a 
clear, deep, sky-btue colour, whicli is very well seen at '*Poriu.gucs<: 
BKic" Dam, and at the "''Black Lead" northerly from the station. 
The salts dis-solved in ttie water cause the ]>rccipitation of the cJa^- 
it wouJd otherwise hold in suspension as a hue, ireachernus mud 
on the bottom of these danis. 

Many other siiafts scattered through the di.^crict cnvitain a few 
ferns ; usually these are small j^pecimens of AlsophUa ausfralis and 
Polyslichttm a/ulmtuiu. As die plants are oiteii 5mall and do nor 
iilways prnfUK-e spores, identificAtiou is occasionally difficult. For 
example, rwo ptant-s have lv»en *Jiscovered on sluiced areas which, 
we believe to be Todea barbara, Kin^ Fern, However, (hey are 
siuall and without rpores, and may po&sibly be abnorniaJ speeiniens 
of AUopkUa auitralis, 

Tci account for the presence oE the^e ferns in such an unfavour- 
able district for fern growth, there iseem tn J)e twi:> ])u.'<Nibililieh. 
The ferns may be the survivals from the originaJ fern "flora** oi 
the district, or they may have grown from spores bnrne from 
otlje.r places by ti>e wind, which have Jod^ed in favourable sifua- 
tinnfy and germinated The'^e two (Iteories. of eoijr^e^ refer only 
to (he species pirowin^ in the mme shafts or on sluiced areas. 
Tht Itardief ferns, such as ^"^splenium flolu^ififuf'ium. Necklace 
Fern, were probably not ujuch aflecied by mining. It ;iccrns. how- 

2\2 Bo^'o, f'iffus in the Crcs^vkh UisMff [ v.u L^ 

^v^r, that most of our mine shaft ferns are tUe result oi wind- 
borne spores. The cliic! reasons in favour ot this are: 

1. The light spore?i oi I'crns. m cowimon with sucK other 
minute articles as tine dust, which, coming from Central Acistralia, 
may travel rs ^ar as New Zealdntl. poli??n-gra)nS. arul turigv^s 
$pores. can tnivet long distances in the air. This is due, not only 
to thcjr lighine<is, but 1o their small size, which cau.«;cs them to 
settle very slowly chrough the air. A comparatively lifl:ht brecse 
may thus ivansport spores f or iorig cU^jtances. especially when, due 
to an upward current ot whir[wind, (he spores are taken Ig ^ 
coiiaJderaWe height at first. The spores landing" about Creswick 
may come from most parts of Victoria, biU probably from the- 
Grampi:in5> Moutit Cok R^nge. and Cape Otway. ^It is interesting 
here to note the tendency of so m;"iny tern species to have a widt 
dislYkbution in suitable chmates, and several are found in both 

2. Dnmp rlay is uSfually a favourable site for the .germination 
of fern ftpote.s. HiU i? partly due (o the constant dampne&s of 
ttie surEacc in damp weather, as surface moisrutc does not readily 
soak in and disappear If subsoil conditions are suitable, the sides 
of mine shafts are wet even m snmmc-r, and so the free s.iirface 
water e.^.scntial to the gcrmmation atid develnpment of fern .•spores 
is assured. Ic may also be due in part to the fact that the fine 
parfudes^' of which clay is composed have the property of retaining 
chcmiLals nccessiiry for the d<;ve3iipinenL of plants, and preventing^ 
the5|e from being leached into the lower layers of the ^oil. This 
is important, as the first roots of the fern-plant are very fine and 
short. These factors give any spores <h*opping in suitable places 
a fair chance of development on a hare clay surface. 

3 It is very unhkely that >evcral of the delicate species men- 
tioned cbidd ^tO'A' in the Creswick forcer, which i> open and quite 
definitely scicrophylloui. Before gold-mining started, it was com- 
posed of large-bolcd, spreading trees, with abundant grass in many 
places. Thts is evidenced to the present day by the large stum[>s 
oitea seen in the present forest, wJiieh is mostly coppice and 
seedling growth, which has come on smce the old trees were cut 
for mine-timber and fuel. Delicate ferns, must have humid con- 
ditions. ^r\d A^ill nor grow well, even in ferneries, unless protected 
frnm sun and wind- They could not. therefore, grow out of 
doors at Creswick, except under speeial conditions, uich as we 
see, for instance, in suitable mmc shafts. 

4. If the dehcatc 5.pccies are the remnants of the original Cres- 
wick fern flora, where did they go in the interv?.! between their 
disappearaftce on removal of the forest cover and their appear- 
ance in disused mine shafts? The removal of the forest was 
fajrly rapid after the discovery of payable gold, both around Cres- 






X ^ 



New Nest-mound of Lowan, showing Debris ready to be raked into Egg-chamber 
Photo, by L. G. C:handler 

mil ^^^' ^'*^''^** ^'^ 'A^ Ci'f.n<*ir.k Oixtrict 23.1 

wick and Hailaf^al, twelve miles to xh^ south. The dclkalc spcctc-s 
could not liave survived removal of the forest nwer; rve.n in the 
damp hills ot Cipp^laiid th<:\' tare badly after rt.Hiioval of ovetfiead 
protection, aud iheie ihey \vive. a wcll-distribnted r;»ijibn of 
ACl Indies or more, and a con^paraiiveiy high summer relative 

-1. Species now found above gronnd are not coinmnner in shafts 
than ihose which it is considered could not have ixcutred prior 
to mining activuj':. and wJien they are seen in shafts, these arc 
usn^illy fairly dry. This is an indication that the mine shaft 
ipc-cies require damper conditions ttian are met in the dtstrict. 
and probably never grew here, until mcire or lesi fiivwunible 
habitats were prepared for them arlincially, 

6. Regarding those species seen on ^.hiiccd areas, we. notice that 
they of ten .grow in situations much dner than many, if not most. 
ports of the forest, where they have never been found, E>can)ples 
are seen in Gh-ichcnia circiiwta-^ Schi^iL'o>^ and LiTid.suya 
linearis The&e are allj of course, hardy species, and occur- 
rence is pi'obubly due solely to ihe Fact that conditions wore 
fuvourable to the development of ihcir spores on the sluiced sur- 
races, but uufavoni^Tble on the soil of the forest, where there had 
Ijeen no slnicing, and where water does not stay free on the sur- 
face fur any length ot Inric. As they do not occur anywhere 
except on shitctd |;round jkhv, ft is not liWely thai ti»ev ftver did, 
and so must have been absent before the snining booms. 

7. The wider the shafts, the deeper are the ferns- This indi- 
cate? a decided tendency to Jceep away from the dty air and hot 
sun of our summer, 

A po-ssible wea'^ne-ss of the wind-borne spore theory is that theie 
is roc any groat number of examples o\ ferns germinating spon- 
taneously in ferneries. However, a damp clay bank, protected 
from sun and wind, 9s in a mine shaft, or behind boulders, is a 
more t'avuurahle place tlian the average fernery, where, if a bporc 
doe$ happcii tu begin development, it may be killed "by an exces- 
sive watcrmg, a dry spell, or excessive temperature. Young fern 
plants are sensitive to any sudden change in conditrons, so that the 
natural conditiun^ of <l;unp crevices are better than rlie uncertain 
ones of any fernery to which tloahng spores would have entriinci?- 

The question as to whether other dry districts arc favoured 
vnth a fern Hora hke that of Creswick as one T caruiol answer 
definitely. Ferns are often seen in small nn'ne slu)fti> in Gipps- 
laud, bur people who have li^^ed matiy years m the northern 
mining areas )iave told me thai Creswick alone o£ these places 
possesses a really vaned collection of mine-shaft ierns. 

HA' GrtAV, Bird Life on the Caumfzmrre Lakes. [^Voi. lT' 

By Jonx M!. GHAr, 

In llie Vkioniin Mohtralisi ior May, 1933, a coinprcliensive 
study of Lake Coiincw'aTre appears. Thou|L^h this fine article 
presents a review of the natural htstnry of tlie area, und 
acknowledges its rcpituition as a famous bird locjvlity, a. slight 
enlargement on tlie somewhat ahbtevlated Jist of birds which was 
cited may be of JiiteresL lo bird siudctits. 

The Conncwarre Lakcis are. of courbc, a paradise for all classes 
<ji water-fowl and \yading bird^., anrl .surely few other simijar 
areAS can offer snch a variety of swamp-loving birds. 

For more than half a ce:*tury. ttve Conaewarre Lakes have bejcn 
exploited by proleissional shooters for the Melhnurne markets. 
and latterly by sportsmen, ujttil po^'tiuTi of the swamp was 
recently proclainicd a sanctuary. NevcrthcIcbS. it is not 
surprising that the enormous flocks of ducks and water birds 
which formerly freqnenced ilie lakes have beeome sadly 
diminislied. Nol only JiHve Iheir TninibeT& been depleted, Lrlt 
even species have disajjpcared The Cape Barren Geese, for 
CKamplc, have appvirently retreated, or been driven irom Che 
mainland, to nuiie or iess inaoressihle islands in Bass Strait 
• Ducks arc well represented on tfie lakes, though nut in (he 
munhcrs which one would expect under nonual and natural 
conditions. The Black Duck ;mfl rhe Hray and Chestnut Teal 
are the most frei"itietu*ly jseen--and shot by sporlsmen, by whom 
they are higldy regarded. The Musk Duck, the Ilardlic-ad. and 
the Blue-winged Shoveller occur in smaller numbers, while the 
only evidence o£ the dainty little Pink-eared Duck Foiuid on a. 
recent excursion was a skeleton picked up by the swamp sjdc. 
HJaci. Swajts arc always pres-em on the lakes, and many nest in 
Ihe thic3t rced-bcds. A few Pelicans, t oo. are occn.sionslly 
coaspicuoui on the swampy landscape. It is interesting to MOi^ 
that fresh- an<l salt-w*Tter rlucks are found together here on the 
same sheet of water. 

Two species ot Grebes are found on the lake* while a third is 
an uncommon ^i^itur. The Black-throated nr 1 .Utie Grcbc\ 
rornmonJy called Dahchick. i.s eatsily di^^tingni^hed by the dark 
colour of the head which, it should be remembered, becdmes 
irrayish in the winter, A shrill, twittering note is the seldc/m 
recognized call of this Grebe. On account of the similarity o£ 
ihcir build the hctiry-hcaded Grebe is liaNe tr> be confused with 
the common Dahchick when seen at a distance Evidence of this 
species on a recent visit tv the lake wa? a warm, limp body o£ one. 
lound. high and diy, in the samphire near Fisher man's J*oint. 
The large cosmopolitan Crested Grebe is only an nrca*iorva| 

»^X GwAV, Bird Life on fke ConnctX^anc Lat^s. ZlS 

TWlOV, a«d Ihe Dabckiici: is iht mily lir«;f<liTig s[icdc.s al 

Ihe. prolific yrowlU of rushes in Reedy and Hospital Lakes 
provides rnvet for innumerable liirds, besides concealing their 
iiesfs I'TOrti even ihe most enthusiastk observer. As one member 
<if ;i p:iriy waded tlirough a stretch olf rush^^.s for scarcely rnurc 
ihan a hundred yards. Matchers Crottt t\tt open counted no fewei 
than ciglii Brown Kiiierns risiji^ fiuiu the riii.hcs in the path of 
the observer. Wiicn Ihcy arc :fiushed, the liittorn^ seem to rise 
in a pecidiar sranding position before they coimnence ;in even 
■pmvorCul flight acros.s the hke This jiecuh'^irity is also nooced 
in Ihe SwaJVip-hen ami tJie Coot among other htrds of the rushes 

An open sTietch of mmsh in Hospital Lake, from which the 
u^ter had app-ireniiy rectnied, provided a fine setting for an 
wnusual ?iccnc witnessed by a parly of bird oKservei? recently. A 
flock of between 200 Jind 3CH) Spur-winged Plover was feeding 
near u company of stately VeIlow-bil]e<I Spoonbilisi, whose 
iniinacuJatc plumage contrasted oddl}' witli th^f of a g^mup of 
^heMncks ni the background. The beamy of tfiis impressive 
"vyikl nature 5pecJ.acle culmjiiated suddenly when the wary Plover 
tOSc in ;i bo«ly, uttering ihcir rurious croakhi^ cries in a grand 

The discovery oi 3 company of Rniu-wrens in a stretch of 
hlcak ^anlphirc near Fishermairs Point aroused coasidcrablc 
interest ajnnni; bird observois. The presence of these diminu- 
tive birds tn this exposed section of the kike had not even been 
suspected, since the f«ariicular spot Lacked shelter of any kind. 
Sir Ch:irlcs Bdcher, whi> knuw tlie birds of this locality 
ihorr'Uc:hly, does not mention thi^ species as an inhabitant of the 
Connewarrc swamplands in Ins work, *'' Birds of rhe District of 

I'hoUjTli Emu-wrens would appear to he extremely dchcate 
birds, tiicy are occa?-*otu-illy lound, quite at home, in such 
uninviting areas, an outstanding example being a wind-^^wepc 
beU of samphire facinj;^ the waler-fronE at T<Kiradin, Western 
Port. In the majority of cases, Enm-wrens. which are local 
birds, win he found in the neifjhhourhood of a shallow heathy 
l^jlly, or a damp scrubby hollow. Hic only other birds resident 
in cbia saniptiirc. apart frotn DoUerels ai^d waders, are the 
Striatetl Field Wren, and the Little Grass-bird. The Whlte- 
frnnicd Qiais also seem to have a particular preference for ihc 
samphire and hgmun bu$l)c5. Both tho sweet bubbling note^ uf 
the I'ield Wren and the dolorous wliistle of the Grass-bird are 
often beani from ihc duertion of the jushes. 

Tlic I'ud pupniaiiuu oi ihc Connewarre swamps is. considerably 
augmented in summer by the minatory waders, which arrive in 
Southern Victoria about September, frcnn the Noirfhcrtl 

3|$- Gmay 8rni Lify' m f/wr CcnnctvO^-rx^ LdkcS. [ ^y^{ 


Hciiusphere, where they breed. About a dozen species df 

Asiatic inigr^ints \\^\'c been recorcied at Connt-nv<ii re, inclitclin^ 
the Knot. Grey and Golricn Plover, the Grecnshank, tlie 
Whirmbrel, aiui the little Curlew-sandpiper. The observer rarely 
ha$ a glimpse of these imcomtnon birds — that privilege behig 
confined more or less to sUooters, 

The Sharp-lfiiled and Little Stint? nte more famrltar bif'^ls, 
because they generally associate in flocks of thousands. Art 
indication of the abundance of the Siints may be found in the 
fact that protcssional shooters used to make ^ good living by 
selbng them in the markers at tfireeptnce a pair. About MaTxrh. 
the?iC birds dcp;irt on the return journey across lh« globe to their 
nesting quarters on the tundrrts of Siberia and the great plains 
of Central Asia. OccaRionall)" uoitie spend the winter in 
Australia, where chey underg^o a chaiijije of plumage. 

The Double-banded Dotterel js 'another interesting nugranr. 
which IS ioxind at the ConnrWvirre swamps during the xvioter 
ir»onths;. The migration of this Dotterel has provided -t 
perplexing problem fox ornithologi&ta, for it passes the $umnier 
in New Zealand, where it breeds. At Conncwarre this species 
is seen in M winter piv^mage, when the chestnut band on the 
abdomen becomes indistinct. 

Another migi-ant — this time a paSw^erinc bird — which is heard 
more oiiten than it is seen m the mshcs of Reedy Lii\cc and in 
prtictccally every 5treich ot reeds throughout the Barwon River, 
is ihe Reed Warbler, which arrives from the north of rhe- 
continent about the middle oi SeptemLier. and departs in March. 

Ibrs of two species — the Stravv-nocked and the White — are 
regular visitors to the Conncwarre swamps. The Straw-neckcJ 
Ibis is often accn feeding on o^^cn or cultivated paddocks., while 
the White Ibis is Seldom found away from marshy cotmtry. 
Neither of the^e birds breed at Conncwarre, but retire to the 
va-*.t Murray >wamps in northern Victoru-i and Riverina for t!»at 
purpose Stubble Quail arc often flushed front the tussock 
^rass Around che marches, and possibly the Brown Quail is 
found here, too, but none h<v-'e been seen on any recent 
excursions to dife looiUtv. 

CcRRXCTiON. — In account oi Wild Naiwrc St)ow (Natorali^st. Dec, 
p 194). for "The League of Naiivc-Iovers " lead "The League oi Nature 


This outing, on November 19, was attended by L4 tifieniberi ajid. frrends. 
including ^vera! iutiiora. A ii<jmber oi it«:?ts. itKiuding thost of Bell- 
mincrj., oantaintng cuckoos, were examined. A torrential donviipour of rairt 
tn the alie^rnoou prevented the hill programme, which tlic leailcr had. 
ttrrangtd, from l>€ing carricii out. 

E. S. Ha?<ics. 


The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL L. — No. 10 February 7, 1934 No. 602. 


The ordinary m^^eting oi the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hyll on Monday. January S, i^My at 8 p.m. The senior 
Vice-President. Mr. G, N. H^vam, occupied the chair in tiie absence 
of riie President, Mr. V. IL Miller. About 50 memher.s anil 
frin^nds gtrended. 


From the Minister for Health, relating to the proposed throwing 
open of the Port sea I'eserve, and staHng that the Club's request 
thfit the area should not be made i)ublic had been noterh 


Eeporl.s of Excnr-sion.s were as follow: — Willsniere: Mr. H. 
MeColl (in ihe absence of Mr Stickland) , Walhalk (Gjoper's 
Creek) Christmas Jixcursian : Mr. W. H. Ingram. 


On a f;how of hands the following- were duly elected: — As. 
Ordinary Members ; Misf5 N- Por(eous, Mr. Jojni WyaU. 


Mr. J W.. Audas. — Eucalyptus hkolcr (Black Box); E. 
Behriana (Bull Mallee) ; £'. virkih (Green Mallee) ; E. caly- 
cogna (Red Mallee) ; collected at Whipstidc Scrub, near Elmore. 

Miss Haynct, — Locuist 

Mr. K. H. Dank.s. — Epiphytic Orchid, somewhat like an enlarged 
example of BulhophyUum shepherdi-L 

Mr. H. Stewart. — Fifty species of flowering plants ironi the 
Mt. Buffalo National Park, including the ioilowing' Alphie fornix: 
— Crorilica vkimiac, SticranUnu bifiora.s, Acaria falciforml'^', 
Oxylulnnin olftvSfi'U. Binswea foliosa. Brcdetneyera rctusunt, 
Eiiculypius i-<7ruHCHj var alpino ; Baerkra Gunmaiur, AciphyfUi 
simfiJkifalw. Gau-ltltcria Inspidn, Epacrls: puhdos-o . Rirhcn Cuvnii, 
pYosfontheni cuneoia, P. IValten, Kniisca Muelteri. Wcsfrhtcjict, 
scuifolia, Potiiax mnbclhita, Cahnisur lougifolw, Brachyfomc 
alpiva. Foihlcpis lov.gipc.iiata, fidirhrystnn lepidophyHum. 

2|R l*REJ?cir. Accords of Pimm .'Utark\'d f»}} bunts. \^yo\^T' 


No, (.1 -The Vcllowctri^s." '^CrUftarrer/' or *'Holy Rtjg,'^ >Au:\h 

profa>\a. Faf>r. 

By C. Fruncw^ C^iveinmftnt. Riobgist. i 

This bug, in its native scatc. is tound uponthe shoots 07 the 
>Omig gum trceii. e^pecLally thft Msnnii rium (h.tifalypfHs 
viminalk), but in recent yeaj'.5 has rleveloped a lastc tor (he young 
Nhoots of the orange ir^ec. It inserts its sharp &nout into the 
shoots about 3 inches or 4 inches from the lip. and,, sucking up 
the sap, caus^^s the shnoi to "vviibp:!" aud die Tlic bug rrttasurc? 
nearly an tuch jo length. Mtd tour hnti; at.Tuss the stiouklLrs its 
jjeucrcil colour is dark reildish-brown. The. hind legs are ver\' 
lar^c, thf wingji, fuldefl over the hack, are ornainented wi*h ^ 
stripe of pale yellow fotniitig an angle oa either side, winch, 
nieeti!!^ on the ccatrc. iorn» a veiy clibtiucc cross or Capital X. 

VVh<'it these bugs are numerous they can do a guod ck;.*! r>f 
•damage to the young ohotits oi oriinj^^e nnd lemon fiees. They 
•are often [ound cle^troytng* tlic young shoot=: of Coolaiuundra 
{.-^ntcta Batleymit) and 01 her wattles cultivated in .^'arUcns. 
Crusader Bugb arc exceedingly plentiful <»u the. Coji>i;id VV;iHle 
{AtacKf' iongifolia). and it'^ Viirieticb dui'inj; the warrn suumuM' 


The thnnWs nt the ciiib .^re due to M|. and Mrs A, A. Bruitton for 
piac'mi^ their home ami alH>nt 100 acrt^ of hush-ia.nO at Ihd ilispoe-al ti( 
those mrrnhers who r<v>k- part in il>c excMrsic>n to KiiigUWe West on 
Dticeniher 9. Fourteen luutnbers nia<Xc the trip iii a mi>t<ir-ct>at:h. The 
vi*^wn ov^r the plain:; towards the nujunttviiis i>ii the oirfwar*! drive were 
much aiicuired. A ramble through the bush muI along the fern ^ulHes. 
ti.igf-thci Witli =1 visit to the Ma:-a>n's Falls, occupied the tinie hflarc hincK 
These Ulls, IHO I'eel deep, are sitiuiled iii a line gnlly. antl nre ensi erf 
access, til the attf-TTioon the Pprtk was visitc:<V A very- pictty 
Clrivs hom^ thtctusb Kinglake and Queenstosvn brought to -a close a pleasant 
outing. LAV.C- 

.\lonj; t4ie rtyjKc the changes in the Eiicatypts were observed. Tlicrc At*j 
fine Ke<J-f?iims alxvut ftundoora, other spccits near WhittlcRc^. P., abhifna, 
atul. pr«unial>iy, vximmon I*eppernuitt, in the MUiXtJi.. On the descent \o the 
fi«« t<«d-|i,tniis Ahniir Ruixloora, otiifr species ripar VVhittlcfira; /I. ohl'n}iui. 
u'^i* tli^ only >pe<:ie5 bi xvliif.h satislactc^ry material tor idenliticatiun \\'V> 
oh'.niucd- On t>;c dry t*c<4k of the Spgarloai, E- ^tocnphma wiis proRiivfiir. 
itu^ jiruhnbly E *i'ne^. (Brojid-leaf FeppenniiU). In the smaUer Ki'cwth the 
plane -nt chieS uitcrcitt wa^ a double-flower ui<j iorm ot H. bavckcn aiul 
t\^^^o!HHim<l, ir>w (Sowers i«ni^in«?cl; but t)i^ri.- ,ippcafed to be 3 rrjji5idrrnh!e 
liatcli of the douhic-flowfrcd form. IMowers tixHmincd showed a secoii<I 
s-iriex of petals dtreotlj- nbove the ttrst five. Few orrhids wrrc nottrxd 
1'hc common Bird Orchid, ChiltH^fottb Ciimvii. \va> the i^nly one observrd 
ill flower. 

T, S. lUt^i. 


Plate XXXV 

February, 1934 

Thelymitra Aiurdochcei n.sp. 

A Type Specimen. b Anther with PoUinia. c Stigma, from side. 

D Column, from front. _ e Column, from side. f Variation in 

Column Mid-lobe. g Column, from rear. 



By W. H. NicHOLL5>. 

Tin^h}mifra Murdochcc, n.sp. Planto fywrnstris snb-robmta 
4S tilt: a'lfa, faiium abscns in nteo unico spcciiiiirnc, hfGclc(i: 
caHlUuc it: ftoycs ituigrd cirdtpr 2 ? cm. laii, (^ermifiii sc^guisuid 
ovafo-Uinccohta, purpwv a-r libra ; rotmmuj erecta nrrifer 4nim. 
alia, pur pure o-riibnt.; lohi /o.teraIf.\' penirillafi paud , Ln}m,< mty{fiu.s 
bifidns; eri'ctuS, mav(jxnihus hyeve-P'Ufhu^lis: (tnihcra hrevi.i, 
obtiisct-, itupiia' [onge-saciatum. 

A moderately Motit plant, 4S oui. high. Leai wanting in my 
i>pecinie-Ti. Slein-bract^ 2. subulate, lower one 10 cm Long-. 
Flowers 2 S cm. in diameter, numerous, inner segments of periantl'i. 
pui'plish-hhae ; outer ones deej^ on'ni.son, ovatc-Ianceoiate ; column 
abotit 4 mm. lu^h, purph^sh-red ; lateral lobes long and narrow 
with ii lew crimsoii hairs at the apices: middle lobe divided into 
two <;r€c.t porcions with shortly-combed crimson niarj^ins; aotber 
with a short blunt point, .silnaied behind the upper part of sligma. 
Stigma largo, with a long sac-hke base. Pollen masses 4, hi two 

Victoria : Won(haggi, Koveuiber 7, 19."i3. Mr. K. H. Homanti. 

"The new specie.^ was found ivi rather marshy cotmtry alon? 
the Invcrloek "Road and near the township." It more clo^^tly 
resembles 7^h, inedm R.Br, than other known forms, and bears 
also a superficial resemblance to sam^ forms of Th. graiuHflora 
Fitx.; ibis is heighiened by the habit of the plant and the rit:b 
colour of its Bowers. 

Named in honour of L-ady Murdoch, 


"Ther^ i:^ no f'onht that the Sun Orekidi* are aiMong the most 
popular of all lerrestrial orchids; and m sa\iag this I urn nOl 
forgetting the Spiders. The Spiders are more sought after bv 
chiklrcn, perhaps ber.au5.e of their daintiness, and the fact that 
thev arc early spring" hloonwrs. giving joy, along" with the Green- 
hoods atter winter. But the woiideriul blues of the Sun Orchids 
make them favorites, for everybody loves blue flowers, from 
Delphiniums to Thelymitras- 

The brothers Forsn^r gave a wondertuHy apt name to the Sw 
Orchidj when, over 150 years ago, they named it Thvlymitra (^'thcij' 
ficbt sfiectui being" */'. longif olia) . The name means "wearmg a 
woHian's headdrebs/' and u refers to the wondei'ful hair tuftx 

which appear a'^ appendages to the hood oi tlic columns of M 
species. These can be seen in the remarkable photographs by 

Mr T- Green. This eh^tracteristic will be nored in all botanical 
dfescriptioiib of (hi5 geuus- Thus we -^ce "the Uleral lobet^ be^iting 
halt tuErs," "hair luds white.* 'hiiir nuts yellow." "hair tufts 
purple/' and so an. Su that it rs cnrtiparacively ea>v tu diistin^uiah 
a Thclymitra. 

Thert*. ls nnothrr feature which cirstinguisbes thi^ grerius. ^nd 
th:it is the absence of an unui^iiall^' fashiv'ned labelluui, U3>h"ke 
those ot the tongue ot die Gretfuhood, nr of the Spider, or the 
hatry elbow of the Draka^^ or the saddle of the Surcockilus. In 
the Sun Orchids, the Icibelluni 15 '*petalouij'' thai is* k is hardly 
diflerenl from the other pelals and sepals, and so is "like a petal." 
In some species, the labcUuru is slightly larger or wider than the 
olhcr fine scgnicntSi but the even shape oi the flower wirh its 
ihtee sepals and three petals, gives it somewliat thf. appearance 
of a lily, except for the presetice of the column and the hood. 

Tti.his presidetilral address on *"Sonae Developments ni Orchid- 
oiogy". Dr. R. S- Rogcr» records 49 species- of Thflytniira, JS nf 
these bein^ recorded lor Australia. One cr two new v^pecies have 
been discovered since this paper wa? written, Or, Ro.trer:-; is ot 
opniion thai Thciymitra is dehntlcly an Australian type of uichid. 
which has migrated to the Malavau flora, to Mew Latedonia. and 
til New Zpaland. In the latter Donnnlon there arc twelve r^peeies 
known, five of which occur in Australia; ihe oihet seven being 
cmlemic (restricted) to New Zealand. The nugration of Sun 
Orchids lias tfcen considerable, for one has been reported from tlvj 

There is a Western Australian genu?, witti one species. Ef^iblt^ia 
qnmdifiorum, which, besides havirtg purpH^h-blue flowers, has the 
bliellurn petaloid ; but it ib easily distinguished from the Sun 
Orchids by having its labellum fixed on a short cUav. 

Nineteen species of Sun Orchids are recorded from Vicloria; 
alKiut the same number occur in South Australia and VVesccm 
Australici; ten in N"cw Souih Wale5> eight in Tasmania, and two 
m Queensland. Ir would chus appear th^it the drier areas are 
more suitable Co the development oi th's genus, than the humid 
or wet tropical patc^ of the Cutnnioxiwcalth 

The conmmu name of "Sun Orchid" as a suitable one. for, an a 
general rule, the flowers will only open m bright sun.shine. K, 
after the iinie for die. opennig e-f the ilowers ha^ passed, then* 
has been no sunshine, the Powers simply die. without ever having 
opejjed. They must have the warmth and hj^bi o( tlic ;=im- For 
photographic purposers", I have of teii "opened ' the Ho wcrs by 
standing them in a vase of water quite close to a wann gas or 

*J?£^ A. mid NZ. A, AS. Vol. XX i, p m. im. 

J5^] Pw&csOlT, O'uArdi of 5iiiuftfVr. ^ZJ 

electric light. Then the nowcrj oi>en beautifu'ly, aud ronain 
open for a sufficient time for photograpliy or lor examination. 

The general colour of the Sun Urchids is blue or in Nh;idcs of 

blue. Albnio, and cvctt pale yellow flowers, ^ive to be looked 

lor in all species. Some flmvCra arti pink, .som-e yellow, sotnc 

"lilac, while one is rich salmon, and another ycHowish w\ih brown 

spots. These will be discussed later. 

ThelyniitTiJi are terrestrlaJ orchids, • the plants growing trom 
tnbcTS. A new ruber 33 produced <?ach year, and the. old one 
slowly siiriveU and dies- From last year's- tiew tuber, eon'^es ihia 
ycav's foliage aiid flower. Occasionally ibc ylanis produce an 
;Mlffiti(>nal tuber perhaps two; and thus the. specit'S incre.;is<'3. 
Reproduction and increase by tubers is common. 

The flowers arc reputedly pollinated by insect-^, but as many 
flower* Ttcv^r open, iind yet ^ct Seeds, ^x is e'vi'dent th<it Nature 
jjrovide.<, in s-otne cases, for .self-poHuiatinn. .Seeds are produced 
in countless millions Many ot them are, ot' course, lost; but 
cquiill3'. of course, some survive- This year, on (he top 0^ a 
cl.iy biuik at Doncasicr (ViC), I shw nutty pl«u(i of T. lungifolto^ 
which could only have come there as :-:«cdlingfc. 

How lonj[^ ^redlingx tak'r to flower, and how Inn^ It takes 2, 
reproduced tuber to floxver, ave siill unknown problem?*. l)o 
orchids hulk? Or tihall we say rest? I have noted several specie-S 
of terrestrial or<:hid6 in fiower in cert^iin pl«^"es, only to be dis- 
apjjointed nexr vear, by the entire alysenve 01 flowers. At.Ring- 
wond (Vic), 1 speciall)' niarked one year the spot v\'here grew 
a very fine plane of T, ^xuniks, X*o pbml re-appearf-d here in th^f 
two (ollowini; sea.<ims. Hen'. i& an inicrcsling phase 01 itud y ; 
but the problem would take years to solve. I remember receiving 
sonie. year.i ago iomc be-autitul fluwers of Pyxx\r,phyUur*i jiazmm. 
ihc (all Yellow l>;elv Orclnd, from a correspondent, in Tasmaniaj 
who ^aaid tliat >lte had co]Jected them from a spot where chcy had 
not previously grown, for it was quite close to her Koine, and 
she knew fhis exact $pot well for many years. Where had ih<^y 
come from? 

The distriiiution of Sun Orchids in Victoria is fairly even, 
txcep< in Un^ uordi-wesr. where the five romrnone^t spcdes, 
'•Scentcvi;' ^'Pmk," "Dotted/' '^Conmton;' and "Ridibil-ears" 
are to be found. Ai.i orcliids appear in very unlikely placcH, one 
never ^nows where (hpy wdl crop up. 

For many years we had the record of T, fuscolnHw-, the 
"'Hlolchtd'" Sun Orchid, as a single Grampian.s localiiy only fhcu, 
in 1921, the finding of a few flowers at French iJiland by ihc 
Rev. A C- F. Gates, ^ave tii a ivew record. There arc no other 
Victorian localiue.H for ihi^ species. In one localily in Western 
Australia. [ saw many hundred specaineiis oS this orchid gj owing 
over a large ar^ of hill country; >u that it would seem to be a 

^western rather than an Eastern species. The fragrant duU yeHow 
flowcrs. dotted with brown, ure very stnWnp. 
, -Another inrere<>ttag >peciesiii T, D'Alioni, first found at Hall's 
Oap. Grampians, in 1930; anri later ;i I: Ararat. It very much 
resembles the Western specces oC T. ViXrie{/(Uii. There ure two 
published species oi WcKteni Australia, T. variccfata ajid T. 
spiralis, which are more or ^t^% ill-defined, and are probably only 
one species. Dr. Rogsrs remarks thac D'Alton's Sun Orchid t& 
evidently a near relation of these. It is remarkable for its pecu- 
liarly spirnf leaf, which is like » small inch-high green corkscrew. 
Growing amon^' grasacb and stdges in the rough clay soil at 
Ararat, it is exceedingly difticult to find, although, when noted, 
the small spiral is easily seen agatn. . 

The popular ''Rabbit-tuirs" is to be found in many places. 
The flowers usually occur in large nnmhei?;, and are very cr>n- 
spicuous with their open small nch yellow flowers. The remark- 
able brown lobes of the column are just like rabbit cari. or like 
^ome clubbed antennae of an mscctj which jLj^ve to the plant ils 
specific name. At Ocean Grove thic. lieason I saw these flowers in 
hmidrcdb along the roadside. Brown marking.s are seen on the 
putside of the flowers. Occasionally rich -salmon-pitik varieties 
ate to he seen, and this circumacance causes a confusion with the 
Salfnon Sun Orchid, T MacmiHanil. But rhe latter has not any 
rabbit ears, which, in the pink iorm, may eithei lie pink or 

•The "Rabbita-ears" should not be Confused with another 
yellow-flowere-l form. T. fiexiosu, the "Twisted" Sun Orchid. In 
tins species, tlie flowers are paler yellow, there arc no "cars," and 
the dwarfish stem is strangely z.ig-zag^ in sliape 

Some species arc of exquisite beauty, notably the 'Veined" 
Sun Orrftid, T vi'wo.w. This is really a mountain species, prefer- 
ring wet soils. The colour is of a delightful rOyal blu«, with 
dark bkie veins Rev, H. M. R. Kupp, in his book on the Orchids 
of New Sozith Huif^s, describes, this as "one oi (he loveliest ot 
Qur terrestrial orchids." 

The species more commoniy recorded arc T. tiristoki. T. 
-ixtoidffs, and T. idiigifolia. These arc all iairly tall, with flower-s 
variable in their blue shades, sometimes beinjj lilac, with T. ixioides 
being more or less ipottrd. Mr. W. H. Nicholls expresses a 
doubc that there should be three species here, and is at present 
investigating this question. 

Reference TTUi5t now be vosuX^ to the suggested infl-uencc o[ fires 
on' the flowering oi orchids. It- is popularly supposed that iruny 
species flower more profusely after a bush or grass fire has passed 
over the area This is supposed to be the case, especially with 
Cdhdcma M^ri^iesh. and Lyjyeranlhus mgrkmu. P-ut I have seen 
the latter flowering freely when there had not been a fire tor 


Plate XXXVI 

February, 1934 

i'liulL'^. '_■! T. Cri-j:ii 

Siirv 0'".hidi 

Top : T. venosa ( left ), and T. aristata 
Lower : T. megcalyptra ( left ), and T. longifolia 

f^^ ] PrscoTT, OrchMs of SuuMnt. i2Z3 

years. Ahtl itlio, oiwr year when fhcrc had been a suinnjcr bush 
iire at Cheltenham, this orchid flowered very sparsely during the 

Sun Orcluds eome imder this popular superstition Whether it 
be true or not, I have ^ev^rgl times noted the ^hnx commoner 
species just referred to flowering in wonderful abundance within 
tnc railway endosuretf; between Benalla and VVangaratta. The 
masses of blue tones were wonder ful. And the railway line 
tiiKlosures are huined out almost every sununerF 

Wc now come to the finest of our local species ; and there arc 
three of them, which will compare favourably with any terrestrial 
orchids of any part of the M'orld. The bt<'st addition to our Hit 
IS the one collected last year at Wontliaggi (Victorui)'by Mr. E. 
Homannj and it is one of the mov^t handsome of the genus. Mr. 
W. H. NicholU de.^icribes it elsewhere in this issue of the 

The next is the Great Sun Orcliid, 7\ tjrandi^ora. which ib 
fiyurcd in colourb, in Dr. R. S. Rogers' book on South AwStraliim 
orchids. But any colour plate would fail lo du this npblc orcidd 
justice. U m icitricte*! to Victoria and South Australia. 
Standing from two (eel to two feet six* inches in height, with a 
lar^e. thick, f^rshy leaf, khe flower stem h^ving^ a dozen or more 
rich blue flowers, this; is; undoubtedly the most robust and beautiful 
spcacs of all our Sun Orchids. It is not common, and bc-:ig 
so conspJciious. it is very likel}' to bccom? extioL-t, for flower 
hnriicrs will gather tiverv specimen, it i^v only recorded here 
from seaside locahtics, Marcus Hill, Ocean Grove. Paywit and 
Point Lonsdale; also irom Mooroduc, Ringwood ^nd the 

This orchid is an illustration of the way in which a plant may 
rcraam unknown and unrecorded for many yc^irs, until special 
circumstance:* nri*e (o bring it under notite. One would think 
thai alter sixty years or more of botanical cxplaration» sucli a 
notable species^ as tins one would have been discovered long since. 
During^ the war, atxmt 1916, a "Flower Uay'* wair being held in 
Melbourne, wi*h :i display of wild and cultivated flowers at the 
Town Hall. To the delight of Mr. Charles French, jun., and 
myself, a bunch of over a do?eu spedmens of this noble orchid 
was found in a bo,x of wild flowers sent from Marcus Hill 

In opposition to thi? species is the "Stout" Sun Oichid» a very 
poor name for such a- retnarkably coloured fiower. I mean T. 
Cpipacioides. ^ Epipactis-like," it i.^ supposed to resemble one of 
the EpipacUs. a jjenus of English Orchids. It certainly resembles 
ihesc plants in foliage haf>its, but not in other characters. 

Mueller described il from specimens collected on a swampy 
portion of the moors at Cheltenham, collected first, I think, by 

2/< PRScirfr, (?^c4fdr of Simshinc. [ v^i. i^ 

tl*at indefatigable collector. Charles French the first Sai5>e years 
after a misguided plant collector visited (he s]v>t» dug up every 
tuber he could find, and sent them lo a inirscry tn England, where 
they probaMy all died. I have collected it here at the type 
locality,, but with the progress of building, ehc locality is now 
suburban. It has beca fousKl in the Grampian^. It may appear 
afjain from Point Lonsdale, wh^re Mr. George Coghill collected 
It year^ a^o. but 1 ain afraid that I am pessimistic, and that it 
is possibly extinct here. Dr. Rogers also records it from a £ew 
localities in South Australia. 

It is a plant of robust habit, with large, broad, succulent leaves, 
upwardsi of Iwenty-twn inches in height, often carr>'ing a do?:cn or 
mor^ large flowers of unusital colours, quite iridescent ;tnd 
variable Dr. Rogers describes it as "of a peculiar iridescent, 
greyish-green colour, shot with pinkish tints, somelimes brown 
with a metallic lu.stre." Thiy exiictly dc5crihe?i our Victorian 

T. ku^o-cilkUii the "Fringed" Snn Orchid, is one of our red 
or reddish coloured species, and Is named after its yellow hair 
tufts. For years it was only known from Lubeck and GoUon 
in the Wimmera, where it was discovered by the late J. A Hill; 
but a few years ngo I found it in lat^e numbers at Baxter, in the 
Mornmgton Peninsula. It is noted tor its very large seed pods. 

I would lilce to refer to two Western spenes which present some 
rather unusual features, not commonly noted among Sun Orchid?. 
There is the "Custard'* Orchid, T. villosa^ its common name indi- 
cating its fragrance. The flowers arc laigc. yellow coloured and 
spotted wiih purple The large ovale leaf is quite hairy on both 
sides, hairs running in hnes parallel to the margins. The 
column-lobe hairs are very dense and orange yellow. 

Then there is T, Sargentii, named after a Perth chemist and 
Orchid lover, Mr. O. H. Sargent. In this species rhe plain is 
slender and over a foot in height, having a long, narrow leaf. 
There arc upwards of a do?.en flowers on the stem, rather large, 
rich yellow In colour^ dotted with brown, not unlike T, fusco- 
tuten^ but in colour only, not being so robust. 

I have not described ail of the spede.^ recorded for this Stale. 
The list may be found in the Cens»s of (he Plants of Vktorixj. 
This noble and valuable genus of plant:* is certainly worth pre- 
servttig, and it is urged with mnre force than ever — for the 
necessity appears to be greater — -tliat flnwers should not be 
gathered in numbers, and that no efforts should be spared to 
prevent any species from becommg extinct- Only a few llowers 
should be colfected, and the practice of the removal of tubers 
should be very tynphatically repressed and condemned. 



February, 1934 


^^■p w^^ 

Photos, by T. Green 

Columns ( magnified ) of Sun Orchid Flowers 

Top : T. longifolia { both illustrations ) 
Lower ; T. grandiflora ( both illustrations ) 



Baukftt. .-hi Orchid Picture Caller 



Hy Charles 

Unique too often is a word misused, but in writing of Mr. T. 
Green's collection of stereo-photographs of Australian orchids, its 
use is justified. This wonderful picture gallery of our favourite 
wild flowers is the only one of its kind in the world, and is likely 
to remain unique. 

A collection of nearly 1200 jjliotographs. it includes studies of 
many species in each genus that occurs in this State (all the known 
forms of some genera), and a number of orchids from other 
States whose range does 
not extend to Victoria. 

Mr. Green made his 
first orchid photograph 
about 14 years ago. and 
devoted the most of his 
leisure time to this 
branch of nature ])h(tto- 
graphy until the sumnier 
of 1930. He spent week- 
ends and ])ublic h(.)lidays 
in the field ; making in 
situ studies of orchids. 
But a large number of 
his photographs were 
taken indoors; the sub- 
jects being freshly gath- 
ered specimens. He dis- 
sected hundreds of 
flowers. and phtJto- 
graphed the column and 
other parts, magnified 
from two to 12 diamet- 
ers : eight diameters 
mostly. Here he was 
pioneering and his beau- 
tiful jMctnres of orchid 
structure possess considerable scientific value. 

Usually, he photographed the colunni of a flower in three ])osi- 
tions : so that we may study it from various angles. The fairy-like 
structure of the colunni fascinated him, and he ([uickly recognized 
its im])ortance in distiguishing species. The perianth may be the 
same in two aUied forms, but their colunnis differ. 

Sun Orchids are his favourites, and Mr. (ireen's ll}cl\niitra 
series is almost complete. Students of the group have found these 
photographs helpful, and future monographers of our (nxhids 
also will need to examine them. 

The negatives belong now to the Royal liotanic Gardens. Eng- 

Photo. T. Green. 


( 7'. autcnnijera ) 

226 HARl*^n^T. An Orchid Pirturr Cat (cry. [ 

Vict. Not. 
Vol. L. 

land. When Mrs. Ethel M. Eaves was in London, she brought Mr. 
Green's wt)rk under the notice of the Director of the Kew Gardens 
and Dr. A. W, (now Sir Arthur) Hill wrote, offerinj^ to purchase 
ihe whole collection. 

In his letter, Dr. Hill said that he had seen a few examples of 
Mr. Green's orchid photography and was much impressed by the 
wealth of detail shown in them. '*And." he added. '*in view of 
the critical taxonomic nature of many of the Australian orchids 
and difficulty of making out the floral details from dried speci- 
mens alone. 1 feel that a collection of photographs such as you 
have been taking woukl be a valuable addition to our cctllection. 
. . . Xaturally 1 am interested in all species of Australian orchids, 
and should like photographs of any of them, but perhaps the 
genera Ptcrostylls, Caladeniit and Thclymitra might be considered 
first if any selection is to be made." 

Mr. Green, realizing the importance of his photographs at the 
headquarters of botanical research in the British Empire, con- 
sented to part with the negatives for a moderate sum, and for- 
warded 9S6, in one lot. Several other lots were forwarded 
subsequently, tmtil the total reached nenrly 1200. Kew Gardens 
authorities have exi>ressed willingness to take all that Mr. Green 
cares to send : but during the past two years there have been no 
additions. Collectors have either faile<l to find anything they 
deemed worthy of Mr. Green's camera, or, he suggests, have 
reverted to the old idea that the dried plant is the best! Be that 
as it may, every field botanist must agree that photography is of 
great service in the study of wild flowers. And Mr. Green's 
stereo-photographs of orchids have frequently been used in school 
botany lessons. At my own home, many nature lovers have spent 
a whole evening looking through this floral picture gallery. 

That brings me to a personal record and an explanation which 
l)erhaps is due to Australian orchidologists. I make no claim to 
the title myself: I am only an orchid lover, familiar with a num- 
ber of species as they grow, but lacking the knowledge of the 
specialist. Vet I was chosen by Mr. (ireen to be the custodian 
Iff the only existing set oi ]>rints fntm 1.000 of his negatives. He 
sent them to me, as a Christmas gift, in 1931 ; accf)mpanied by a 
charming letter. He asked me ttt accept the whole collection, 
declaring that this would be as great a kindness to him as it would 
be to myself. He thought it wrong to have the photographs 
stowed away unseen, and knew that T would value them, and 
wisely tise them. 

Fully appreciating the compliment, and properly grateful. I yet 
hesitated to accept the trust. I urged Mr. Green to reconsider 
his decision ; to retain the photographs, or present them to someone 
more worthy than myself to own such a remarkable collection. 
Several orchidologists. and two institutions were mentioned. But 
mv friend said that he had made his decision and it was final. 



February, 1934 

Photos, bv T. Green 

Columns (magnified) of Sun Orchid Flowers 

Top : T. megcalyptra ( both illustrations ) 
L.ower : T. media ( left ), and T, fuscolutea 




B ARKKTT, An Orchid Picture dollcry 


So I became the nominal owner of this Commonwealth collec- 
tion of orchid photographs. I have tried to use them as their 
real owner would wish, though he attached no conditions to his 
splendid gift. Some of the studies are reproduced in this issue 
of the Naturalist; and 
others will be available 
to illustrate papers by 
botanists, in our Club 
journal or other ])ublica- 
tions. But there must be 
no gaps in the series. 
Every care is being taken 
of the photographs. 
When I pass on they 
will l)e left as I received 

It was a desire to 
know the plants himself 
that led ^Ir. Green into 
the long and pleasant 
path of orchid photo- 
graphy. Then he placc<l 
no other value on liis 
camera work than that 
of helpfulness in his own 
studies. The first sub- 
ject was an *'Under- 
taker" Orchid (Lypcr- 
anthus nigricans) , found 
on a lonelv ramble at 
Black Rock. The last. 
1 believe, was a Sun Orchid. 

In the early days of his botanizing with a camera. Air, Green 
received much assistance from several members of our Club. Mr. 
A, J. Tadgell brought to him many specimens: as also did Mr. 
E. E. Pescott. Later, Mrs. E. Coleman. Mr. Charles French, (the 
present Government Biologist), and Mr. \V. H. Xicholls, and 
others also were helpful. But it was a letter from Dr. R. S. Rogers 
that gave Mr. Green his first hint (if the scientific value of the 
work he was doing. Dr. Rogers had received a stereo-j^hotograph 
of Prasophylhim fivibriatum, magnified by three diameters, and 
wrote stating that he had dried specimens of the ])lant. but the 
stereo enabled him to see the minute flowers, as if thev were **in 
the flesh." 

At times, there was duplication of effort; specimens from 
different sources being differently named, th(»ugh of the same 
species. This happened mostly with certain of the rarer 
Caladenias. from Rushworth, and some of the Sun orchids. 

Photo. T. Green. 



228 Stach, Fossil Fauna of the Ccclomj Distrut. (_ voi. L* ' 

Steadily, the "gallery" was extended, until a workable index 
to the pictures in it became necessary. Mr. Green not only com- 
piled an index; every print is endorsed with useful data. The 
work has been done so thoroughly that the collection is also a 
library of reference. Photographs of any desired species can be 
quickly found among the thousand prints in the cabinet. 

As a boy, in England, Mr. Green became interested in wild 
flowers and ferns, chiefly the latter. He enjoyed long rambles 
after ferns on the hills of Settle, in Yorkshire, where he served 
as an apprentice to his father, a nurseryman. My own link with 
Yorkshire is strong — my father came from that county ; so that 
I like to think of the young Timothy Green learning his first 
lessons from wild Nature at Settle. But he was born in Norfolk. 
He came out to Australia in 1912, to find a new world of wild 
flowers and ferns as beautiful as those of his native land. 


By Leo W. Stach. 

(iii) The Beds at the Mouth of Coivie's Creek. 

While visiting the Harbour Trust Quarry, North Geelong, on 

the south side of the mouth of Cowie's Creek, a Very thin band of 

dark brown ferruginous grit was discovered, not exceeding two 

inches in thickness, resting, apparently disconformal)ly. on the 

yellowish impure limestone of the quarry. The ferruginous grit 

was found only on isolated blocks which had been (piarried. and 

was not found in situ in the quarry section. 

The fossils were small, few in number, and occurred as casts 
and moulds. The following species were collected: — 

Pelecypoda : ChiusincUa subroborata (Tate), Dosivia aff. grayi 
Zittel, / 'cncricardiu sotida (Tate), NucHhina acinacifonuis 

Scaphopoda: Dentalinni sp. 

Gastropoda: Calyptraea kalimnae Chapm. and Gabr., Ltopyrga 
quadricingulata (Tate), Turritclla sp. 

Notes Oil the fauna. — The species listed here all occur at typical 
Lower Pliocene (Kalimnan) localities, such as Beaumaris (above 
the nodule bed), Jemmy's Point (Lakes Entrance), Forsyth's and 
Macdonald's (Muddy Creek, Hamilton) (1), and in the upper 
(Lower Pliocene) sections of the Mallee (2), Sorrento (3), and 
Gippsland (4) bores. The fauna is thus typically Lower Pliocene. 

(1). Deimant, J., and Kitson, A. E.: Records of GeoL Surx\ Vie., Vol. i, 

(2). Chapman, t.: iVid., vol. iii. pt. 4. 
(3). Chapman, F. : ibid,, vol. v, pt. I. 

(4). Chapman. F., and Crespin, I.: Paheontological Bulletin Xo. 1, Dept. 
of Home Affairs. 


By JoYcw K. Aij.Ai**. 

(Contribution from the Ausiralian Museum.) 

An enrKiisiasd'c it»eniber of the Fi^M Naturalist.?* Club of 
Victoria. Mrs. M. E. Frenmc, has, for sume timc^ been iurwarding 
to (he Australian Museum very uiteresring marine luateiial, 
collected in the vicinitv of MelboufUt?. Among her rccerii dona- 
tions were t'ggs oi several kinds of mollusc, and for the benefit of 
readers who may find similar ^truchires in thei*' nature wanderings 
and be unfamiliar with them, this article has Ijeen prepared. As 
some of the more common ej^^'-masses found eJs-ewheie in Aus- 
tralia are ratlier sirikiiig^ in form. J have taken iht opp'^''^"*^ty of 
refcrrini; to thcrrj also, as it is possible tliat similar ones will appear 
un the Victorian coast. 

It is practically impossible, unfortunately, in the early stages of 
some eggs, to discctver even to which family the egg-mass belongs. 
unless, of couriic, the parent shell lias been found v;ith them. or. 
better still, the anJmal found in the process of depositing- |hem. 
In many genera the]^ are «*o similar that spccifii: identification is 
out of the question, and only a very cursory- attempt can be made 
here tti c<jnn*'Lt a nmllusc with the individual egg-mass. 

About springy or early stitnmerrime, espedally ^t ful! moon, 
these cgg-mas5es become conspicuous along the cuusLs. ai, with the 
a[>proach of warm weather, the chief breeding of mallui>cs takes 
place, althouj>;h in Australian watei-:?; some appcvren'.ly breed at 
irregular intervals Ihrouglioui the year. The eggs arc deposited 
on sea-weeds, rocks, or the Hca-boitom. according to the place 
frequented l»y the dept)*itr>r. 

With the exception of a few kiiown groups, such as some of the 
freshwater snads, which arc vivaparous, most juolluscs. are 
OvapaTX)ut>i that is. they lay e^fgs in which the young embr>'o 
develi*ty>s. Air. T. Iredale, however, on breaking open Screw 
Shells (TurrUdla i/Httmi), from Twu fold Bay, New South Waleb, 
for the purpovse of obtaining radulae. found tliat the animals con- 
taineH numbers ot minianjre shells. There were about 70 youiig- 
ones irt each parent shell, and about three out ot every fuur shells 
examined wore found to be aflfect<»d in this way. From tiii.s ir 
would appear that more species are vivapar'^us than arc at present 
thought to be so and that, ut>on exattiinatjon. other< may be found 
where the young^ are hatched within the bnilv of Hie i>art*nt. 

n^ie numerous eggs nf the o\'iparaijs tnoUuscs are deposited in a 
glutiaotis substance, soft, bur at the same time iirm enough to 
retain its sliape in the water and to adhere to eithi:r roclvs and 
weeds; or else (hey are laid in conspicuoiis capsule.^, nf horny 
texture and varying shaf)e. The latter structures are particularly 

23(1 A.».r ^X- £V|(i^*rcttr,v 0/ SeO'Snails ivtd S'pa*s!n(j.u [ 'v^, ^. ' 

characteristir of univalves, living iti deeper WHler, where the spawn 
wnuld be subject to greater iuterfereace t)i?in is that of the $hoi*c- 
living forms. 

The sexes, ni many moHuses. arc separate^ and often, but not 
always', ihey are disting^uishable through the lemale bein>j larger 
and fatter than the male, and throu^L^h oth^i diiTeiences characlPi 
istic of certain species. There arc also, however, a great nitmher 
of nioIlusc« (0 which the sexes are united in one individual. This 
i.H ^ispecially common ftinong ihe land and freshwater shells, thi: 
sfta-iihigs, atid rhc sea-hares. In bi-sexual molluscs, self-impreg- 
nation is impossible, and to carry on the race the nnion of two 
individuals is essential. 

Some of the egg-easei^ arc wonderfully delicate and beautifully 
ocjnstructed, and in many casea^ are as attractive, as the animal 
responsible for rheni; sometimps even more atnactive. This 
pam'culady applies to the gracctul. girdle-hke. gelatinous struc- 
tures of the KudihnOich fica-stngs and the .-iide^illed sea-skigs 
( Ficiiit>branchs)f and to the stronger bur often elahor;^ce, ca|>sule.s 
ot 5omc of the univalves. 

The egg--mass grows larger and harder as the nmc approaches 
tor the embryos tn emerge from it. lTl;tch capsule containing an 
embryo keeps pace with its growth, and therefoie the egg-nusit 
often f>econie5 very mnch larger than the individual responsible 
for it. Many of the young moUusCS, wberl they emerge from the 
capiiUles, have a brief itee-swinmiing stage, after which ihey 
adopt the general haBu«; of the parent In the larval stage, by 
their oxvTi movcrnents. or by currents, the fij^y creatures are carried 
lung distances; countJcss numbers, drifting about, perish in the 
open ftea, and only a ficnall percentage 01 the embryos hatched reach 
matnrity. After their free stfige t.*? over, they settle m the place 
which best 5uits thcfo, as tlw;ir parent has done before them, 
whcdier it is burrowing in sand. mud. rock, or wood, under stones 
or among s<!awccds. Their gr<»wth 15 partTcuIurly rapid, as with 
most molluscs life is sihort, and in many groups, maturity is 
reached" in a year. 

Scientific workers adopt ^(^"^''^•'Lv a classification of egg-itiasses 
to assist ihcm in their ideiilifjCations, but T propose here to divide 
ihcfTt, for .simplification, into only two kinds — those in the form of 
a girdle, and rbnse in capiiular furms. ■ 

GiRnr.E Forms. 

An egg-ginile consists ol laarge numbers o£ eggs, atrangcd often 
in tows, in a gelatinous mass spread out strap ur ribbon-like. The 
mass IS soft, and generally attached to rncks and wee4ls by one <»f 
its edges., and is coiled, sou^etimes most elaborately, at others with 
only one or two coils in it. This is the form ok egg-nidi which 

are characterislic of the Nudibnitich and Pleurobranch sea-slugs, 
those brightly O'lomeid. very soh-bodied unimab. iound on weeds 
and under scon^.*^ at low tide; the girdles of these g^ucrally range 
from pure white to a beautiful orange or red colouf, and though 
the coils mostly fuond are only about one inch in dianietei".. when 
unmvellfcd tliey often reach a leugih oi about three inches. The 
coils of the Pleurobranch-s are usually a littJe wider and stronger 
than those of the Kudibranchs, and jn the case of the latier. the 
AeoLid Nudibranchs have a more tightly coiled g>rdle than the 
l^hln Dorid oiies. 

Mrs. FreuJtte included in her donajion several of these };nrile- 
like coils. They were deep orange in colour, and very similar to 
tha^e laid by the sjiecics found most comiuoniy around Sydney, 
FI euro hranc has ptmctaMis, which is the. syme colour as it!> girdle 
and grows to about two inches in length. Though Ihi.s specisv Eias 
not been recorded from Victoria y-jt, it is possible that^ if it does 
not occur I her e> a dose uOative does. 

I have examined severs! coils of eggs, laid at different rime.^ 
in a small aquarium at the Museum, and have snvariably found 
that about twenty-fnur hours after they are deposited segmenta- 
tion can be noticed taking place within the cells. In less than ten 
days, the embryo, equipped with a shin> cell, which in the case 
of mos-t of the Pleurobranchs. is retained throughout life, and in 
Nudibranchs is discarded shi^rtly after emerging^ break$ out arid 
whirls rapidly away. 

Sea-hares, large flabby animals with four tentacles on the head, 
and often conspicuous swnmming^ fiaps on their bodies, are {ound, 
at this time of ihe year, on rocks and weeds, where they come up 
possibly from deeper M-ater, to breed. Beside these aniinaU arc 
often noticed string-like masses of c^gs, which frequently pu;:de 
people Tlte mass* as a rule, is pgle crenm to deep yellow in 
coloisr. and an average specimen measures about six inches in^ 
diameter. The actual girdle forming the mass is very narrow, 
only about a jnillimeter or two wide, but of unbelievable length. 
One mass recently untangled -Jnd uvcasmed reached the surprising 
length of over 800 inches. Jt can be ai>preciatcd, then, how m»ny 
millions of eggs are la>d by a single individual in one season. In 
captivity, an Aeolid sea-slug lja$ been Uoticed feeding on them. 

Only two species ot sea-hares have, so far, been recorded jTi»m 
Victoria, one of which is v^ry ^malK and wo\ild h<ive a cori^e- 
sp*>ndingly small egg-mass: the other, Ttftltys ligrma, is larger, and 
1 am assuming that (be t^CTtion of the girdle received belongs .tri 
this spccie.N. Ai s\'ith the previous group, the embryos cmfr(re 
abour ten days after the eggs are deposited, but in their natural 
surrounding:s. with the regtijar motion of the water and the rise 
and iail of the tide, this period may be shortened. 

A rather different kind of girdle-like cail» laid by the Naiacoid 

Hi AlUK Effff^casf.% of .V.:rt-.wfl*Vjc a«rf Strc-ilH^s. [^Voi. L?^ 

sta-snails, is <oiind plentifully on sand and mud-fiats during the 
spring and summetv The girdle is i;omewhat bowl-shaped, with 
both ends of the ribbon free, the tipper part of the cc<il being 
narrower m diameter tlian the lower. The egg-mass h formed 
of a mass of sand glued together, and when it is held to the Ug^ht 
there can generally be seen numbers oC little cells, each containing 
an embryo. 

The brown-and-white banded Bubble shell, Hydalina physis, a 
tidal-flat dwdfrr. has a beautiful white girdle, composed of curved* 
and fluted lohulei. It is anchored bv one end. and \vhen the girdle 
floats in the water, it resembles a fine lacy ruffle. 

The most beautiful egg-girdle I have seen, however, was laid 
in the ;i<[uarium at Taronga Park by a very large and handsome 
rose- tinged Nudihrancluate sea-slug, Propinnelihe mirafica. which 
was taVcn there from Cairns. Queensland. The girdle was very 
large and gelatmous, and contained numbers o£ capsules, in each 
of which were aboiit sixty pale pink egg^. These pink eggs gave 
to the whole ^i^Jrdle a beautiful foamy pink appearattce, resembling 
the most delicate tuUe. I much regretted hasing to place it in 

Capsular Forms. 

These are forms adopted by the majority of univalve molluscs 
and cephalopods. the Octopus and its relatives. .A.fter deposition, 
they be»X'mc -hardened frTm contact with the water, and arc able 
to itand a faii amount of bulTcung. The capsular form^. unless 
definitely known, arc extremely hard to associate with any 
particular genus, as mstny have similar irgg-nidi- 

The e^g-clusters of the cephalopods usually consiijt of elongated 
capsules, attached by a stalk to a mam body. A female Octopus 
in the aquarium nt Taronga Park. Sydney, laid numbtrrs of 
capsular eggs Each elongated body was attached by a long stalk 
to a main ittm. about hfty in a group, and the group was enclosed 
in a mrmbnmous substance. There were about 100 of these 
groups Tastened to the wall of the aquarium, and the Octopus 
sat over them while they were developing. As the embryos 
enlarged, the capsules; gradually broke away from the membrane 
and the long stalk of attachment was noticed. 

The squids and cuttles also deposit capsular egg-nidi, which 
arc attache<l in a close mass to some marine body, A mop-like 
bunch of elongated, pale buff capsules with thick skios and 
attached to a main axis probably belong to one of the common 
forms of sqviid found xn Victorian waters. 

OF the cephalopods, the Paper Nautilus undoubtedly is. the most 
curious regarding its breeding habits. The female is ever so 
much larger than the maVe, which is rarely seen, and posr>esses a 
gSvel), ih^t beautifully frail^ white shelh QUen foimd washed up oti 

IM4.J AiXAK. Hgo-^^^s I*/ Sea-sjiaits 4Hid Sca-sh^gx^ 2J3. 

tfie VJctDTjHn <t»js1. The shell is not a Irwe ouc, but is mcrdy a 
^rnidlt; used by Ihc f<Sirwlc to hold her e^g;i. The e^gs utc small 
ajid <?Iojigatfxl, and are. clustered in grape-like huncko* in th^ .shell. 
A small number of these c^.gs was forv^'ardcd by Mrs. Freame, 
and on examination were found to he ydlow. (uniinj; to reddish- 
brown. The eggs vytTP hroad at tiicir base, and were atLiched Ui 
each other by flattened stAlks. ihe airrangemcnt of attachment bein^, 
ro«gh!y, one or twacap&uJcs on each .side of a single capsule and 
one at the tup. In this way tlie ^ape-like bunch was frirmc<!. 
JKaeh capsule was 7min. in len^ih from stalk tu the top ami 4nim. 
wide, and was slightly transparenl , hut the enil^ryos were not 
fiufticlently developed for any structural charactevs io be recog- 
ni.sed. These eggs pmhahly belong to Argotwuia nodosa. 

An exlr^-ruely iieat bunch of five very graceful, b«.'ll-sh;ipetl cap- 
sules, deep cream in colour and of leatbt-ry texture, with the edges 
attractively fluted, was attached to a central membranous 
Kaeh capsule was about or>e inch in lerigOi and thrce-qnarkrs of 
an imh in widlli, and was closed, but on boin^ cut <ipcn hundreds 
of tiny creamy white eg:gs were tound inside. These are tvpical 
egg^ nf the genus Fast'iolana. lather laryr nnivalves, fouml in 
fairly shallow waier, and ihe .'specimen forwarded belon^cced to the 
species found so commonly in rocky pools along ilic Victorian 
coast, hasciolana coromxta. 

There were sevei^l orher groups nf e^^s in Jhe collection whieli 
1 eannoi at this stage attribute to any special kmd of moUusc. 1 
am describing and figuring ihcni herc» in tlic hope ihat readers 
may he indnred to watch ont ior them and perhaps find llu; ajiimal 
deposiliujij than. Fi%'e rounded, creamy-white eggs, about thrcc- 
cjuaiters of an inch in leoqth. and flattened ar the top. were 
attached separately to a small piece of rocU by a short bro;*d stalk. 
The skin of the capsules was particularly thick, and they were 
opaque except on the flattened lop, where a rounded portion was* 
sufticiently transparent to see witiiin. luNide oi^e, when opened, 
were found afxiut .3*? roumi \'ellc)w c^gs about inim. in diameter. 
Though these resemble the drawings of e^f^-clusters of ccriain 
Purpura shells, yet they arc not the same as the t.g^s. of Ihe 
common Purpura found on the i?onthern coa&ts, so I he-iitate to 
claSK thcin as belonging to that g^enus. 

There wa> also another set of pale olive yellow. vcr>' neat egg- 
capsules, qrrarjc^d in a single regular row on n small piece of 
kelp-weed. The cap>inle is hroa<l at the babe, the sides being 
exp)3nded a liltic so that the upper part \% sli^dUly wider than the 
biise. and jnea.'sured 6rom. by 4nmi. The upper margin is M'avy 
and thin, and the capsules are somewhat swollen m the centie, 
with a wavy ^rain on the ontside. I have not seen any egp^=5 l»ke 
these, and, as no slielt was found with them, it is impossible lo 
kjiow to which UKilluitc they belong* 

Fref|uenrly tffifg-masses jj|r<! waiH^U ashore with the animals 
attached, or by then^sclvcis; or they may be (ouncl on weeds or 
rocks round the shore. A camiiion httic whelk, Xymt'nc ha^ileyi, 
found und^r stones iv the mud zone around Sydney, lays it-, ^gg^ 
in tlie form of tuimer<ius r<.»unded, rather flattened separate 
pocketfi. This shell ts a noted oysiet pcsi of this State,, and -^t 
Fore iVrarfpiarie, a great oyster-fishing place, the rocks were almost 
white. UTie yciir, with the vast number of eggs of this whelk. 

The Violet Snail, a pelagic moHusc^, spending its hic on the 
ocean, is sometimes diivtn ashore by wind, and nurahtrs will be 
seen hnmg the bea<:h', where the recedtug; tirle has left them. 
Frequently they have their egg-nidi attv^ched. and these arc nmfct 
curious. The egg-capstdcs are carried closely packed on the unde*r* 
surface oi a. raft, or float, nllci with bubblei-, which is stfcreted by 
the Violet Snail and attached by one end to her <oot. As the 
ectihryos deveiofv, iho&c farthest irom tkw shd! break away {rora 
the capsules and drift off tn lead an independent life. 

The white burrowuig mollusc of the tidal flat. h*hiline angasi, 
lay\ a Mngle large elongate-oval jelJy-hWc rapsnlar egg-nidns. In 
the while, tran5par<*pl slnicturc can clearly be seen the white 
tangled egg-suing coutainiug embryos. The eapsule is al>out two 
inches in length, and is attached to a base by a small thin thread. * 

Very large eg;g-cas€S are deposited by 3v species o( Fu^us vhell» 
McgalutriuUiis aruamiS, atid the Baler shell. Mel^j flammeum, both 
of which occur in Northern Australia. The former, of which an 
unusual hi)erimen 3S here htrurefl, show? how attachnicnJ Ta>;es 
plac^. Iti this case, it is firmly cJasped round the stalk of a piece 
oi &ponge at one end. The actual case is over eight inches in 
length, is yellow colonred, and consists of rather flattened ian- 
flliaped capsules tightly packed, oiie on top of the other. On the 
uutside edge, that is the one farthest from the sponge, each 
oipsule has about 14 fluted ridge??, which give n lonjjFtudini^J ridged 
effect to the whole cgg-n^n^s. 

The egg-mass of the Baler shell, with the animal: is often cast 
up on the shores, or found in shallow water, 'in the Queensland 
coast It can grow to over a foot in length, and resembles an 
elongated fir-cone Over a hundred capsules -ire packed' tugether, 
each of them being conical wilh rounded apicei^. They are joined 
to each other only towards their bases, the top=. being free; he»*c 
and there openings occur in the mass. A single embrvo is in oairh 
capsule, and young .sheiln about tv emerge are an inch na length, 
the main whorl already conmiencir^ to show the coloured markings 
of the adult shell. 

The eggs of molluscs are an important fac^yr in the otudy oi * 
Conchology. and students of this branch of science should emlca-* 
vour, whenever [possible, to become familiar with the.\e nhjectSi 
The rocks and weeds, as already slated^ are in Che early sprifljf-* 


Plate XXXIX 

February y 1934 

^ ^P^ 



Egg - cases of Marine MoUusca 


j Alt AN\ Ef^g-tiise.t nf Seti'SJittils and !st.ft-jlvffj, ^^^^S 

time depositing places for egg-mnsses of nisany shells, and only 
l>y intensive searching is it possible to find to which sjjecies they 
belong. The actual animal inusL in most cases, be seen with the 
eggs to l>e certain of the relationship. 


1 Egjj-girdleof a Mixtacaid sea-snail. 

2. Egg-case of the Baler Shell Mcfo flammeum. 

2a. Larva of M. fiamvuumj ju^t emerged from a capsule. 

3. Clusters of eifgs of Squid, 

4. HKB-g^irdle ot BuHWe Shell Hydotina /?Jii y-Tf-y. 

5. Kgg-raft of the Violet Snail, Janlhiiia sp. 

6. Screw shell, Tnrrilella ^nmtiij showing numerous larv-ae within the 

6a Lafva oi* T. (funnii. very nuich enlarged. 

7. Single strip of ep:Frs lotd by the SyUa<i:y Octnpus, OctJtp.irs Lyatinis. 

8. F,gg-r.ap5iHles of lar^c univvilve Fasd</lortiT Ci^fonnfa. 

9. Gfrdle oX a Pleiirobr,^iu:h se;i-siug. 

10. Typical larva oi a sea-slup; or s^a-liare. 

11. Egg-capsules of a univalve moHusc. 
.12. Girdle of an Acolid :j(?a-slug. 

13. Girdle of a Bond sea-slug. 

14. Portion of efig-chrs*er of Paper Kau'iln'^, Ayijtymiula nodnsff. 

15. ligg-Case of MfgaJairtictas arunti7is. 

15a. Larva of M. anwnus, vtmo\^'d iroju a capsule. 

K>. l^gg-mass of a sea-hare, TtHhys ti<jrina. 

1?, Egg-capsuk-s of a univiilvc mollusc, deposited on weed. 


Money is being! ipenl on our Club journal more freely tlian usuril, but 
the colour piafes espcrialty Iiave been hiichly <.oninieiuIe<l. Ir is ple.;i!£aiu 
to know tliat iht. liberal expenditure authorised by the commirtee ib 
improving the Nati4ralist in directions favoiu'cd hy the majoriiy ot mem- 

Tributes have been received, tiveii from oversea. Dr. ("harlch F .Mex- 
ander. of Amherst State rollcg-e, Mass., U.S.A., in a recent leTtcr to the 
editor, says: "Mauy congratulations on the appearance of ihe last issue 
o( Th^ Victorutn Maturaliit, with the four remarkably fme articlors on the 
Helmctcd Honey-cater. , . . This is a idea, showing the rare atid 
endemic species of anitiuls m tlK magazine. ! would state here how much 
I have appreciates! the various papers by Mr. Dav»d Floay." 

By VV. H NicuoLLS 

No 9. — Thelymiira muld, R.Rr, 

This Sun Orchid has iound recognition, as a valid species, only 
on the records fram New Soutb Vv'alcs. R. D. Flt^Gcrald figures 
it. very failhiuUy. in hjs Anstraiian Orchids (Vol. I), and the 
Rev. H, M. R. Rupp mentions it in Ins Gmde to the Orchids of 
New South lVak.< (1930). Apparently, it is not altogether un- 
common m at least a few districts in the State. Mr. E. NubUng 
hus collected it. His specimens are identical with those collected 
by me on the rush flats bcyc^nd Bannpckburn, Victoria, m October 
last- It was not plentiful there — far from ic— (or I diacovered 
but three spcciniecs after a deli gent search. Th. amfa/a Ldl. and 
Th. Mit^mLlJanii, \' v.M., to mention only members of this genus, 
were its as^sociates, and were plentifully distributed over the pad- 

Th i-mda rarely exceeds 15 inches in heJght; the flov/ers are 
Uiirly numerous — up to 15 in m\ i-peomens — -(FitzGer.ikh by a 
coincidence^ figures 1 5), about 3 cm. in diameter, pale blue, and 
expanding: freely. like those ol Th arist^ta- My first specimen 
appeared strangely different from oiher species of this genus 
previously exanuned. The mauve-<:oloured column — inside the 
Hower — suggested, tii the hrst glance, its specific name — "naked." 
Tlie middle lobe of the coUnun in Th. arhtata Ldl. and Th^ pauci- 
flora., R.Br., are naked but nuda^s column ]S strikingly so. 

Fitv^Gerald wr)c<:S of Th. >mda: "It i^ inlerruediate between the 
forms of Thely>nii7(t. that arc independent, and those that ar*: 
dependent on insects for ferhli;^ation." He adds that "The atuher 
IS carried up by the maturmg coliurin, but the pC'lten masses are 
too consistent to be raised by it over the -stigfua, and being firmly 

attached to the rostelluni they are easiSy removed with it 

and probably sometimes fertilise the stigma by crumbling over 
the edge, being pressed upon closely by it.'* This operation— 
])re5umcd by l'*it7.Gerald to occur — -was actxially witnessed by the 
present writer- 

The leaf of Th. nuda is ut\ique. Mr. Nubling's specimens awd 
the Bannockburn examples had long, fairly broad, very dctply- 
channelled leaves, in the more robust specimens somewhat lax. 
(See figures). It seems remarkable that this plant, which is 
figured by J Hooker also, in his Flom of Tmmama, should be 
rtcognited — in almost every publication concerned wich the 
Botany of Southern Australia — only as a synonym of Th- longt- 
folia, R. & G. Forst, 

But it is of interest to record that Th. nuda is specihcally dis- 
tmct — at least from Th (o\igifolio. The cx^irnin^itipn of co-type 




KiCHOi-1-S, Ovr Rarer Orchids, 


Details of Thelymitra ntida, R.Br. 

238 Book of BmUjcriifars. [ v^*^ L. * 

material and photographs olt Forstcr's type, etc. actually proves 
this. Moreover. Forster's nviierial is h^rHly to be identified witVi 
those form.^ £it present Hsred <is Th. lonfjifolk\ in Southern Stalest. 


Another nolaM<.* additioti to books £or the natuntlisi in Aus- 
tralia, has betn piibhshed hy Messrs Augits und Robertson Ltd.. 
Sydney. 8ud{/engors in Bush and Aviary, by Neville W C^yley, 
h the title of a work which ^ppfrals as much to a bird ol)serve*r 
aa it dots to the avicnitinisfc. It is beautifully illustrated with 
colour pLate5» I'rom paintings by the author, and haU-tone. platcb. 

Many hnok.'s on our charming little parrot. Mchpsittacns 
nndnh-tiis, have been piibti.shed ovtr^iea^ : nync I h;ive seen is so 
connprehcnsive as Mr Cayl«*y*s book, which is unvivalled. zw least 
as regards the section dealing with the Budgerij^ar as a wilrl bird. 
The history of the species is given. <ind many pages of observa- 
tions on its habits in the bush. There aie thapters on housing, 
deeding, breeding and management, colour varieties, and rheir 
production, etc. 

A copy oi this exceMent book hns been received from the pub- 
lishers, and placed in the Club bbrary. But every enthusiast ni 
Budgerigar breeding will desire to possess his own copy The 
price is 7/6: much lower than tha( oi i^onie wnj-ks mi the Budji:eri- 
gar published in England and Gtrmariy. 



A party of five members visiteJ the lagoon In WilUrrert Park ou Saiur- 
(bv, Dc^embi^r 16. As macroscopic acjuatic forms wore almosl entirely lack- 
ing, little was trtkcii to inltreiil one noi i>os5cs?ecl ol a microscopt. A 
microscopical cxan\in;4lJ0n of material secured, however, proved it lo be 
goofJ indecfl. Prot^tzOM wore plentiful, tDur gcnc-ra ol the Vorliccllidae being 
r€presirnted. including the rather uncornmcm Pyxu:Ma of SaviUc Kent, as 
well as form*! belonging io Other groupi. 

-Some very interesting rotifers were al^o ncted, several beautiful frce- 
swimniing colonies of LaciHXiian&. probahly L f.lontjain, l)eit»g among the 
nun»ber, as a(so the tube-buiiding rotiftr, Ccphalouphon litnnias, whkh in 
oiir experience is somewhat rare. Drcayed Iravcs ot Mympluxco- yicMtrf 
tolonies ot the poly?-oai>, Piuviatclht rc/'ttts. The ladies of the party 
enlisted the services of numerous boys in bathing attire, who collected for 
them bunches of beaiitiM water lily flowers. At the termination ot "ftshiag" 
opcfalions at the invilation of Miss Hayncs, who resides In Uie lotaLity, the 
party adjourned to her hou^e for afternoon tea. The surrounding garden 
IS planted largely with native shnih.^i *-iiid trees, including Sienocarptu. tiie 
Fire-wheel Tree, all ai)parently thrivirig. Mr McCoJI related *omc oi 
his cxpciiertces during a recent trip to the "inland". 



Rt't'i', J W'Xk- Species of Cahniiihtx. 


Hy the Rf.v. H. y\. R. Htpp 

III l^H'ntham's FL Anstr.. \'I, p. 315. the author describes, under 
C. annpcstris R.Br., a form to which he gives the name *'var. 
grandiflora' , from Moreton Islantl. Queensland, and Port Jack- 
son and Macleay River. New South \Vales. In SejJtember. 1930. 
I received a specimen from Mrs. IvJith Coleman, collected on 
Slradbroke Island, in Aloreton Bay. which seemed likelv to be 
identical with this form, since it bore two very large flowers with 
labella '^covered with fringes or linear calli from the base' I>ut 
1 was unable to reconcile the 
specimen in other respects 
either with Bentham's descrip- 
tion or with any form of L\ 
campcstris. The flowers liore 
no such resemblance to those 
of C. paludosus R.Br, as 
Bentham suggests, and the 
column-glands apj^eared to be 
connected by a coloured ridge 
as in C. Kohvrlsonii Bentb. 
The labellum hairs, even in 
the dry state, seemed to be of 
two kinds — those towards the 
base very dark and smooth. 
those in front pale and rugose. 
The anther api)eared verv 

Late in November. 1^33. 
and early in the fallowing 
month. Dr. C. 1^. Ledward. 
of Burleigh Heads. South 
Queensland, sent ample living 
material of a remarkably fine 
CalocJiilus, which, he stated, 
appeared in abundance six- 
weeks later than any other 
local form. This ]:)lant seems 
to me identical with Mrs. 
Coleman's, though it will be 
observed that the latter, from 
an adjoining locality, flowered 
in September. Whether we 
mav assume that this is Bent- 
ham's form, and that the dried material accessible did nttt enable 
him to distinguish certain important characteristics, may be open 
to question. But the following taliulation will demonstrate that 

Calochihis grand'iflorus n.sp. 

1, plant: 2, flower from front; 3. bast 

of column, showinj^ striking; outline- 

of stigma and connection of glands ; 

4. column from side. 


RiTi'. .'J .Vc7v S'f'ccics of Calochilux. 

L Vo 

Vol. L. 

the Burleigh plant cannot he included in ( 
entitled to specific rank. 

Calochilns campcstris R.Br. 
Stem usually rather stout. 
Flower from tip of dorsal sepal 
to tip of labellum-ribbon about 3 
cm. long. 

Labellum about 23 mm. long, 
densely beset with long dark purple 
hairs except near the base, where 
there is a smooth shining purple 

Labellum-ribbon very variable in 

Basal glands of the column not 
connected in front. 
Stigma obscurely defined- 
Anther acuminate or rostrate. 

cumj^csfns. and is 

Cahciulns n.sp. 
Stem consistently slender. 
Flower A~S\ cm. long. 
Labellum 30-40 mm. long, densely 
beset on the basal half of the 
lamina with long spreading red- 
dish-purple hairs, shortened near 
the base to linear calli. Anterior 
iialf of lamina less densely beset 
with long erect pale hairs covered 
with sparkling papilae. 
Labellum-ribbon always nearly as 
long as lamina, sparkling-papillose. 
Basal glands of the column con- 
nected by a coloured ridge or band. 
Stigma strikingly and perfectly 
outlined in red. 

Anther obtuse, often emarginale. 
At the risk of criticism I venture to a(k:)pt Bentham's varietal 
name for the new species. Its api)ro])nateness is beyond question, 
and even if Bentham's form should ultimately prove to he distinct, 
the risk of confusicni is slight. No record of the Burleigh Heads 
l)lant in Xew South Wales is available at present. 

Calochilns ynindiflorns, n.sp. 

rUania y rue His, 30-42 on. alia, cum florihiis 1-8. Folium 
(/racilis, canaliculafum, 20-24 an. lonynm. Bractcac canlinac 
circiter 5, 1-2 sub folio apprcsscc. Flares f/eiu'ris ma.vimi. Scpa- 
lum dorsalc striatum, cucuilatum, 16-20 mm. x 10-15 nun.: scpala 
hitcralia 16-20 mm. x 5-9 mm. Pctala .striata^ 9-11 mm. x 6-8 
nun. Labellum ad apkcm extrcmum 3-4^ cm., apex fasciatas 
obtusns. Fatnina supra cum ciliis longis purpiircis-ruhribus ad 
medium dcnscvestita: cilia antcriora erccta, pallida cum papillis 
nitcntibus. Columua 6 nun. longa, alata: stigma promincns cum 
marginibus rubribus : anther deflcxus. ad apiccm cmarginatus vel 
obtusns. Glandes magni, jngo vcl notatione colorato conjunctae. 

Dr. Ledward sent two plants with the lowers wholly light 
yellowish-green— an interesting and attractive variation. 

"Mr. F. F. Wilson would have thv time uf his life here on any warm 
night or still evening. The moths are amazing in beauty and variety. We 
are spellbound at the intricate beauty of some of the smaller kinds — their 
colouring and marking are beyond description. One marvels at the plan 
of Nature in lavishing such vivid splendour on purely nocturnal insects. 
.Some are clothed in silver gossamer, others draped in burnished gold. Some 
are in harlequin cashmeres of mauvc- and yellow ; others the mo>l delicate 
green. Some are blue, with white strii)es : others the most glorious mosaic 
of many hues. Some tawny specimens have the most intricate and perfect 
tatooing. Many thanks ti«r the Xaiuralist. It is a very interesting ])ublica- 
tion. The pictures, especially those in colour, are very fine." — [E.Ktract 
from letter to Mr. A. J. Tadgell, from his son, Mr. C. B. Tadgelh of 

Feb. -] 
1934. J 


Xcw Fish from I'irtoriii. 


B}' (jilbert Whitlkv 

(Contribution from the Australian Museum. Sydney) 

Family Atherixidak 

PRANESELLA ENDORAE. new -enus and species. 

Br. 6. D. vi/9: A. i/8. Sc. 40. 

Head (12 mm.) 4. depth (9) 53 in standard length (48). 
Eye (4) equal to intcrorbital (4), which is nnich p-eater than 
snout (2-25). 

Form elon<,'^ate. com]M*essed ; anterior p(jrtions of I)ack and l)elly 
flattened, not keeled. Head scaly, except before the eyes, which 
are large. Intcrorbital flat. Preopercular ridges without spines; 
operculum rounded, not truncate. ])osteriorly. A series of pores 
along preorbital and over eyes. Mouth fairly large, with several 
rows of small hooked teeth, largest anteriorly, in jaws, but none 
on tongue or vomer. Maxillary reaching to anterior portion iil 

e when mouth is closed. X<» elevated mandibular rami, 


maxillanes s 


lender thrctughout their length, not laterallv notched; 






Fmncsdla rmiorac, gen. et sp. nov.. Altona, N'ioturia. 

premaxillary processes sliort and truncate. (]ill-rakers slender, 
with a few small spines; there are about twelve on the lower 
Ijortion of the iirst ])ranchial arch. (Jill-slits wide; isthmus 
extremely narrow. 

13odv covered with large cycloid scales which are not crenulated. 
About fort}' transverse and seven or eight horizontal rows of 
scales ; twelve predorsal and seven interdorsal scales. 

Dorsal fins well sejxirated, the first with six flexible spines 
whose greatest height is almost equal to the interdorsal space, but 
none of the s])ines is produced. The first dorsal originates nearer 
the muzzle than the rttot (ff the caudal. .\nal fin short, its origin 
in advance of that of the second dorsal. IJase of anal shorter 
than its distance from caudal. Pectorals rounded, highly situated. 
Ventrals in advance of origin of first dorsal fin; their ti])s almost 
reach the vent, which is well in advance of the anal fin. Caudal 

34^ Df.anf. Smafl Prrflrs. [^Voi. 1.!^' 

Colour, in spirit, straw-yellowish above and silvery below. A 
broad pink or silvery banel, tai)erin^ posteriorly, along each side. 
Snout, tips of jaws, edges of dorsal scales, and middle of caudal 
peduncle blackish, as are also the areas near pectoral and anal 
bases. No dusky blotch on pectoral fin. 

Described and figured from the holotype, a sj^ecimen 48 mm. 
in standard length or 2^ inches in total length. Tt is the largest 
of eight specimens H to 2^ inches long. The younger ones are 
slightly more elongate and have fewer than forty scales lietween 
shoulder and tail. Upon dissection, one was found to have forty 

Locality. — Altona, near Melbourne. X'ictoria ; Xov.-Dec. 1933. 
Au.stralian Museum regd. Xos. lA. 5904, S^K)S (type) and 590'>. 

Xamed in honour of Mrs. M. luulora Freame. who has recently 
made excellent collections of small fishes and marine inverte- 
brates in the vicinity of Melbourne. 'Jlie small and inconspicu- 
ously coloured fishes well repay study as they are less known than 
the more showy large ones and it is hoped that the present dis- 
covery will induce other naturalists to collect and observe them. 

Miss Jo}-ce Allan has kindly ])repared the ilkistration of this 
new fish, which is distinginshed mainly by its toothless palate. 
large scales, relatively few gill-rakers, and lack of elevated mandi- 
bular rami. It is apparently quite different from all the known 
Australian Hardyheads or Silversides. 

I take this opportunity of proposing another new generic name. 
ATHERIXASOX. for Athcriua dinuiczi(jif which McCulloch 
described and figured in the Zoological Results of the Endeavour. 
Dannevig's Hardyhead is a ver}- distinct type with a long snout 
and verv numerous scales, and may now be known as Athcnnason 
dannevigi ( McCulloch) . 

By C. Deane. 

The beetles of the family Ptiliidae (Triclioptcrygidac) are 
about the size of a full stop mark of ordinary news print. The}" 
are found in leaf debris on the ground, on the underneath side 
of mouldy logs, on fungus plants, under half-dried seaweed on. 
beaches. on flowers of plants, and one species even swims in the 
water. Philagarica, as its name implies, is a lover of mould or 

Although in general structure they are as complex as large 
beetles, yet the eyes of these minute beetles are an exception, 
having ctmiparatively few facets. This probably is due to the 
inability of smaller eye elements to accommodate the light vibra- 
tions for clear vision. Another interesting part of the structure 
is the wing. This is furnished with very long hairs along the 
entire margin of the membrane on both sides. The membrane 


1»:M J 

DeaXk SvtcU )iceiics. 


itself has its stiffening structure at or near the centre. The motion 
-i^i thtt wing would he a flappitig one, like a shark's tail or a lady's 
fun probably necessary to cope wi(h the physics of ihc atmos- 
phere in such very small bodies. n 
A df'scription of a new specTes is^ here ^iveti- 

Isvluvipia propcfiava, i\s\i~ (Text fig-urt 1)- 

Parailel-tftliptic, convex, Ktiety pubescenl, yeUaw with a few blac*cish 
■parches. Head produced downward ja Tront to a nan-*o\v snout, not seen 
from abov*;. Eyes bJaclt. AiUennat club lar^. Protioiiun widest al ba&t;, 
<irarige yellow to flavous. Scuts*J.luM) y^^llow^ -short, with lateral niars'ins 
concave Elytra flavous^ translucent with blackish marks due to the folded 
wiag's fjeiuii aeeji through ihe covering: subvaralltl, alniust elong^ite ; the 
pubescence strtmcjex than on prrmotum. l-llytra roniplctcly rovering nlMin- 
mcn. Ventral 5urface all flavous. Mciostemal procesb ccinspic.uous ; incta- 
sternal prgtts^i rniiiule. Anterior co>:a\^ protTiincnt, ghjbutar; inlerrticdiat*; 
cox.-ie Hni:iU. deeply inserted : po.'?teriv3r cov;ie tirj^e. siibrrinnj^ular, almoKt 
rniitigutius. Length 544 mm-, width 0-.^66 inin, 

Habitat. \ii. Toinab, Blue Mountains, New South Wales. (Jl. Arni&troiia 
and II. C Davis; on largp white fungus, growing on roUcn lofi)- Tj'pp in 
-ColL Dcanf. 

Fig. 1. 

Isothmpia pr<ipcf)'ava, nsD' 

Ptiliutu :t*ilso}U Deanc 
- - ontoiicoUc, n.var. 


Piiliinif 7\<iL-f}m, Oeane. Var. ortVJtiff^UtT. n.var, {Text figure 2) 

This very di&tinct variety of the ahovc specie>i ha.s b^.cn a(itained fmtii 
!^af debris collected by B L C- Stoylcs ill the fern gullies of the Blue 
Mountains. New Sourb Wales; it dtfJcr-i from the lyyc spt;de& as I'oUosv-S' 
Head very dark brown, nearU block. Pconoium with pubescence almost 
ohsoicte ; instead it l.s ornanu^jited with -a tine sculpture of shallow but vory 
^hcitply defined depressions, in the centre of eich of whit:h h ^el an excteti- 
irigly smalt eminence or tubercule, the .>eat of the nlmo'^t obsolete- si-ta. 
The yellow of thorac-ic margins. 5cuielhun and basal two-thirds of elytra 
is of a colder or- more lurid hue, as against the more orange ycHow of 

24 1 Tlte ChrisUnas bjfcnrstuii. [ Vni l" 

P* wfi^ow. A" much more defiiiilc comtrittion of the pronoium, fust ictofc 
the baszX iii^les. o.tcurs. and y^t the anglfis themselves are sutingiy set. 
l-cngih 0-59 n*<nv; widlli 0-JP fi'inv ; it is therc^O^'c a noticeably inullcr 
variety. Trpc in coll Deanu. • 


*riie exLQTsioii sclieduled tor VVathilta. on Uic -advice oi Mr. S. K. 
Mitchell, was. trjuistciri'cd to Gxiper'^ Creek, i sma'tl scltkineiit sitiulod 
in a vaMey on the old coach roa<i about tive mile^ this &i<lc 6f VValhaUii. 
md -otM; amJ a quane/ miles from the ncArc^r railway 5iciing. known as 
"Platin!^", This place i& now a backwater, the inhabita-nii being mostly 
engaged at llx- large limeMony deposits at scleral 'a^'gc surtact \vor1cii\gi in 
the viciaity. Owing' probahl>'. to the delay in oblainuig accommocjaiion 
iuforniution. only a sihhII number of the prospective irictubcrs appe^rH, 
ft\'e iiL all. The trip up fropi M<k- by narrow gauge railway, was thrniigh 
Erica and Knoll'?. Siding, the sccoe 61 the disaslfOUft l^U6h Uft of ft few ytafs 
ago. involvine; much loss of iife 

The forest was excccdiuir^y vantid and beautiful, nearly every track (of 
which tbtre witre mauv aloog old iramways) being above steep Kullicis 
■vyUh walerlalls ^nd (cnn- in proftojioii. Voo lale for the ^ptenduur of <hc 
wattle season, this \o%s was miTiinriiscd hy tlie tiumbcr oi fine large trees 
of Chriblmas Bustt f^Prostftnth^ra ta^iitntkoi) and Kooxea. etc., in Eull 
hIoO)>»- WJierc the original varied forest wa^ completely cleared away, a 
new secoiidary growCh of cvcn-agtd evjcatypts ha? completely cowr'.vl the 
hills, and the reddish tot>s of ihcse tormcd a beautiful and uniorgctt^abTe 
sight as. they swily^^d with (he strong brccrz in tlic everting hght, .torxninc 
a riwrkctJ contrast in their ordcrUncss with tho v.-ild riot in the gullies 

A "pccimcn oi a ver>' shov;y pink flower {Craivca satisjfid) was gathered 
iforri the far =idc o/ ihe Thompson River at its >t4nctton \v*th C'.'oper's 
(IrceU, by one of the party, wbo sx^am acroiS for if. When a :earch was 
rtiadc on the ttedr side some few plants wvrc I'onnd. A iesv fipccit;^ <^^ orchitb 
were ?lso found hut ground flowers were not abundant. 

Bird life waf; wetl up to tnoiiniain ■:ood^^k'n^. the most rioarkcd fediurc 
being the prcs-euce of namliert ot tluit most beautiful at all ihe mouinain 
spf'^e-^, the "Rufous "Tajitail {Rinff!\iurQ. yitfijrof^), ;he5«? s^cfiK-d to be r*Kvays 
on band Lyre-brrdj were also \vcll in evitlenoc- one ':aliiiig within a few 
yArd> ivhen th.< Qiarty was waiclixg 3l the railway aiding for the htnneconnng 

The district w esscnrially a mining one SluKirig for gold Is carried on. 
bfH Ibt- WaUjalld mininK Tvhitti wa? TespOiisiblt fcr the almost complete 
ilenudation of the timber in its inirnediate vicinity (a now iii a more or Ics;* 
ntCTibund condilKni. ' Copper ore and platiiumi are ioimd at Cooper's Creek 
and the limestone deposits already referred 10 tor n\, the main oc-cupatior* 
of Ihe inhcibttantt : thai the Oistrict is cxci^edingly iiitcresiM^fe to gcokii;ittii. 
will be evident by an examniation of die Sew specimens caHected. 

The ^mIUcs in dit-a i^is^inct would well repay explor<»tion by our nienil>ci;>^ 
but are difficult to approach at their entranccj, owing to the prolific growth 
of blackberries v«'hich chot;? thcni. but ycTbAps nevertheless prc»"enL tbejii 
irOtn being overrun and 5tM>ii^J — ihe hillsides l»cing tor. steep to be lightly 
scaled. Biackicllow's bre:id iPo'iyporus) and Uirnnioui i\^^^st;^. were aho 
collt'cicd and several oi ihe Gippsland \vc\ter lirar*!:: aeen diving into iiiul 
Swimming ibe nvti. Mis% Smith lined, duiiiig <Ue e^icursio-o. h7 .^t^jcteis 
of 'lowering plants 

ill conciunian we think the conimittee would be well advised m reUiinn^ 
thui excMTsion on next ycar'i li:>t, preferably irt the -iprints or aulunm, as 
|fXI«riicly dry or hot weather would not btt likely to be so enjoyable *•* th9l 
which we were so fortunate to expenenc^L 

— W.K.E. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. L.— Na II March 7, 1934 No. 603 


The ordinary meeting of the Qub was held at riie Rovz] 
Society's Hall on Monday, Februan' 12, 1934, at 8 p.m. The 
President, Mr. V. H, Miller, presided over ati atteridauce oi abouj 
120 members and friends. 


It was feported by the Secretary that at the last Committee 
meeting the following motion was carried: "That in future the 
members and friends of the Club should absolutely obey the Wild 
Flower Act/' 

Mr. E. E, Pescott gave notice of motion that the following be 
added to the Rules of the Club; 'That it be incumbent on all 
members of the Field NaturaUsts' Club to observe both in spine 
and letter all laws passed for the protection of Flora and Fauna, 
and the preservation of natural history objects, and that all mem- 
bers introducing visitors shall guarantee that these visitors to 
either meetings or excursions shall observe these laws also." 


From the Fisheries and Game Department, stating that investi- 
gation had proved the rumour that foreigners were shooting fi»r 
food protected native fauna to be uji founded, but asking that 
members report any such actrions they may notice. 

From the Fisheries and Game Department, stating that it was 
proposed to have the close season for Brown Quail lengthened, 
and bags limited. 

From Shire of Dundas, staling that the Forests Commission 
intended to erect a fence to protect the Cave of Hands. 


Reports of Excursions were given as follow: — Beigrave: Mr. 

A- I- Swaby; Botanic Gardens : Mr. W, H. Ingram: Blackwood: 
Mr' G N. Hyam; Cave Hill (LiJydale) : Mr. F. Chapman, 


On a show of hands the following were duly elected; — As 
Ordinary' Member: Mr. John Morrison; as Country Member: 
Mr. Jolin Pov^. 

i^ Vieid iVatHtalistr Club Frocccfi^tt^s. Uvli/u^' 


The President reported that a copy of Hudgeyigays, in Bush 
and Avicry had been presented to the Club by the publishers. 


Lvagitf of yf>w//i-— Mv. A. J. Swaby proposed di;U tlie Uiib 
aijpoint twenty Life Members to ihe League, and sugge^ted that 
the present Committee and some ot the older members be those 
appointed - 

. After some little di?icusston it was decided that tliia he j^com- 
nieuded to chc Committee from Mr. Swaby. 


yv. A. K. Proiidfoot reported that he had Observed Musk 
Ducks tlying^ which was rather an imuaiial occurrence; and Crows 
breaking off branches of trce^s by perching on them, and then 
feeding on the betries from tlie branches on the ground. 

Mr. F. Pitcher that he had obflerved a flight of Musk Ducks 
in the Botanfc Gardens 40 years ago. 

Mr.. A. H. Mat:tingley reported that for three seasons a pair of 
Crimson Roi-ellas had nested in a ventilator at the Public Library. 

Mr. F. S- Colliver reported that a targe sen snake (74 inii, long)» 
new to Australia, and possibly ro science, hail been captured at 
Cairn s. 


The Subject was "Cuckoos". Mr. Cliarles Barrett made some 
general renjarks on. Cuckoos and tiie urigiiJ and devtlopnient o£ 
tficir parasitical habits. He exhibited a scries of slides made io:yin 
tmitjuc photographs taken by the laic Mr. C P. Kinaae. and 
othera by Mr. R. T. Littlejolin. One picture allowed the tragedy 
— a Blue Wren ticstling being ejected Irom the nest by a Karrow- 
Lilled Bronze Cuckoo 

Following Mr. Barrett. Mr. A. H. CWshohn, Mr. F. £. Wilson 
and Mr. A. H. Mattingly each gave fnrthtrr infonnation on these 
birds. Mr. ChiGholm read .^nme very tntercstini^ unpubhshed 
no':es on Cuckoos, records of his own oliservations m New South 
Wale.s. Victoria and Tasmania. He also spoke on the probleirt 
of paraisitism. 

In the discus-sipn (oUowing. Mr- A. S. Kenyon, Mt A. J. 
Swaby and Mr. A. Hardy took petrt. 

The ineeting then udjotirncd for the Conversazione. 

. ' LIST OF EXHf BtTS ' 

Mrs. Chas. "Barrett. — Fairy Bell Orchid (Saccochilus Ceciliae), 
Western Austrahan Pitcher Plant {Ce(>k^loiiis foUkularis). 

Mrs. E. Freame, — Frcsh-watcr mussel and pearl, marine 
spiders. Shellfish boring through wood, Flyingfish from Mid- 
Atlantic Ocean. 


J" /"iV/rf Natiiraluf/ Club- Ptacvi'diHyt. IM7 

Miss G. E. Keij»iilx)ur. — Growing plants of a South African 
species ni Orniihogaluiii (Chmcharinclfee), grown from shoots 
which developed on tul flmvcrii bcsrt b^' pOht from Cape Town. 

Mr. Chas. Barrctl.^^uekao photoi^raphs taken by the late 
C. P. Knune- 

Mr. A. H. K. MatlioKley.~/r>,v//imrn vcsperHUie, collecEcd ou 
the JFinke Kiver, Central Australia. 

Mr- T. S. Hart. -Daylesford Graptolites named by the hi^ Dr, 
T- S- Hall. 

Mr. (ieo. Co^hill. — Pressed orchids and othfr:r plants^ Uomr 
Western Au:?lrali3 ^nd Hcechworth. 

Mr. A. J. Tadgcll. — Kylliirgia inUrinedia^ Harcouit ; ftahm{j^is 
rubra, Harcoiirt; Dothnujea ifiscosa, in fniili Ssndringham; IJ, 
(t^tfimuita, m flower, Harcoiirt; Bromus rtfbens, Mt. Alexander; 
Onopordo-ii tilyrScum, Daylcsford. 

Mr. V. H Miller. — A series of Tertiary fnssils, indndiiig sea- 
urchins, lamp'Shells and niollttsca, from the GleneJg River- 
Mr. A. R. Proudioot. — Aboriginal skinning^ knife, scrapers, 
hone needles, anfmal Ixuics and wtlihs, from kitchen n^iddeii^ 
Gleiielg Kiver njnnth ; [V.i tiary fossils from ihe^GIenel^ RiT^r. 

Mr. J. VVilcox. — CerafopefoJum gmnmifcnim (New Sonth 
Wales Chiistnias Tree), 

Mr L. Witson. — Skin, head and backbones of a Brown Snak<t; 
Opossufii >kulL 

Mr. F S Cnlliver — Aseiie^ nf geological specimens ivom Give 
Hill, Lilydale, consisting of calcite in various forms, malachitej 
sphalerite, galena, pyrue, quartz, chert, Aim; Olde^r Hasair wifh 
carbonate mineral; dt^ndrites ; fossils as Corals^ strunialoporids; 
Crinoids,, worms, polyzoa, etc. 

ITiL' excursion to the Botin»c Giirdens on the ufltTnooii o( J^wiuary 3<> 
"wa* aiMided by abouc 40 niemt>efs aud visitors, who wer< f.iv^onretf hy 
fine and clear wcathor. Many of the more hitctrcsting: trct:s in Ihc garden^ 
w^ere jnit^cted, a'liotig niei>i I^eing ihe Ma»d»;nhdir Tree (GMyo b'lobo).. 
This, ;» fenul^ tree, flowered last year. Prol>ahly Ihij; is the first time the 
ipeci^s has Aowere<l \n Australia. The Giant Redwood of CaUfoniia. ihe 
Swami* Cy|,>rcss, ToxoUivm duftth^HW, of whi<h tlicrc -irc rnany nnv ^pvci- 
mens in Htc Gardens. The '*Ru5t>" Gutn {Aniiuphoru cositita), the trunk 
ot whidi. ill th** uutiimn, k well worthy of the arttU'.-i brush; the American 
Couoiiwuod {f'opi'f'is (iHloi<fc'^')i and the Virginian Date Plum [l)io.-ipyrof 
ffirgiHfaita, \vh<>s^ fruit it not ripe until after all the Icayci; have fallen. 

At the laniwry mcetiaR". Mr. A. H Chlshylrn's laJk, "Why Sydney Differs 
irom Melbourne — a Naturahi.t'5 ViesvpoiiU", was iUuslr^led by iOint* very 
fine F^aiucrn shderi oi hird phoio^^rciphy. The lerturcr mentioned a bird 
luvej who liud 40 ^|)e«.iO$ 01 la»n«?-w»Jd bird^ m his warden, and H slide 
tshowerl thrush ^fttin^ fr<tm his han<l. At the conclusion stvorai miunhc^rs 
had 4uc!>tioai 10 abk oi the Wclnrpr. Tht thanks f»i the ^.luU were accorded 
lo Ml Chisholin 

ini CaLTMAN, PMmihn oj PUrrOyiis ^eummota R.fir. [ Voi. i^**^ 


By Ei>TTH Coleman 

Polliriftiiori in the gcrruis PttwslyHs is oi more tluti ordinary 
interest, emphrasizing as it does ihe remarkable co-ordination o£ 
iiitricate and delicate parts in chc pollinary mechanism of orchids. 
Ii^ this genus Nve fitid nnt only an extrunrdinaiy development nf 
lh<: coJumn but a special arran^i^ement of the perianth parts which 
undoubtedly facilitalcs pollinalion. The Ihr^e upper s^gmenls 
;jrr. %*\ developed tliat they forni a hollow rcccptacic fJhe galea) 
which serves to protect the reproductive organs, and, aided by 
the lateral sepaU, formal a temporary prison for the tlelciy of 
ttisect visitors. 

x\s there are neither vivi<l advertising colours ror sweet per- 
fumes the attraction of irisccts depends iipou some more subtle 
feature thau is. evidenced in t5ic quiet greens, reddish-browns and 
'translucent white of the flowers. Look for a moment at the v^rtous* 
f^iartsof the flower m Plcro.Uylis arttmifknfa. as shown in Pla(c 10. 

It will be seen that the dorsal sepal and the katerd) petals arc 
So locked n? <o form a hood^ while the creel, united lateral sepals 
add what wc may allo-A^ our fancy lo call the door of Ihc hollow 
receptacle, Not all species of Plcrostylis have thib erect develop- 
ment of the lateral sepals. iL is, however, a feature of Bentham*s 
^oup AnUnnam, to which belong the two species whose pollina- 
lioa is diseussed in this pap\:r. In PU'ra^iylis the lahelhnn plays 
an unusual part, one which facilitates pollination, is. indeed, 
res|»onsible fur its i>uceeiss. Examine the stranjEjeTy ftktn^^icd 
column, the cusWon-like stigma situated at about the middle of 
its face. Its most interesting featuie h the rnstelhun, with its 
round, turgid jfiand, at.thc a|>ex. 

The elliptical stigriia is.*leeply channeftcMl (bilobed), dearly indi- 
cating two of the three oaci^oonfluent-stigma5.. The thzrd .stigma 
has been Tnodified almost beyond recogiiitiosl. Il is seen as a con- 
tinuation of the narrow, mid-stigmatlc channel traversing 4he face 
of the column in an upward direction to culminate in a small 
triangidar "tongue" (ihe rostellnm) just beneath live anther. 

The rostelium is hidden from \acw by the wings of the coliunn 
which curve inward, making a short tube of tlie upper p3vt of the 
coliUBn. The function of this organ, one which is found in no 
Cither group of plants, is to aid the transport of polfiuia by affixing 
them to the bocly of a visiting insect In bygone days, as one of 
^vhe three stigmas, it shared thetr work of secreting a viscid sub- 
stance to which pollen grains might adhere, a medium to excite 
the growth of tlieir tubes. To-day, as a ro&tellum. this third 
Etigma is no longer fertile— is. incapable of penetration by pollen- 
tub<:5. But. though it no longer perf<>nrt.q a purely stigmatic tunc- 


Plate XL 

March, 1 934 

Painted Greenhood {Pterostylis acuminata), R.Br. 

..i-M "vi>ical >i)ecinK'ns. Right: SL-nieiits of a Hewer. ]. Cchnnn, iront 

■■lew. J. Lolunin and lahelliim. side view. ?,. Dorsal sepal 4 Paired 

Materall petals. .^ United_ lateral sepals (lower lip). 0. Lahcllum from 

above. /. Lahelluiii lr(.rn the ^ide. 



Coleman. PoUination of Pterostylis acumitujta R.Br. 


tion, this organ secretes an even more tenacious substance to which 
the pollen masses directly adhere, without the intervention of a 
caudicle. This ball of viscid matter, and the membranous part 

Sickle Greenhoods, Pterostylis falcata Rogers. 

Less than natural size. 

Healesville. Victoria. December and January. 

Our largest Victorian orchid is pollinated by small mosquitoes. 

of the rostellum which covers it, form Darwin's "viscid disc", or 

The viscid disc, upon exposure to the air. consequent upon the 
rupture of its thin skin, sets like glue, securely cementing the 

^*g59 CoLtMAN. Poltimtiott oj Pta-ostyHs acuwhwta R.Br. \.^*y'o\^h' 

poUinia to sonic part of the insect whose toudi caused the riipinre. 
In the ilkistration (plate 41) the column wings have been opened 
out to show the rostellum with its turbid j^land at the apex. How 
niucli depends upon this thin-skinned l)all of viscid matter ! /\t 
first glance the great distance of the stigma from the rostellum 
would seem to defeat the purj)ose of the extraordinary mechanism 
in this species. An insect, one fancies, might easily enter and 
leave the flower without touching the rosteilum. And so it would 
were it not for a special ])art taken by the labellum. 

In the genus Fferosiylis this segment is more or less irritable, 
causing it at certain periods to spring erect at the slightest touch, 
to follow the curve of the column. A visiting insect, alighting 
on the labellum during this sensitive period, will thus he trapi)ed 
between it and tlie face of the column. Unless he be content to 
remain in the flower until the labellum relaxes into its normal 
position (through the sinus between the lateral sepals) only one 
way of escape lies open to him — u])ward towards the light, through 
the narrow tube formed ])y the incurved column-wings; and, in 
escaping thus he cannot fail to touch the vital rostellum. Though 
the flowers are partly translucent it is not easy to follow exactly 
what takes place within. Much of what has been written on 
j)ollination in the genus Ptcrostylis /s purely conjecture. 

Fitzgerald (Aust. Ore.) and Cheesman (Trans. Nczv Zeal. Ins. 
,1873) made experiments with small beetles and dipterous insects, 
and found them capable of removing the pollen masses from 
P. longifolia and P. truUifoUa. Neither botanist claimed to have 
discovered the natural agent. Pollination in these instances was 
artificially achieved and could hardly l)e accepted as evidence of 
the behaviour of an insect in normal circumstances. We must, 
I think, allow for some difl^erence in the actions of free and 
imwilling agents. 

The struggle of any insect artificially introduced into an orchid 
might conceivably remove the pollen masses ; but, from what we 
already know, pollination is normally not effected in any such 
haphazard method, but by marvellous co-ordinated movements 
of insect and flower. Though he watched closely. Cheesman had 
never seen an itisect directly enter a flower. He admits "one 
could hardly ex])ect an insect chosen at random to remove pollinia 
with such ease as those to whose rec(uirements the flower has 
been profoundly modified'*. 

Dr. R. S. Rogers (Presidential Address Science Congress, 
1932) is of the opinion that the sensitiveness of the labellum in 
Pierostylis is not yet fully understood. 

Sargent (Ann. Bot.. 1909) believes that it is centred in the 
penicillate basal appendage, and that in this feature lies the attrac- 
tion of the orchid for insects. This view was expressed after he 
had witnessed the visit of a gnat to P. vittata. But for one thing 


Plate XLI 

Marchy iiv34 

Pollination of Ptcrostylis falcata, Rogers 

1. Female inosquito (Culcx) bearinj^ pollinia witlKlrawn /'. jalcata 
_. Front view ui column { I\ falra-ta) sbwiii.L;- stii*ma (S) and ovary (O) 
and wmgs ( \\ ) which form a tube. 3. Column with wings opened out to 
>how ro^tel]um and white, turgid gland. 4. Pollinia of F. falcata removed 
on ptn. All greatly magnified. 



] CofjKMAK. Po/AW^W 0/ Ptefojiyiii acwmnata R.Br, 25! 

I should share hi& view. I alluilc ?o the faa iltaf^i certain limes 
a lQ«ch with a pia 10 the apt.x. the aiUerioi pari ot" ibe lamina, or 
to the ^i^ide is saifticjcnt to '^spnng" the bheUuiii (K.C, V-N.^^ 
l928). VVlien ^11 Jias b«?eii re^d one is felt, as Dr Rogers has 
stated, with ihe impressiOii that only part of u ktscinatiog story 
has been told The luilowing no(efi \v\\l tarry it on ;i littk further, 
for <hi;y dcscrfljc di<? u^cnt anil its niclljotl tif [)ollina.ting the two 
species of Fterosfylis which form th«r suhject ot* th)^ |>ai>er. 

In 5*^27 when phntognjphingf three rohnst sj^eciniens n> Pleros- 
lylt.t fkw?tti>w-/rt af HeaJe^ville, operalions were com^jdeioibly de- 
layed by the pers'stcncc ot a single mosqiiito wliieh entered the 
Orclndb, causiiijf niu<:h vibration aj> it l.nuzed abOnt within. No^ 
sooner vva5 it removed from one flower thTn \i entered anuthcr. 
I wa'j n)uch imt>rctiscd with the eagerness of the insect, thongh at 
ihe ^me titne grwitly snrpiised at its sm;^II sixc as an a^^enr cnn- 
oerned with the [>ollination of 50 lari^c an orchid. Eor these Hcales- 
ville specimens were niore thnn twice ihcsizeot the tyix:. 

Later, I Was even more surprised to find the .sunie inisccta irCcly 
pothnatiii^ flowers oi Ptc^rosiylis jakota, wWeh, unless one include 
ilie filanientuus ^e^mcnt:; of annitf of th^ largt*r tnrms of CnliuitUXht 
Patcrsonii, is oui' lar^jesr Victorian orchid. Mrnny of Ihc HeaUw 
vtlle flower* mFa>nre over t\ufiit mc)ies Ironi base to tip of dorsal 
"sepal, flnd iheir polliiiF.i are tiroportiortaiely well developeci, Yel 
these large flowers are pollinated by mosquitoes with the same 
fnciJity a^ ^iiutffer onts. The insects are onSy of average size. 

I found pollen on ihe sti^jna in nvmy flowj^rs which had their 
own poUinia intact. 1 noted that the ntosquito was trapped in 
ihc manner suggested by the position of (he leproduetJve pads 
uF the flower and their co-ordmatlou with the labellum, and (hai 
it emerycd from ^rs ti;mf'omry jffison before tht* r<;U4rn of the 
Itibelhtm to its nomwl (position. The polhnia 'iv^rc withdrawn^ 
usually intact, adhering; to the dorsum of the rhora:x, and the 
Criahk masses Ne|xirated into •heii* fonr "leaves'^ aooh after witlt- 
drawal. I cmi not satisfied as to the nature of the attractfon offered 
to insects It njay be. as sngg^cslcd by Sargent, the densely peri- 
cillate aj^eiidage of the laliellnin- A sap-feeder, the jnosquito is. 
certainly pro\'idp.d with means to tap the motsture in this org^an. 
lis early enieq;enoe (rori the flower is proof positive that the 
appendage did nol long hold ii.s attention after the 5V»rin|;ing of 
the iabelEujn. The position of the polhnia upon the thora.\.. rather 
than upon the licad is piix)f assumptive that ils head and feci were 
iowa.rds thf" marginal cilia of "the column wuigs 1 or that, if facing 
the eolnnm, its moufhparts were occupyyJ with sonie part which 
would ensure contact of tlmrax and rostellum. 

It is not easy to find suitable, adequate words to express oue*s 
great adiufracton of the beautiftt! mechani«;m npon whose acnrate 
working depen<ls the whole process of i>ollination-r-iii this instance 

ihe. polliiiatiott of uor largest Victorian orchid by small mosquitoes. 
As an orchid lover J salute the clever ItUlc inseCl. 

I was glaO to discover thai the detested mosqaUo pSays a woeful 
[van in the great scheme ot things, other than that of providing 
lood for minnows and buds. 

I a]»i indebted Lo Mr. J. Clark, of the National Museum, Mel- 
bovj'ne, for identifying the mosquito (Culcx) and for checking 
its 5CX (feimle). 


Bright stmshine, clear, deep bUic sky, cool, ieivijcoraci^g air, radiance and 
sliadow Dii the slopes, diffusrd light ami solemn stillocsi; under the tiee- 
ferns — sucli rnadc <i tnily delightful day ioi Ihoic who took pari in Uicf 
excuraion to Bclgrai-* on January 1.1. 

Tregellas's sul'y. running souih-wesl from the Kallista car park, wik% 
«x3J>i(rttxl by ihn marriing i>arly. The upper pari bc^rs. only too alrrkin^ 
evirieti'tc of human presence. Something i)mU be (lone, ami soon, ^o rtslrjcl 
Vfiin&ttwig and pnwtiotc a. nature conscience. The nnly noticfs rclaie lo 
the removal <\i fcrni Eveo these are evidttuly disregarded, ior w* 5aw- 
tiproottnl ftrnv — the surplois when ears were full, Tor The law-abirJing, but 
tiioURlulcs^ iTia^oriry, a iew prominetU notices aivking peapk to keep to llit 
tr.icks anii avoid breaking down the undefg'Owth. migiit do some good. 
I'o&sibly this may be taken in hand whii the assistance o£ local branches 
of the Lca^'je oi Y«vi<h. ' 

In thf afternoon, a more casun* infipcction uas niade in Cl€<iiati<i Gully, 
Oft Uiu other aide L^i the roatl. Thii. gully fully 5ustifies the opinion of Mr. 
ODonoghuc, of the Forestry Departinent^ ihal it contains the finest ieins. 
It is also less tTav«;rsod— in fact, the going [jrovcd a little too strcnufiua. and 
the party rcttirdcd to the road, thus missing tlie rarest, perhaps, oi Uie 
ferni of these 8;ulUcs, Pterts cnmans. 

In all, 24 sixties of ferns were identified. In addition. to the common, 
ift-ell-ktiown species, the folluwiug were nolrrO. — Ph-rU {'(ffmms {li-^Wy 
Bracken), as h^iirJfj-is a fern as might be found; Polypodiunt \jr(imtnitidix 
(Gipsy Fern). /•'o/y.f^tV/fiim adiauiilormc (Leathery Shield Kern), Gia'chcnh 
fiahelhta (Pan Fern), Hyt^wnophyUuin tunhndpinsis (Tunhridge Filmy 
Fc-xu), BUcknntim lanceolahtm (Lance Fern), and Athyrmm umhn*sttm 
(Shade Sl'leenwort). 

Apart from ferns, the find ot the day was a mnj^nificeni specimen of 
d^^irodxoi (Potato Onhid). 2 Tt. ih Iwight^ with seven ptrtcct flowcri. 
Konc of XUt party was di.spo-;cd to picic it. Here. Jt is fiCfina: to remark 
tipon^He restraint bhovvn by all on this outing, Thi& l^ only a^s it should 
5k; but too often is not. * 

The leader graleiully acktio\v(edge-s the a^wstance o^ Kr. J. H. WilKs, 
Torest Officer^ a new- member of the- Clijb. ^Jr. Willis has a very crimple*"? 
knowledge of the itullies, and added intrrest to the study of fungi, which 
Ypcrc abnndajii aitci l^H *un»iner rains. ^ ■ gWABV 

Dr. R. 'i\ Patlon, local sc(T«;tiry, r,cction M, of the Atifitralian and New 
JZ^Iand Association for the Adyaiicement of Science, wotild be pleased to 
receive names of intcndipg contrilmtors or those who antend to join up ivit^ 
tl&e Association far the 1935 Congress (January 16 lo 23), 

^afwrarut, -February, Fage 238, line 34 -. Delete "pro*>ab]jr i,, flmi^^*. 

JJS;J Auft^s, A Wefk 4r>K>ngst the JViJ4inffS. 2S3 


By J. W. AUDAS, F.R.M.S.J F.L.S. 

(Senior Botanist. Natjunai Herbarium, Me]k»ourne) 

As noitting has yet been presented to this Club on the Flora of 
the Bcualla district the foHo>ving sketch will, 1 trust, prove intcr- 
C5luig. On September 14 we. lelt Me.ihniicne. by niotar car. My 
coaipatiions were two Club members, Messrs- H. P. Dickins and 
R. A. Black, H 1'orrncr hon serretary ot ihe Naturalists' Club of 
Sydney. We pioceedcd via the Pniiccs Highway, reaching Bejialla, 
where wc stayed for the ntght. Along the Broken River (an 
approjjriate niime. as its euurse iss hrdken very much) are luw* 
lying fliits (subject to perio^lical inund^uoTi) on which are seen 
some splendid specimens of the River Red Gmn» a fiue shade and 
utility tree 

We le^t Benatla hi a iinith-e?i.sfeTly cfireerion for UpotiiiOtjjon, 
thence to Goonmlihee. On our way to the turn off tu Sainaria, we 
motored in an easlerly dar^ction ihroujcjh flat country, the soil o( 
whidi was red loatn. Along the roadside, for rnoat ot the distance, 
a fine %'rowth oi Red-gum saplings was noted. The timber in this 
Icieatity 15 chiefly Red-gum. Euinlyptux rostrata. and .some exeel" 
lent specimens were -^een growing on the rich mnist soil of the 
river ffatv^. 

At Moorngag we had a vj^w of ^he verdant country for miles 
around. Retracing our steps ior a few miles we diverted to a 
tra<-k wfiich led through densely timbered country cx«nposed 
chiefly of Red Striugybark. Yellow Box. Grey Box, White Box, 
and Red Box: the latter was decorated with the J^roopfng Mistle- 
toe, Loranthus pvudubus, which huno gr^ceiully .fro»> a bump or 
-rooty formation on the bark of the branches to a length ot about 
12 fe«ft. In maTly instances it liad taken possession ?ind almost 
eoniplctely destroyed the foliage of llic Eucalypt. The Mistletoe 
Bird and Honcyealcrs assist in dtsiribuling l?te parasite. Tn my 
ramhicK 1 have noticed doubk parasitibm among the MJstlclocs. 
An occasional Cherry Ballart. Evocarpus cupressifcrmU, formed 
a conspicuous object 'Tmon^ the F.iJ.caly[its. Here also was seen 
i}ie CiViiiunna suberosa, a tine tree, about 25 feet in height: it is 
drought-resistant, and is a valuable standby for stock in times -of 
drought. As. we suddenly emerged froin the thick timber the fresh 
green lauds of Tatong were spread before us, -with the township 
nestling in the hollow, and (he ^Hnding llollands River u\ the 
eenire. Here we made our headquarters for three da_vs. 

The sotl on the flats is black and rich red loam Mai?e Tind r>ats 
are the principal crops grown, and an idea of the fertility o£ tlie 
district nray he g;i(hurcd from ihc iact that splendid crops of oats 
on one block of land have been gro^vn iniintcmtptedly ior ?^uc- 
cessive seasons wathnut (he addition of manure of any kind. Some 

tine panoramic views are gained fruni the hi^'her elevcatiOTis Look- 
ing^ north ^It. Pr^5pcct^ bccchworth ftdls, Winton Swamp and 
L><»okJe ate seen- On the Ea^t are Tiger Hi)|s and Mt. Porcupine, 
to tli€ south Mt. Joy, and lo the West Lima and Sxv^inpool A 
little Jo tiic south-cast of Xht township h'e^ Kelly's Laokout. Irom 
-which thQ otiilaws could view the coumi7 tor rniles around. 

Ahh-^ugli the sctuery was uugnifictint J va& •somewhat disap- 
poitited to find littk variety in the vc-gctation, flowetiiig plunls 
being vtry scarce, with the exception oi the Corse Bitter Pea, 
Duvte:»ia tdi-c'tHa, wh'tch cnv^rc:d acres, and. bring m full bloom, 
made a fine display. Growine on the- preapitom hills was the 
Alpine GrevjUe^, G. (ilpmo, which was covered with its curling 
clusters of crimson blossom:* Flowering fieelv^ ;ind giving sorne 
coJour to che scene were the Sickle Ac-icJa. Jl. falafomiis, Leper 
Acacia,.*? ^(?/>r(^.ya. and Varnish Ac<icia, A vcrmaflup. Hercahouts 
wefi- seen ^;>trie rice specimens, in flower of the Branched Lobefta. 
L. rhombifoiia; with its bright blue flowers which were vying with 
those of the Pale Wedge Pea. CoinpholoMwn Hnegdn, \\\ gloxv- 
ing yellow and red, while th*^ Li^rnon Star-buf;h, AsteroU'^ux 
MueHen. exhibited a wealth o\ pale leinon-ojloured flowers. We 
noted a liarrow-JeriF varicry of the Elderberry Ash, TUghc-mo- 
pmuia saini'HCifolius, a handsome shrub about 12 Ecct in height, 
i>nd worthy of cultivation. 

Mos-t oC the underj-,''rowth o^" the forest was composed of the 
Grass-tree. Xanthorvhoca amtyalis, which was not in flower. Some 
oC thf! trunVs presented ii grotcs<|ue appenraiKe. bem^ blackened 
and chaired from che ett'ecr.^ oi a recent bnsh fiie which .had 
destroyed the dense crown? of wire-like leaver Where the ftre 
had burned off the undergrowth, orchids gte\v m great alnuidancej 
but were sparsely distributed »n other places Gcaerally fires have 
a stimulating ei^^ect oti certain orchids, Inn Viere rfie result was 
moit beneficial to the buried tubers. The probable explanation is 
that conditions w"cre created favourable to the getTtiination of the 
tubers dormant Frcai former sexsoas. Growin;^ abundantly were 
Blue Caladenia. C co^alnt. Pink Fairiei^. C carHCPj Hooded 
Caladenia, C. iuatllatu. Blue Fairies, C\ defor^mis. Leopard Orclnd^ 
L>itiris fnaciilata, and Tall Greenhood, Ptcros^ylis hngifolto. The 
Me?5mate-Str3ii.gybai'k, Eucaiypttts obliqtui. js the pnntipa! timber 
'tree on tlie=^ hills, but it does not appear to reach the dimensions 
I have noticed it to attain in other parts of our State. It may 
be of mterest to nore that this species of Eucalypt was the first 
collected, that on which the genus was founded, being described 
by L'HeriLier. a French botanist, in l/HS. Tlie vernacular name. 
Miessftjate-trec. is supposed to have arisen from the fact that this- 
specie*^, wherever it occurs in its native habitat, is uivariably associ- 
ated with other Eucalypts 

Descending a divide from the. higher portion of the rattges, We 

,3 -AuffAS, W Wttk 4iHonS9i the H'tMwt. ?55 

passed through a jkfuHy, wMeietl by a strcijmlcv. Here a number 
of glos^sy-Icavcd trees and shrubs were seen, nanicl}', Silver Watlk 
(with ijjc yOung silvcry-grey foliage >*cry mucli enhancing its 
beauiy), Austral Mulberry, Mouniam Ptipper, Large-leaf Bush 
J*ea, Golden Tip, Tough Ricc Flower, and WooUv Tea Tr<;c. 
GrnwiTig in lh<: black-peaty ^ioil w<:r« Fisbbonc Fern and tli€ 
Soft Water Fern, which looked handsoiDC with its dark green 
(ohage and iH young fran<ls of rc^Jdish-bron/e colour. 

iteacliing the open country wc spent siune lim<; in the gru^s- 
lands, searchiiig; for minute plants which w^-xt growivig very 
abtuidantly in the moist situations. A good example o^ the effect 
of moisture in this dislriei is the vigovou.* growth of the l^iver 
Red Ginn trees. Along the valley ol the Hollands River, some 
fine •5i>eci'iTiens of (his Eucalypt were yren and the course of <he 
liver could be outlhied for miles by the gtowih of llicse nioisture- 
lovjng trec5. Near the stream, waitles predominated. The Silver 
Wattle and Ovens Wattk ^vx<] atOiiite^l their full flowering period 
aiid were a glorious sight owing to the profusion oi their bFooms. 
The Musk Daisy Bush, with large tL-nninal corj^mbs ot flower- 
heads, wa.s just burstings inio bli>orn. This slirub is easily culti- 
vated and grows rapidly. The Blanket Wood, a tall *hrnb of 
distniCtive floral char;M:Ler, here attained a height of about 15 feel| 
the flower-heads being in short axillaiy panicles witij yellow ray 
and disk florets. It i> one of the few plants of the Couipositac 
family atrajning the dignity of a tree. Prickly Moses aiiaincd the 
ticiglit of about S feet, with ptiyllodes mostly whorlcd and about 
an inch in length Thrs S[jecies iy extensively nsed in New Zealand 
for laedgc purposes. 

While at Tatons: we bad the pleasure of \nsitin^ his home an<! 
exchanging cordial grcetin|3;s with a former Club member, Mt. D. 
CoghiU, brother oC Mr. Qcorge CogliiU. Leaving Tatong via the 
Fern Hill Road, fur Man.shcld, we parsed over the Stiingyhaik 
Ranf(es. About three miles along the road wc visited llie cleft in 
tire rock locally known as Kelly's Vo>>\ Oflkc. This rocl< is situated 
in a depression about 100 yards in from the road and opposite a 
prominent peak knowii as Mt Stmday, About^ a mile further on 
45 r* caim, erected to the nii'.mory of the explorers; Hntne and 

From here, the conntry clianges frniw river fiats to undulating 
and Jnlly i^oniitry of a granitic natiue. As we ascended the lange 
with its winding road the charming Tovc Creeper. Bredeimyera 
voliAbiic, wa-s seen. It i.'s a pretty blue creeper with flowers of an 
unusual colour in our climbers. The ])Lant is leafless, the stems 
performing Che leaf function^;, Hereabouts grew the Hop 
Goodenia in atiundance. It is sometimes; knowii as ''Hunger* 
weed*', and walkmg through an area covered with the plant is 
said to induce an appetite. The Wiry Bauera flourished iu niW5* 

256 Avtvis. A iV^fik ^m&Hosf ihc WUtU4^s. U^i^^ 

places. It IS sometimes kTK)wn as "Rose Hcaib" fr€»m Ihe Tose- 
like flowers, or ■*Wtre Scrgb" from its long wiry branches. It 
flowers practically all the year round On a steep portion of the 
range at an elevation of about l.S'JiD feet, some attractive shrtibs 
were seen, such as Fringed Heath Myrtle. Rose Heath Myrtle, 
Showy Parrot Pea, and Heathy Parrot Pea. 

From tt>e5e wooded heights a large saw-milling industry is 
carried oji — the timber tramways stretch tor miles into the forest, 
and thus open a spread of country which is eaisily accessible for 
botanizing. The Eucalypts noted attain fair heights and propor- 
tions; the princtpa! species being the Red Stnngybark, Red Iron- 
bark. Messmate Stringybark. White Stringybark, Conimon Pep- 
permint, Manna Gum. Swamp Gum. and Victorian Blue Gum, 
Euf4Uypt.tis hUosiata. Parrots Jind Gang Gang Cockatoos lud 
regaled themselves- with seeds Erom the capsules of the Blue Gum$, 
as evidenced by the ];»rge <]uantities of empty carpels around. 

Soon we reached the summit at TooiTibullup, 2,000 feet above 
sea level. On the descent, a mile further on, is a timber mill 
track which leads to tht place where the outtaws grazed their 
horses and where the police were supposed (o have been shot. 
The most interesting among the plants observed here were the 
Box-leat Acacia, Ovens Acacia, Stiff Geebung, Urn Heath, Peach 
Heath. Grey Everlasting. Golden Everlasting, Alpme Mint Bush, 
artd Heath Milkwort. The latter is a distinctive plant. I foot to 
2 feet in height, which looks charming with its heath-like leaves 
and a shnwy mass of pinkish flowers at ahnost any time of the 
year. The Sliowy Guinea Flower and Prickly Guinea Flower 
were plentiful. They arc prostrate or diffuse herbs, with bright 
yellow flowers; neat in habit, and bear a profusion of blossofms, 
but are useless as cut flowers as they wilt and lost their petals 
soon after picking. The Au.slraJ Bluebell wa-s "Jeen, with flAweri 
varyint^ from an inch across to not more tlian one-twelfth of an 
inch. The typic*il form is usually 15 inches to IS inches in height, 
with a blue flower often about lialf an inch in diamet«tr; but here 
we observed a form 2 inches in height, wuh a minute floweret. 

The country oii to Mansfield is open and of an undulating 
character, lightfy timbered with River Red Gimi trees, and well 
adapted for agricuUnral pursuits^ which are extensively folfowe<l 


I^oi]i]iatio<n of Diuris p^diPKuiata. var. (ji}^(i^te<t NichaUs.— On October 
2p. 19j3, my daughters im4 I saw rn^ny plants of this orchid ilOl it) 
flower, though normally its season wotrld have closed. In scores of flowers 
were ^nc or two i-pccimtns of th^ jjollinating agent Hatktus languiHosi^s, Sm 
One Ihree-flowfercd raceme sheltered no fewer than eleven of thssc small 
bees, all ot which *A*^re identified by Mr. Jarvis as tnale specimens. Many 
ftn< cav^ules prociaJmed thorn efficiw^t pollinators, 

BolTB COLkMA£l. 

J^J ] Staqh. Jossil Fauta cr/ iAtf Gteion^ DUirkK 257 

By Leo W. Stack 

(iv) The Bt'ds at Bcfl'r Bcoch^ between Torquay and Point AJUix 

A <:o\\ecuon was received for exaniiiiation from Mr. Alati Coul- 
soa, MSc, from this locality. The fossiis are weathered out on 
tlie suriace ol an indurated je)fow arenaceous litnestone, simibr 
to that occurring a few hundred yards south of the mouth of 
Spring Creek. Torquay. 

The following species »re recorded ■,"— 

Brachiopodai Ma4^vii>ia compta (Sow.). 

Bryozoa: S<utkel)a pa pirate (Maplcstone), ScuticeUa lata MS., 
StropUipora harveyi (Wyv.Th), CclUina condgua Macgilhvray, 
CcUuria rigida MacG., Macropora clarkei (T. Woods^), Stegnno- 
porella magnikbris (Busk), Ccllcpora cf. serrata MacG., Ceilepora 
sp., Retepom sp., Flulonen philippsiu: (Harmer), Probascma i^ff, 
dHhoiama (D'Orb.), Cri^na sp. 

EcKinoidca. Cassi<(uhis iiuitralUfe (Duncan), DHnc<iitia^t<!r aits- 
tr-ulw ( Duncan ) , Hericos')iut:s coviprcssus McCoy, Eupatagus 
rotundus Duncan, Lupafagus iaubei Duncan, Lovania forbcsii.- 

Pelecypoda : Chlamvs fouhhen (T.-Wood5>, Cardifa alata 

Gastropodd Naltat sp. 

Notes on the Fauna. — The fauna is typically the same as that 
iound in smiilar beds flanking the Torquay dome to the north, a 
few hundred yanis south n£ the mouth of Spring Cieek. Itie 
Bryozoa throw an important light on the exact correlation of these 
l)eds. The majority oaur bo»h at Upi>eT Oligocene and Lower 
Miocene loealities, but Scnticella pap%Uaia has been found only at 
Gilfton Bank (Mviddy Ck.), HamiUon Bore 80 i<ret io 85 feet, 
CaniphelVs Point and the Batcsford Tunnd marl dump. ScaticcUa 
lata occurs at Clifton Bank, Flinders. Forsyth's {Hamilton, below 
the -nodule bed) and is living in Westempoct Bay. Ma-cropora 
<Uirkei is fonnd ^X various localitic?^ throughout the Geelong dis-- 
txictS and at Chfton Bank a^d Flinders. Tlie alcove fossil locali- 
ties are Lower Mi<.>cene and thus these beds may be cegarded as of 
Lower Miocene age. 

PMoHca phihppsae is interesting since it has only previously 
been recorded as living m Sifu, Lo>-alty Island^ and in the Phdip- 
pine Islands,^ at depths ranging: from 20 to 35 fathoms, mdicalingf 
the bathymctrical conditions under which the deposit was laid 
down. ' ' - 

R^frrances . — 

CI) MapleMOt^e, C- W- : Tabulated List of foiisil Clieil. Poly in Vic. Tert 
deposits. Prac. Roy, Soc. yii, (i.s.). xvii (1), p. }82. 

(2) Harmcr, S. J : Polyxoa of Siboga Expcditton. Mon 28, Reswitt 
Bxplofaticns Sihoga, p. 120^ pi. 10^ fig 9 

(3) Canu. F.» and Basslcf, R.. BryOroa of the Philippine RcKtbn. 
Unitcd Stotes P/(}h07tal Mti^eum Bnthtin No, JOO^ vol. ijc, p. S48l^ 
pi. 85, figs 4. 5. 


Thf Hklitor The S^u-torian Naturatrsi 

Sir, —1 rt^ud \\ni\\ iriiJch interest and profit tin articks oti ll»< above 
subject under t\\^ nani>cs of NU^^sfs. L. G. Cliand^eJ. Occxge MacW. and V 
T-^AvJs (Ch'Cf fnspecto-r of Fishcricj^ nnri Game). 

Wliiic Mr, I.fwb is *tnalile lo cxjniprthccxl (or what pvu-p05e.thc kavcsr 
IwjKs, etc., arc p7acc(l in ihc mohtifl by tli*" T.oiv^ii. he uevprlhcless afHrms 
hh diibclief of the theory advanced by same. oruitho1osi>t>- tl*al the dcc:oy- 
iny. vegetation is prcsctil to aid in the incubatton oi llic <5ggN, and io ihb, I 
think, be i*; ri^M. 

Marty years atjo. when 3tt-ic)»ed to tiic Agricnttural and Slock Depart- 
mrnf, Ta&tnatWa. 1 carried out .wme chemical rnve5tig.iiionft with the egg* 
:;hell of th.' ordinary fowl. «fi<l my te^Mtit iViSty throw sOnie light upati Ihc 
present problem. 

if one e^iamines 1he fresh, egg-shell of Ihe Lowaii. and oam|*3re* it wUfi 
the egg'Shell out of which the y.-jmng has hatched, he will detect ;^ differ- 
ence in their textures. Vt'hile the fresh shell cannot bt crumbled between 
llie tniger ainJ iJiumt, the incubafed ogg-ahcll can be m treated. What hiii 
hajipfned? Dnrjng the process of incobatioii Ihe freiU slicll has mtdi&rf?otie 
a chemical changt;. 

Tt is evident that vf Oie shell r«inahk«l in its t>ngi»a1 hlaie durihg thr 
(jeri'>f of incubation, tljcrc would lie no liv't chirk. 

Tlic ti^^h 3|-^n ron&ists chiefly o( calc»uni carhoivatc. wl^ch gwc*» U 
slreiigth and firmn«s. lA/hilst Ihe shell of th<* ocwly-hdtchcd chick consists 
la/ixely of calciun bicarbonate, which li compuratively soft and frsablc 

At le&si three f^cJlor? are necessary for llw: coLivcrsioi* of calcium cjit- 
bC'iiate in the frus-h shell to calcium hicarbon.\te in the incubated shtll, 
namely, heal, n^otstiire, and c^tbon dioxide, 

11 me ait luidcr a iitting iowl hr qualitativdy testtM!, a cotrejiarativ^ly 
Jarpx ix:i<«)"itiigc C^"* Odfbo" dfoxidc will be discovered- 

As the Lowjtt does not sit on her cgfts, othci means iiuisr be fovnd by 
which cirbon iJio\ide may l>e provided, and Nature has endowed her with 
ait Mttiutivc iJCl^M:^ tct include in the cea(rtf of the mound tjiiantuies oi Icaivc5, 
twips. etc- which, dnring the (.■roc<riS t^i dccoinpaiilum, u'lh. inter alia, 
l>TOvule the necessary external carbon dioxide and mc/isture which, in 
oiiniurcTion wi|h thf iiUernAt c-jirbon dio^ndt wtid nioiAtiire very slowly 3TJd 
gradu;i]iy convert the hard, insoluble catcium cArhonatc into a more or less 
ioluhle ralciuni biiarbotiat^. and ">o provide for the release oi the yotsu^ 

Carfmn dioxide without moisture is ins»jfficicrt lo bring: about the rei^uircd 
chemical reaction. Tho faci is only too well kiiowo to the catly €Aper»- 
mcnters of inruhators. 

Titfc Lowao ^>repa^es \U ii€9t early in iIk year by opening out the moiird 
tn a varying depth, up to 2 it.^ or more-- for tho rrception of leaves, twI^A. 
etc., thes^ become Mibjecl lo winter rams, which, in conjuncnon uilh -^riLii 
he^t and o.xygen, 5K ufi' combustion. This decaying vegetable matter holds 
a fair percentage ot moisture, and as time gdcs rm unites with carUjn 
dioxide. anJ is converted in(o carb<jtnc actd, winch qwielly and gradinlly 
set^ u|i the dcsir^^;! dicmical reucti'.»n. 

'the sides of thd moudd are well wid adequately buttreswd up **itli saud 
to Vccv» the moisture a«t^ carbon dioxide confined to the cei^tre, and w^' 
under the €gg>. 

tht \irynoi>:i apparent to the eye of man would be fovind to Ik daivivnesi 
wha> chemically tested, but of course ^Turing iuinr parts of (he day and 
at night litiie there: ivonld be a grt-ater percenlage of moi.sturc. 

To prove- Ihat the ordinary rtUuceion «v lenipcralwrsr a«nong soil par- 

^f^l] Miuiworts and llwrr Hind, 259 

liclcs is sufftt-iein li> caM?e a deposit of jitinu^pl'^ic amJ soil *^(ifcr vai>o*ir 
iherrort. the following classical expeTHfueni was c^irried o\it: 

A load fit uan^ wai. txpose^I 1o Ute ^cal pt ^ iurruce Sruffioem to inciiKraK; 
every pariicle Oi organic mairer mixed I'nerewi^'i ar<1 (o dri\e all moisture 
tiKrcfrom- Tlic tuirnt saiiJ wis chco retiujvea to (lie open, where it was 
exvoiii-d. ai v heap, lo Ihe Kigti (c-niperatures of a numrncr sun Laitr (Itt; 
heap s»-;ii opened up. willi ibc r«iill tliMt \Uc >aoO w^ii fouiirf to be mois^ 
ibcb rntj.stun- hjvJitg been de;>C'5ilcd on Oie prirticlp-c diuni}; Ihe mox-^tpeni 
dt the atmosphere throufsh ihv H^ap during the fliKtuating t^mpcr^wrtT 
obiaiiinic duriny the iwe«r>-four hour* OJ each day, .ss Ai>U as liy die 
Uiwllary wal*^r i^pour arising from the soil liclow the .^an«3. 

So iar n<i J am aware, Ihe Low^n* inhal>its only hou snarly regions. Tins 
i\ l>iM:a«i^e Iht iiisicrial fftuud there is j-uitahle for Ihc incuUattoii of the 
Cfies-— Yoitrs. cic, RAr.M<;i» A BitCK. 

Albury, K.S.W.. fcNmary 12. !934. 


At this lime ol year (Kebniary) a*- thi^ w^rni Vt'CftTljer di'ies »ip the, watet- 
pools and w<M nrarslip^ .inrt cciuses gr^3> se*sd:. to becutiit* a natiaJicc, Ihe 
batajiiit, like the iiiicroscopisi, is tphtiIihip, \vhcri!vcf U ii d3in|> Till' 
boUiiist sceki in \^'aslc places of the earth fend in The niuW, iM»ikc» lens »U 
hand, the nature lover io>>lta fur IovpI> planti tl«it hnger Jong«r a* ihey lie 
clOie to iiiulher earth. 

Th*> Watcr-woTt (Ef^lntc (jratwloidr.t) (or, a^ w<^ used lo know it e^irlier, 
£. .4wi'n>ijjui. or a:, a variety o( tt^ .^. .^t^tr^th'imui'f creeps out of tln^ water 
on to Hit (XJJ'tfiB banks. It hai; thin, hroadisi\. opoo^i^* leaves, with bt^nc-h- 
ing. elongate ilcm.s. Ri>»hr in lh« axih (if the leives arc IirJght-red flowers 
without stalks, rouiKi, like small htittrtn*;. 

The sUfTie watcrholc at Jlarcourt (on the north of our Dividtng Raiig«) 
jieTds on hs other i^iUt liic Conrmron Mud-wott {Gtouoslifjma ^tatiKordet), 
'Ihis has closely-set, dirtc-ffreen. blfinl iattfcb, kuti^er Ihaji (?road. with dainty 
urn-ltk<r Ci^tyces for jC* dowers, hhaped not unlike tmy fruits oi Ejuatyfius 
fiafotia. Vou may probably looU lU vairv for the jjerals, hut will he charmed 
hy the stieaky, pink-green colourjn)> of the pecn!iar-5hai>e<I llowers on soi^ic- 
what loiiger ^ratlcl^t^ ; they are s-ingle, >miricTous and minute. Two of the 
^abei of the U]>^ arc j-niallT than tifcc thiKl. The tloweti appear to be 
Iryrny it* hide t!jc-nr5cJvti>. bill their lung ttailts forbid- Tfk^ malt-cd pUiit 
is dliricult to setiarAl* Irotn the earth (or herbarmiti purposes. It is dainty, 
wjth 3 charm i|uitf^ its own, and a Httle cry of ^ensure tscaiies one when 
a pAtch 'is found 

On. the oppoiilc side of ovir w^lerfjok is yCl ;3«KHhet Mud-worl. lufcy, 1»«l 
of a different, thoogh rr:lated, family. /.fiiiY^jrrf/jfl cqiwiira had leaves not 
much bigger than curved .sewing necdks. and sortiethnig Ukc them. ix% 
(Vretty pe'flh .^t onc'c; strike yon, bvl be t'lnifk in your exaniinatioti 
of them, as the Oowers, am:e cIo^ed, do nut readily open. [Tnwcver, take 
a piece honhr, keep it damp in a saucer for exammation and obvervatiwi. 
The Itnis stalks holtj liny Hmwc-t heads, not uiihkc the c"d:* of >mall drmn- 
5ticKs. One might, af -ftrsi, he rem|>tej1 1o thirl, that he lias colleried a 
farm of the dairty white Cfayto'lia ansir^iktska. whusf: clenr white 
aiv much 1^1 gei, arc not <;ni:lofied, and keep open Tlie Utte'' ftlso lo^os 
the damp aiid ^.rcei'i in the wet, liavjns als't awl-stupntl leaves, fioth the 
Gfffisosti^uui void the htnost'lUi. have a habit of polling out their tuiig'iie^ 
at yoi« Vou will f-iri^ive the Clo5Sosii<pnki, as that is h<>\0 it (jett itft nanK"- 

Two iiicmteri of the family Halora^idaceae are eisentially Miid-worts. 
The R.ispwort. iHafor4yf]u vttcrmdha) spreads over the ilamp l^anks an*! 
has siiiaH. toulbed. roond leaves and Un\ red flowers Ttie Water Willfoil 
( M\'rwi*livJlHiK f^tt^pnufuatn) is well known. 

-A J T. 

m I^otfs on Plains. VsllT' 


KyUifigin inunn^Hia (tUc Globe KylUngia) {CyPnac^^o-e} <Harcourt, 
Janoao-^. 19J4)-— ^An uncoinrncin ntih, grass-like in habit, growing^in i 
moi&t stttiation ; rcnrfftled in V^ictoria only from X.W , N.E., ti- At frit 
6ithl k looks like Ific Ilcdfecho^ GrASs (LchinoihJijon). Tt hfty thfcc llocal 
bracts, unequal aiid much lon^f llian 1<ie globular herids. 

tialarag\s r\thra {rhr. Reti Ra.spwort). (Proatraee on hanks^ Harc^urtr 
Jatiuafy. 1934).— FroC. Ewarl, f/t/ru u) Vkioria. say?, "Apparently very 
rare- Recorded only troni Suiibiiry." This will he' ? roc<»rrt tram N.W. in 
additicin to iii. The sicnus are very tcitig, tliin, znd up to 2 k, brancUed 
liroru base. Fnul. glubtilar. angled, few, aacf 'imall. 

DodonaPii viscnsa (Native Giant Hoji BusK).— Used effectively for a close 
hedge at Sandrhigham (January-, 1^34). 

Dodoiiaea aUamaia in flower (Slonder Ho[> Rush) (Hajcourt, Auaus*, 

i?r,7)Krf^ ruO^ifS (Red BrOme GrasM). Introduced (on slopes M Mt, Alex- 
ander, HarcouTt. JannJ^ry. 1934). Th^ire is very hllli- difference between 
£. niberts and S. Madritc}u:is (intro.), The li^ttcr has gUbroirT &te"iis anct 
l)te (onncT hairy ^re^r/?. Both often turn purpliiih in colour. One i$ some- 
times mislakpn fnr the other- Ci^ih ar^ annuFtls. 

OnopKrrd-on iUyncurn (the Illyrtan Thistlel. A recent migrant l<t Vjc- 
tori<», rare. In IW.S this plant was introduced; it was proclaimed a noxious 
wa^d. The sppcjmen. kindly 5ent Vj exhil>it<ji' l)y the Noxiuus Wccdi 
lnsp«'-tar at DayU^sford, January, 1934. The Scotcli Heraldic Thistle. 
0. (tcanthuiM. -and its stemless stsier, 0. aiaHiop, are members of this family* 
vi/hich now has thrct: reprci>cntativr.s in Virtona. 


A irarty of 20 members took iJdri in tlte excursion to Litydale on February 
10. Tli^ afitr'noou, altViough <4t hy^\ suhry. wa'S a^lcrward^ relieved by a 
pleasant hrecie. Defore^ndinp the 118 ttcD*^ of tJie quarry Udder, a 
5horc u)k on the geulogical hitlocy and ss^nihLanct of tht hmeiiionc ijuarry 
vas given, the interest of which partly lies in its relationship in tli<- fossili- 
ferons Silurian of other, widely iepaTaled*art«>. 

The fartJie&t end oi the quarry was kmnd lo be most productive, aiid ibe 
first find was z. magniiicent cluster o( nai?-tieaii calrite cry-^tak. Many 
Titic slrfimatoporo)<l!i wprr lound. some o^ which bad beerj beautiful ly 
weathered. evhibhtne: t5ieir strucliir^. and ni some ca^ci ihc wrinkted 
epithe»:al base Several swallow-hoIcs. or smlutinn pipes, were seen, where 
the Older l^i^^a^^ ahov-e had liHed thetti iiv; atul m one ^an: had rpacht-d 
to the law^cst part ot ihc tjuarry. showing^ where excavated, "k pool of waier 
of conRid<;rj%hlr: dcf^tli It would be of much t^ological suterest lo prove ihc 
shape and extent o£ Ihts great mass of limestone' hy a scries of (.hallow^ 
ho res. 

The fo«il3 collected comprised: — 

Corals: CyttihophyUum s^p, FcnsMitc-i grautiipnrc, Idlioh'it'x cL mttt^ 

StrcqnStotJOfoid:^" CU*ihfOdktyo>\ ^p , AQti*^\}%t&»\9 4p.. St^r^maiopora %f^ 
Idioxtroma :sp., Stromal opareila ^p.. Syrintjostowa sp. 

Crinoidca ■ Irtdetcmiioatc (fragments of calyx;. ^ - • » 

Gasteropoda : Scahctrochiis IhuUirt^f.mi, C\clctni:frm UtydoU'tUis Co^lo^ 
caulii^ <jpu<3(iSt tlvfU'rAipfiofi crefirrlH. £%knnpfiohfS fi<jrtht. 

The Ostracoda were the special quest of one- of the inemherv. suJ we 
Await wilh interest the results of hi& examination of about 8 Uis. of rnatexiaU 
Since there was not one uninterested member, and a full l)a^ ni fAgsils for 
Wich, the excurs-ion may be regarded as hijfhiy ;;ucces3fal 

F. CdAi'MAN. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL L. — No. 12 Aprii 5^ 1934 No. 604 


The oniinary meeting of the Club was held at the Ro^^al Sodely's 
UM on Monday, March 12, 1934, at 8 pm. The Pre^idenl. Mi. 
V- H. Miller, presided over an attendance of about- SO members 
and {rieods- 

The Tresidcnt welcomed to tlie mceiing Miss Harris (a grand- 
niece of the Baron Von Mueller) and Mr. S. T. Dallachy; of 


(3) N'oticc ol' lMo(iou: Mr. E. E, Pcscott asked for ix-nnission 
10 hold Over hU Moticc of Motion until after t[ie ne>a couiniittcc 

(b) Wild Nature Show: The President rPi>ortpd that thr Mel- 
bourne Town Hall had l)een secured for the Show. 

(c) League of Youth: The Presideni re(Kirted tiiat ^*No actiou 
had been taken" in regard to Mr. Swaby's recommendation to the 


From the Royal Zoological Society oi New South Wales, stating 
that the CouSul-Gcneral for Italy had intimated that he had 
requested the Itahan Press of Sydney to notify Italians to observe 
the exhisting" laws regarding the protection of native birds and 

A.N.Z- Assoc for Adv. Science, Section M (Botany)^ asking 
for names of intending meanl>er.s for tlie Melbourne meeting. 

From ihe Minister of Forests, in the matter of the Sherbroofe 
Fofest» stating that "The area is regarded as a distinct oationa) 
asset, and it is intended lo retain the area in its present natural 


Reports of Excurs-ions were giveti as follow. — Black Spur* 
Mr. A- D. Hardy and Mr. E. E. Pescott; Rickett's Point: Mr. 
F. S. Colliver (for Mr. A, J. Swabv, who led in the absence of 
Miss J- Raff). 


On a sho^v o[ hands the Rev, H. M. R. Rupp (o* Woy Woy, 
NS.W.) was duly elected as a Country Member 


The President said that he had pleasure in presenting to the 
Chib a bookcase for spare copi(?5; of The Nalurcdist- Mr. G. N. 
llyam moved (hat the thanks of tlic Chib be recorded in the 
TTihinres tor this gift, Seconded by Mr. C. French and carried. 

Mr. A. Chambers j?rcscnted to the Ckib an early photograph of 
the Baror» Von Mueller. Hie President thanked hitt) on hchalf 
oi the Club. 

GEXERAL busies! ESS 

■ Mr. E. E. PeSxoU spoke oi the damage caused by hrc "to iVlr. 
Edwin Ashby*fl property at Blackwood. SA., ?nul moved Uicit the 
Secretary ^iejid a letter of sympathy to him, 


The. subject was ' Von Mueller. Reminiscences of His 
Work and Life*. Mr Chas. Daley gave an account of the eAi*!)* 
hie, appointments, exploration^ and b<rer days oi the Biiron. A'tr. 
C French Followed with anecdotes. Mr. E. E. Pescott spoke on 
Bome of the possessions of the Elaron, and Mr. T. S. Ilart quoted 
frotn some letters he had relating to the gre«»t botanist. 


Mr. C. French. — "Mueller's Stag Beetle" {PhdacrogmOtm 
■viticileri Macleav), Cairns, Queensland. 

Mr. A. J. Tadgell.— Lcaveii and flower buds of the Manna Gum, 
Aianna in a dissolved and smeared condition. Solirl melifosc, frnm 
Mt. Alexander. Kuadyptus Scale (Eriocoicm conaccus) i th^ 
Scarlet Larva of Eucalyptus Scale. Galls ot Hymcnopferous 
insects on leaves and stalks. 

Mr. F. Pitcher.— ^Rcpoits to Dr. Mueller by J. Dallactiy. dated 
July 25 and November S. 1858; aisc' Diary of Collecting Work, 
dated Rockingham Bay, I'roni March LS. 1SC>4, [o Angu&t 31, 1864. 

Mr. F. S. Colliver — A Series of fossil CiUataCca^ including 
crabs from BcaiiiMans and Pt C-ampbell. Jobslcrs from Ft, I>ar- 
win, barnacles irom Gippshmd Lakes, Trilobitcs from VVandong, 
anil Phylloc^rids from Bcndigo and Mansfield. 

I have founH a large green tree frog hi one of my Aloe beds; *or some 
vs-eeks a peculiar noise, like die barkinj; of a Pomeranian pup, bad nic 
guessing, but oiw afternoon, t IcNrate.d the frog^, making -tl-K' noise. Or. I^n 
MarGillivray says it is a Queensland (tee-irog, and i<i about three years old. 
Il loola fat and healthy. How did il get in rny gardeu? 

A, M. (Broken Hilli N.S.W.) 


By JiTHBt McLu:nnan^ D Sc, (Hntany Sriionl. Univfirsity 

of Melbourne) 

VicKHiati rtaniraliHts have ^aken Up the Htudy of many groups 
i>f fhe planf kingdom r^nd ihrough their oKservulum :in<3 rixt>rds 
our knowledge of these hiis hcen gftaily eiihancecL The ^noup 
conipnsing iht Uingi. however, has been pracricaHy npjglecteH 
and cit the present time it is correct tu asserl that almost ooilipkte 
ignonint:^ of even the amimon foiins of toadstools prevails. ThiJt 
is. not due to any lack in heauiy or inter<est, for of all the plant 
^roMps none oflers greater joy lo ihc student who makes an 'jfEorl 
!0 knuw tx.methin^ en thcii' .NCLicts. The difficulties whith beset one, 
howcvei*. in sfndyini; rhe Aushalian nxidstonls. are colossal, and 
all hnt tiK keenest enthnfviast arc apt to th*c and turn th**ir energy 
jnio other chartiid.'*- 

Thc outstanding dilTiciilty arises froni the fad that fhe Amk- 
tralian fungxis flora is su little l;nown that nirtny of even ihe com 
monly occurring frmns are imdescrihed and new to so€UCC. to 
1S92 Cooke published a handbocik on the Australian fungi; unfoi'- 
tonately, it is ahnost impossible foi anyone In identify uny species 
by i«s use. Since Cooke ihc chief comrihulors Iv^ve ?ieen Lloyd, 
Cleland and Chccl, and Cruiniiigliani. The last -named mrbor lias 
n^ad-c the GASTEROMYCFJ'ES Ins chici study and has pub- 
lished very complete descriptions and keys t*> aid tlic student it^ 
thf idenribcAtJon of Npecies helonj^in^ to this "puff-liaU" grullp. 
CJelnihi and Clied und, later, Cleland, are i\\t onlv contrihutor'i 
in the field of gilicd forms {ACARICACEAE), and ulthouc^b 
they have issued »xit€?^on many of them there *lnes not <!xist at tfic 
present lime any wotIc to enable the colle^Uor lo name his tinds. 

Mr. Willis, wliu was responsible lor the lollowing articles, has 
been a keen stu<ient r>f the hijrher fungi fl^r HOine years and has a 
ver>' ronsTderxible knnwleclj^e of these ^asntiatini; )ilunls in their 
native Imunis. He luis. ^^\^<^\^ detailed tioles lu the lieid, and under 
his guidance Mr. Ilowic has made a collection of vcr>' licautiful 
coloured bc^uros wliich record the evanescent diagnnstic characters 
of the species toucenjcd. 

The article nn tbt Agaricacca*- is designed to assist persons who 
are interested in idetsrifying some of the K|>ecies of it^illed fungi 
found growin:^ in forest, scrub, gully-country, ctr Tt aims (o 
sup]ily Hit meiins. of ascertaining the names uf common Kinds that 
art; new to the colleetoj-. 

Mr. Willis lias included some seventy forms; the majority of 
them common and widespread. There are, of course, many more 
to be found in Vi<toria, hut the key iiffer.s a very e*'nsiderahlc: 
nucleus, and if the forn^s included in it become familiar to (he 
collector, he will h^vc 3 go<id liasr". lo build upon The ronlribu- 
tinn is n>ost welcome and sliould earn for the r^iithor llx: gratitude 
cd all "fungus-hunters". 

2« Wicm. Thi /Is^-cnttac or ^cnhd Pimm''. [^'c^i^l!* 


Some Species Common in Victoria 
By 1. H WfLMs (Forests Commcssion of Vidoiia") 


The ignorance of the average person concerning such common 

objects as fimgt is cnily roiiuirkable; indeed, to mo.^t people only 
two kiiKls of fungi are known — the popular mnshi'ooni and the 
unpopular tcadstaol? Thts Is rather ^Mrprisint^ when it is con- 
sidered that many fungi are itinong: the most colonriul t\r\i\ ^le^ant 
thJn^-s that grow, besitlcs deserving n place in any tabic menu. 

Toarlsfools. of every kind have been stigmati^^ed by tradition; 
<inrl they mal^e thtir appertrancc, usually, in wet. sodden situations 
during cold nnd bleak weiJthcr. The^e inzt^ probably are largely 
responsible for tlje neglect which this fascinating group of plants 
h^is suffered, 

Tn my capacity as a ticld nfriccr of the Forests Commi?;-iion, I 
liave h^td better opportimittes for studying" oui fungi aii they grow 
than h^ve the majority o[ nature 1ovci-s; but anyone may iind 
scorcH of intcrc=Ving; species near at hand, if he will but taic<? the 
iKUible to look. My own humble cxijloration-. in the iimgus world 
hnvc been amply repaid, and no more iruitMi! held for research 
\^ open to the natunilist wishing to s[)ccializc. 'Ihe present article,, 
ih'Hij^h wi bmilctl scojie, is published vvith the hope that others 
may ficcomc interested in mycology, and thus help to dispel rhe 
views; so commonly held of fungi in general- 

My thanks art* <hie to Mr. E. J. Semmens, B.Sc, Princi"pa1 of 
the Schctol of Forestry at Cresw^ck, who has [^ivcn me much 
v;jlt)HbIe assistrmce in the study of Victorian funj^i, ■a\'\(\ has criti- 
cally read these not',*s, T am also indebted to Dr. Jithel I. McLen- 
nmi. of the University of Mclbouniii, i\yM\ to Protes.^or J. B. 
Clelancl. M.D.. Adelaide University, for the icicntjfioition of doubt- 
fnt -Specimens. 

The accompanying plates in colour and the half-tone illuitralions 
arc the work oi my brothcr-itj-law. Mi-. M, I. Howie. 

The Ai'AU*cace:ae 

As aptly defined by Carleton Re;'i, in his British Basidiomycetae, 
fungi are ''non-chlorophylluns cryptOEaTii?. reproduced by spores". 
Thih- derinilioia is complete, and could not he improved upon. 

In the total al.iscnce oi chlorophyll or i^reen colouring matter, 
fungi occupy a unique position in tlie vej^eLable kingdom. M^orc- 
over, the organs of sex are practically non-cxistenc. being fo\md 
only in r few insignific?jnt forms: the spore — a simple, inicroscopic 
body — h the agency by which fungi are reproduced and dissemin- 
ated, generation after generation Although tlie fungus body 
proper, consisting of exceedingly fine, jnterwovcn threads (the 

Plate XLII 

Vol. l April, 1934 

Victorian Fungi 

I Hygrophorus Llczcdlifice. 2 CoUybia vchnipcs. 3 Cortinarius ciimajiioincus. 

4 Psilocybc subacruginosa. 5 Leptonia lanipropus. 6 CortiJiarius cnmabarinus. 

7 Hygrophorus ccraccus. 8 Galcra hypnoruni. 9 Russula etnctica. 

10 Ouiphalia Jibuloidcs. 11 Russula Marue. 

1934. J 

WM»M5. The Agaritftrfiu? or "CiUcd I'iiH^'' 


mycjcHuni), is diffu-scd through the soi) or wood subsiancc or 
which ii ffeils^ ixml is &e|iJ<«Ti sf^.n, thu tponsa ar^ |jrudui:c'J iil 
^itiorniotis c{iwn(itifs on a comi>lex and highly orgaiuiii'd structure. 
ihc sporopho»'C or fniiti»ig body, whtrh as quite <nvis|Mri3^M.iN^ 
fruiting botjies of ceitaiti brack «*i-i'uiii;H may hc^ as much as a yard 
m diameter. The okl adage, "J3y ihcir fruits ye ?;hall kn»"fc>v them", 
holds good for the iiui|t;Ui? worlds urid ii i^ tlic charscier yf the 
(tutting body which invariably ilctcrnutics one species oi fungus 
Irom another. 

COntCaf 'r^ 

Cop '^^ Pffcus, 
vVith Coarse. 


/? ryPfCfHL /IO^RjC , or 

3£«m Of Sin 

Or VhJfer 



dr ff Oiui^'^iiA Spores [>'& s^tu. 

Fig. I 

Disregarding such {imgi ;3s itiilkws, msis. sniuts, slime moulds 
and the inicrobCDpie biicLcriii, llic Japjcr or 'higher fDUp.!", of 
which the common mushroom ib a type, cmbjace probably jTn.»r<r 
Ihan 10,000 known si>et;ies- fall into two grciiL clabbcs — the 
EASinTOMYCKTAF.j with s|>r)re_s Iiorne on sterigmata or stalkb 
anS3n^ from the exterior oF l:arge., hroad cells, cjilled hasijiia (sec 
diagram in Fig. \)\ and the ASCOMYCRTAK, with spores 
e^iclo^^ed \\\ elongated, flask-shaped cdls or asci. 

The JJASIDIOMYCETAE is further subdivided into ordern 
and families, accordiui^ tu th<: type oi fruchlicalion produced. Hy 
far the largcbt [aiuil)- of ISasidiomycetes is rhe AGARICACEAE. 
10 which all mushrooms and uue toadstools lielong The agarics 
are ilistingui^hed from olhci' Fungi by Imviiig their spores borne 

on the ^iiirfaces of vertical. r?»cliating plates or "gills" (hence the 
name "gilkd fungi") ; these pills ai€ sittinJ^d on iKe under skic of 
the §porophorc and are covererl at fust by a Ihiri tissue ar veil. 

There is gi'cat vartaLioit in Ihc sporophorc o( cliftcvcnt agarics; 
typically it fiimi> ;i tlcfiniic cap or pilciis, which may he 5.0ft anvi 
fleshy or tough i^ud kathciy, flat or pointed, white or variously 
coloured, roughened with hairs or smooth, cfr^^ or vir>ci<K etc. The 
cap usually i? canied aloft on a long stetti, whicli may or may not 
have a basal cup or an ap«cal ring (remauis of the .veil wh'tcli 9t 
first covercfl Ihc young gd\s). 

Elias Fries, eatly m the last ceuLury, classilied agarics primarily 
on the colour of their sporej., and his system still forms the basis 
of our moderij rla.ssilicatintis. T'he genera of filled fun^i a?r! 
separated on the charactere of cap, stem, gills and s|x>res, the 
mode o( atlachincnt of the gills lo ilic stem bciwg an xoportanl 

For the convenience ol those who are ttnfamiliar with ihc stnic- 
luTc of a typical gilled fungus, the accompanying diagram (Fig. 1) 
will indicate what poants are to be considered. 

I have constriicl**<] a key to itinera, and species tor the. identifi- 
cation of 70 Victorian agancs: this is designed along tlte lines 
empUiyevI hy Carleton Rea in his Key to the Divisiosis and Genera 
of British Basidumiycetae. ami it is hoped that it %vill prove ihseful 
to beginners in determining mast of the common speries likrly to 
be gatht=^red on lanible.?. and excmsions. Several rarei species 
{viz., Mf''lra.fiitinsijjni-^, a»d Mycenn jia^uo-vireiix) are also iticluded 
on accoiinl of their lingular beauty. 

Owing to the: rather lechmral language necessary m dewribing 
hingal characters, if has been a matter of cc^nsiderable ditfirnlty 
to chooic such words as will convey to the uninitiated those 
obvious feature*; by whidi agiirics are distinguished. 

It must be rememljered that no exact or satisfactory description 
of a fungus can be made without the aid of a raicroseope, 3ince 
the characteristic-? of the sp*>rc5 are of paramount importance. 
Only macroscopic characters have beren considered in this key and 
spores are mentioned only where their colour affects the separation 
of g:enera 

tJ.sualJy. the s^pore colouration can be told by cxannning the 
gills of a ftm^iJi — for inslance. white gills Usually indicate white 
Nfoieii and black skills lilack spores For certainty., however, it is 
necessary to obtain a '*spore pnnt" This is made by cutting ofic 
Ihe stem from a sporophore close under the cap and placjng the 
latter, gills downward, on a sheet ot while paper fur .several hours 
— <* perfect iuiprinl of the gills, showing the true spore colour wiJl 

Carlelon Re3> in 1922. records 1700 species q\ agarics for Great 
Brdaiu. Frobohly the number of species in Australia far e-xCceds 

^^^^]} Willis, The Ayaricacvac or "Coihd Fuvji''. 267 

this figure, but up to the present time no systematic work on Aus- 
tralian gilled fungi has ever been attempted; thus there is in this 
state a vast held to be explored and mapped by students of 

Great caution should always be observed in proposing "new 
tipecies", sinee agarics are practically co$mopolitan and what is 
put fortvard as new to one country may have long since been 
known and named in another. 


A. Fungi in which the gills rabidly shrivel iip or 
<juicldy dissolve away in a dark slime; usually 
growing on dung Or manured soil^ and having 
delicate, fragile, and hollow stems. 

B. Spores black . .. , /= .: t. r. COPRINTJS 

(a) C^p large (2" to 6" high), cylindrical, 
white arS shaggy. Stem stout, bearing, a 
movable anniilus or ring I. C- COMAtos 

(a) Cai> small {under Z" high); stem thin, 
without a ring. 

(b) Cai> white, bell-shaped, thickly covefcd 

witli whiw, mealy scales 2. C. Kiveus 

(h) Cap broadly convex. Rrcyish, covered at 
finit with shining, inica-like parttcks. which 
soon fall away 1 C. micackus 

B Spores rusty brown ,-- .. BOLBITTUS 

Cap coiucal, pale yellow, slimy at first, th?n 

smooth ; gills yellow . . 4. B. fha' 

A. Fungi in which the gills neither rapidly shrivel up, 
(lor dissolve away in a dark-coloitred ilittie; grow- 
ing on the ground, on wood or on manure; Slcm5 
Y^irious— fragile, fleshy or tough. 

B. Slenn alu-ays present cnshcathod at the l>ase by 
a volva or cnp- 

C Siem without any annulus or ring. 

D, Spores while -. , AMANITQPSrS 

(a) Cap small fup to 2" broad), y<:nMW to 

oranf?e-rcd ; with, yellowish warts, and 

having" a smooth marcin ., .. , , .. .■ ,.r 5, A. ruLCHKLLus 
(a) Cap large (3" to 5' ), mouse grey, with 

irregular, mealy sciles and a ritbcd niArjrin 6. A- va(.inata 

\>. Spores pink . ,. VOLVARIA 

Oi> largc^ hroadly conicdl, vibCid, fwlc, 

pinkish-Rrey . . 7. V. spt.ciosa 

C. Stem fleshy, bearing a ring, 

D. Gdh and spores rose-pink .. ^. ^ .. n ii i-r •* .- METRARIA 

(One ipt.M:ic3 only) S. Al i-^SiCNts 

D CtilK and •ipores white or creamy .. . _ _. . .. AMANITA 

ta) Cap crtaniy, often very large, covered at 
first wnh sharp, i^yrarnitlal warts. Taste 
pleasant, sweet and nutty .. .. .. .. 9. A. iX'rtBOPHvLLA 



Willi?;., The Ai^orttacMc cr "CifU^ Fintf)!" 

[Vfot. Not. 
Vi»l. L. 

(a) Cup greyish-hrown, covered with pale, flat, 

mealy scales. Taste agreeable, nutty .... 10. A. SPi:iSA 

(a) Cap white or yellowish, covered with large, 
irregulFir, ineafy patches. Taste exceedingly 
strong and unpleasant , il, A. MaI'Pa 

R, Stein withoiit at^y ba^ai cup or voWa, or absent. 

C. Cap distinct, and separating easily from the stem. 

D. Spores white ..... LEPIOTA 

(a) Cap bearing dafk, overlapping scales; ring 
movable on the stem. 

(b) Cap large (3" to 12"). Ilattened, with large, 
coarse scales; stem thick, becoming reddish 

when bruised .. -. ,. . ^ .. 12. L. RitA^fflins 

(b) Cap medium sized (I" to 3*"), conical, 

pointed, with fine, dark scaJes ; stem slender. 

not reddetung when bruised 13. Lv gracilhnta 

(a) Cap small (up to 2''), flaltcm.Ml white, beset 

wilh glistening meal or bcroming smooth; 

ring delicate- inseparable from the stem . 14 L. (^arvaknu- 


D. Spores brown or purplish ,. .. ....••- PSAI./OTA 

(a) Cap and stem stout, thick, the former round 
or flattened and usually silky-white. Grow- 
in rich pastures. 

(b) Cap typically large (4" to 12"), rounded 
like a loaf of bread; white, becoming yellow 
from the centre ; stem with a large, thick» 

permanent, double-layered ring 15. P. ARVcrrsfS 

(b) Cap medium sized (usually about 4" Avidc), 
broadly convex, white or reddish. Stem 

with a snial1» thin ring which soon falls 

away 16. P. CAMPCSIIU& 

(a) Cap and stem thin, fragile; the formef 
usually pointed and covered with reddish- 
brown Scales. fjrowing in wOuds and 
amongst forc-it dchris 17. P, stVffijiCA 

C. Cap and stem confiuem, not easily breaking apart, 
or stem absent 

■D. Stem bearing a definite ring 

E. Spores white -.."-. ARMILLARIA 

Cap yc Uow-brown, covered with smi*ll. hairy 
scale.v Gills running slightly along the 
olivaceous, downy stem . , .... 18. A. Mes-tEA 

£- Spores yellowish or rusty-brown PHOLIOTA 

(a) Growing in colonies on or against wriftd. 

* Cap large* bright ^gotden-brown, covered 

witfi iimaie, fibrous scales. Taste bitter • ~ 39. P, SJ^ECtAtiidS 

(a) Solitary, amongst moss, Cstp very small, 

tan colored, covered with minute, shining 

granules. Taste mild 20. P. pumila 

E. Spores dark purplisVbrown .. .. .. STROPHARIA 

Growing on dung. Cap hemispherical, then 
expanded, smooth, at first slimy, creamy 

yellow . . - . - . . , , , 21. S- SEMIGLOBAT'^ 

D. Stem without a ring, or absent. 



Wiij.if;. The A^oricarrOi^ or "GiUcd FuU'/i'*. 


E. Gills covered until mature by a membranous or 
vveb-Iike cortina or veil, which is distinct from the 
cap. Stem fleshy, usually bearing remnants of the 
veil. Spores rusn'-brown ._ . CORTINARlUi 

(a) Plant wholly reddish and dry. 

(b) Cap about IV' broad, iu>ually flattened, 
dark blood-red. Often frrowinf? amongst 

moss ., 2^. C, SANcumEUS 

(b) Cap usually more than H" broad, typically 
pointed, bright scarlet-red. Growing 

fallen leaves 23. C. ccnkabar- 


(a) Plant not reddish. Cap dry, sillo'. cinnamon- 
brown or greenish; gills and stem shining 
ycUow 24. C- ciNNA- 

(a) Plant at first ver>'^ slimy. Cap bright 

violet-purple, becoming blue or browmtsh; 

stem similar, stout and bulbous 25, C. Archkri 

E. Gills unprotected at maturity by a veil, ahitost 
naked trom the first Spores variously rofore^i. 

F. Plants soft, at length decaying, never reviNrmg 

when moistened* Spores variously colored. 

G. Cap .ind stem smooth and tliick, with ngid, iTiilky 
flesh, which is brittle like tliat oi a carrot, the 
cap o[tcM depressed at the centre. Spores while 
or pale yellow- 

H. Flesh and gills appearing dry or watery when 

cut or bruised -■ KUSSUL-V 

(a) Op at first slimy; g^ills whitish; taste hot 
and pi^ppery. 

(b) Cap yellosvisli. with pleated nriafgin, and 

strong ranctd smell 26. R. i-'oetkns 

(b) Cap bright crimson-red, with a smooth, even 

niargin and faint stnell 27. R. emetica 

(a) Cap dry, purplish or red; gills pale yellow; 

taste mild 28. R, Maktac 

H. Flesh and gills exuding a copious while or 

coloured milk wheii cut or bruised . .. .- I-ACTARIUS 

(a) Cap, stem and milk white, with hot and 

peppery taste 29. ^r, rirERA^VS 

(a) Cap, stem and milk orange, the cap zomid^ 
and spotted with darker reddish markings ;' 
taste mild. Always growing under pine 
trees . .W. L. uKUCiosuiJ 

G. Cap and stem never with rif^id, milky flesh, wliich 
breaks readily like tiiat of a carrot. 

H. Stem attached centrally under the cap. 

I. Sietn fleshy, usually fibrillosc and of the same con- 
sistency as the cap. 

J. Gills usually sinuate (i.e.. curving upwards to 
meet the sten>-~somettines almost free irom the 
stem and forming a depression around it)- 


WiLLrs, The Agnyk<\(^a\i or ^'Giflcd fimfji' 

Vii't Nat. 
. Vol. L- 

K. Spores white , . 

Cap large yellow, thickly covered with 
pnfplir4i-red, downy scales. Qi\h waxy. 
bright yftUow. Growiufi on atid about pine 
stumps ., r -. 

K Spores purpIc-brown .. .. .. .. .. 

Cap smooth, dry, pale oi'ai\gr>yctlDw. Gills 

sulphiir-yellow or greeuJsh. GrowinE usually 

ill dense clustets on and about decaying wood 

?. Gills usually decurrent (i.e., turning down and 

running along the stem as narrow wings), 
K. Spores white. 
L. GiH«i waxy, usually tliick and wide apart. Often 

growing aniong:st moss or damp grass 

(a) Cap small, delicate, frag^ile, without a veil; 
rather i^Iimy when moist, but clear and 
sliiuing when dry; scarlet-red, wi?h slightly 
decurrent, yellowish gills 

(a) As for the above, but the cap not colored 
red and the gills deeply decurreiit. 

(b) The whole plant with rosy-lilac coloration 

(b) Or.mge-ycllow, bleaching when old; "btiltcry 

to the touch _..._...,..,- 

(h) Ivory-white and shining, firm and dry . , . . 
L- GiUs fleshy, soon becoming powdered with a 

whitish meal, thick and distant 

Cap and gills bright salmon-pink, or fl^^h- 
colored, the former bleaching rapidly when 

dry . . , - . ...... 

I- Gills neither waxy nor mealy, often rather thin 

and watery . . . , - . ■ . 

(a) Growing in woodij. and pastures. Cap dirty 
white -to smoky brown. Rattened or 
depressed, often irregular in outline, emitting 

a strong sickly odour 

Ca) Growing on logs, t'allen wood and bark. 
Cap doll ivory-white, llatlened or depressed 
and irregularly crenulated (margin divided 
into lobes), with an odour of d-inip meal -- 

K. Spores rusly-browu 

(a) Cap 'dimy. buff yellow to tawny, smooth, 
bearing fragments of a whitish, web-like 
veil ; gills cinnanom-huff ; taste insipid ; 
growing on burnt ground or charcoal heaps 
(a) Cap dry. goUleii-brown, covered with smaK. 
itir^te. downy scales; gills golden to cinna- 
mon; lastc bitter; growing on fallen wood, 
chips and bark, especially that of conifers . - 
I. Stem rigid, orcen polished; leathery, cartilaginous 
or Juicy — never fleshy, and differing in consistency 
from the cap. 
). Gills adnate (meeting tiic stem at right angles} 
or sinaate (curving upwards) . 

K. Margin of the cap at first mcurvcd (curling undftf 
^nd often exceeding the gills), lh<? vvhole usually 


31. T. aLtraAw.-; 




53. II. MlNtiVTJS 

J4 H. LLEWftl.- 
35 H cERAcrtjs 





3fi. C- i*AftAt>ITOPA 



40. F. CAHHONAklA 

4(. r, §<sprj«?A 

1934 J 

WuLis. TUc AgarkaccfM^ or "GUM hwtgi' 


L. Spores white. COLLYBIA 

(a) Sititi stotit, smooth, wilJi prominent stria- 
tians. (irowing nn the. grouild. 

Cb) Cap at first slimy, olive-browa or darker; 
^'\[h iibining white, rather thick, widely 
spafCfJ , -^t^m uniform, tall, triise, with a Joiig 
tail-like root ■- 42. C hauicata 

(b) Cap at iiryt soapy to the toiidi, then dry. 
reddish-brown ; gills white, thm, crowded; 
stem sponev. with a. hollow, inuch swollen 

base . . 4X C. RUtvRACFJ^ 

(a) Stem thin, ttidgh, densely velvet}', umber to 
hlackish : cap yeJlow, at first slimy, then 
smooth; gilJb paW yelloWy thui, crowded- 
Growing on dead wood, especially oi 
i Acacias ^ . . , 44. C. velutipes 

(ft) Stem thin aud smooth; cap small, pitch 
bltldc And :Th!]:inR ; ^il)-> whitish, br-tomii)g* 
dark grey. Growing on burnt soil and 
charcoal heaps ,,.,,... .,45. C. ambusta 

L. Spijres pink I.F.PTONIA 

Cap and stem delicate, silky, steely-grey 
with a bluiih or violtit tinge; gilJa whitish 
then rosy . . . - . . . - - , , - . . , . - . , . - - 46- L- i-AMPitOPus 

1-, Spores rufty -brown K A.UCORI A 

C.ap less than 1" broad, dark browii densely 

covered wUh brownish, woolly scaks. Crow- 

inR on falkn sticks, lo^^s, grass, etc, . . 47. N. sj-Hakia 

L. Spores purfilish-browti FSILOCYBE 

Ca.p smooth, olive-brown al first bearing 
the blai-k'ish, web-like, marginal iragments 
oi a veil. Gills simiate, greyish. Slem 
usually long and slender, silky, and blotched 
with a blue or greenish coktration 4R. P- subaerug- 


r.. Spores blade .. ,. PANAEOL.US 

Cap do'f coniral, j^reyish-hroWn the surface 
cracked into shining, flattened scales. Stem 
stiff, i^lendCTj pinkish above- Orowiu^ on 
dung, especially that of horses 49. P. papilion- 


K. Margiei of cap at first straight and pressed against 
the stem, the whole usually delicate and peUucid. 

L- Spores white MYCENA 

(a) Cap and gills brightly colored, the latter 
not changing color with age. 

(b) Cap and stem rather large, lilac or rosy- 
grey; smell and taste strongly of radish. 
Growing in pastures, in woods or under 

pines 50. M. PURa 

(h3 Cap small on a thm, slender stem, the whole 
bright scarlct-rcd. Growing on f^lhm Icayts, 
twigs and on pme cone-s ,^ .. -- 51. M. coccinea 

(h) Op and stem o£ medium size, delicate, 
grass-green. Growing m mountain guDics 
on iree-ftrti trunks and mossy rocks .. .. 52. M. flavo- 



Wirxis, The Atjarkaccac or *'GitUd Fuuf/T', 

rVfck. KmU 

(3) Cap 'greyish-brown or white, conical, 
■rtpaque; gills white, nujnerous, soon becom- 
Iiig ^tty or reddish. Growing in dense 
colonic.^ on oM stumps and logs .-.,.... $3* ,M. oalericu- 


(a) Cap rrtiniitf' (iess than ^" broad), white^ 

tender; stem smooth, fihform and comparati- 
vely very \oiig; gills few, wliite. not chan?- 

inj; color. Growing in dense colonies liti 

dead leaves and fallen twigs 54, M, camllaris 

L Spor-ss pink NOLANEA 

Ca\j up to 2" wide, broadJy bell- shaped ui* 

expanded, with a Bmall central projp.ctfan or 

umbo, smooth, pellucid, cinnamon-brown or 

sooty. Gills dirty white then flesh colored. 

Crawinf; in pastures ,. - .. . 55 N. paph.(.ata 

I.. Spores ni>ty-l>roivn .^- . _ , - . . GALERA 

(a) Growing in ridi 5oil in pastures or along 

roadsides. Cap V' to 1" broad, conir^I, 

smooth, brown, paling when dry; stem sittit 

long and narrow , 56, G- TtltEBA 

(a) Growing amongst moss. Cap small (abciut 

y broad), bell-shaped, often with a small 

umbo, smooth, yellow-brown: stem taw^y, 

slender, often slightly flexuose 57- C HYPNOftUM 

L. Spores bfack PSATHYKELLA 

Cap .small, greyish or ycllowifih, fincty 

pleated and covered at first with a sparkling 

scurf; stem delicate, white and .sillcy. Grow- 
ing in denc.e colonies on moi^t groundi old 

stumps, etc. .. , 58. P^oisskminata 

y Gills deonrreiu (runnioR down the stem as narrow 
wings). Cap usiiaUy more or less funtxeI-shapt«J. 

Spores white ... O^iPHALlA 

(a) Cap small (about i" broad), top-shaped, 

pale orangre-yellow, supported on a long 

slender stem and rcaemblmg a miniature 

parachute; gilts white, Growiug usually 

amongst moss .,.,......- 59. O. FiavtA 

(a) Cap I" to 1" broad, funnel-shaped, bright 

orangc-yelkiw or sometimes brownish; iiteni 

coniparitivfJy short; gills thick, orange, 

often connected by vein?. Growing in 

pastures, open heaths, on burnt or manured 

soil, etc. . 60 O. FrBUtorpF^ 

K. Stem excentric, lateral or wanting, never plaCtd 
centrally under the cap. 

I. Spores white , .,-... .. PLEURO'^L'S 

(a) Cnp larfie. smooth, white, shading inlo 

yellow, brown or purpikh tints; stem toug'h, 

usually exccntric. Growing in large clusters 

at the bases of stumps and tree trunks, and 

strongly luminous in the dark , .... . 6t. P. NfoitORMis 
(a) Cap about 2" broad, hn^cel to j^rcyish-brown, 

Smooth and flossy; stem definitely laleial. 

the whole spoon-shaped and sheU-likc. 

Growing against stumps, but non-luminous 

in the dark .. .. .. .. .. .. 62. P. ?ETACon>ES 

WiLLlBj 'J'hc A^^nCGCeao or ^'Gitled Fuiiffi". 


L Spores pink CLAUDOPUS 

Cap less than 1" broad, white, delicately 
woolly ; stem shorl and usual^ obliterated. 
Growing on dead branches^ moist sticks, 
bark, etc ,. - ^ .. 63, C. v.artabilis 

J. SpOfes rusty-browii .. .. .. .. .. - •• CREPFDOTUS 

{a^ Cap usually more than 1" broad, pale 

colored, ratlier thick, softly fleshy and 

minutely woolly Stem practically absent 
(b) Cap dry, pale ye!low-brown, overlapping 

the brownish gilU. Growing .a)wayE on the 

Inniks of living^ eucalypis, es(>ecially Grey 

Box (/:'. hctniphioi<i) and Swamp Gum 

(£. ovafa) - -- .. 64- C. EUCALvr- 


(b) Cap limp and watery, creamy-white ; gills 

at first white, then pinkhh-erey. GTOwing" 

ci!i fallen branches, old logs, etc .. .. .. 55. C. mollis 

(a) Cap usuaUy Ics? than 1" broad, thin aitd 

somewhat leathery, smooth, reddish-brown 

or tan colored ; stem ^hori, white, woolly ; 

gills cinnamon-brown. Growing on decaying 

wood. bark, etc ... .. ., -- ,. 6$. JC.subhaustel- 

F. Plants membranous or leathery, toiigti iiid reviving 

when moistened. Spore's white, 

G. C-ap mcmbraJious, smooth or velvety. Stem 

central (very rarely absent). Gills numerous .. MARASMIUS 

Cap about 1" broad, reddish-brown or fawn 
colored, becoming pale, che margin at fit'^t 
incurved; stem dark reddish-brown, h.orny, 
tough and shimng, becoming delicately 
powdered when dry, white and hairy at the 
base .- .. .- 67 M. jirvthropvx 

G. Cap almost leathcjy. often haio'. Stem rarety 
central, ■usually lateral or absent- 

H. Gills splitting longitudinally along the edges, 
which curJ outwards. Cap fan-shaped, covered 
with white oi grcvibh, downy fibrils. Stem absent. 

Growing on dead timber SCH120PHYLLUM 

(One species only) ., .. .. » 68. S. commuk£ 

H. Gills never splitting. 

I. Cap fleshy-leathery; gills soft, numerous .. ,. .^ t- ,. ^' PANUS 
Cap about 1" broad, kidney-shaped,, cinna- 
mon, paling to almost white, at firit slightly 
ineaiy- Stem lateral. Gills ciimamon, 
Ciu-iously sdcky. Taste astringent. Growing 
on dead wood 69. P. stiptjcus 

r. JCap very thin, membranous-leathery; gills shallow, 

distant, very few in number .. . .. XEROTUS 

Cap stemless, i'' to X" broad, smooth, 
reddish-tan, paUng with age ; gills very few^ 
fold-like and interspersed with large veins, 
pale brown. Growing on fallen brani:h-woi:>d 
and sticks .. .. ., 70. X- .ARcircRi 

(Arranged j« accordunce ivith Key.) 

COPRINUS (Greek, Kof^ros, "dung'*)- 

K genus of fl^^by agarics, growing us'jially on manure, t)Ut 
soen^tim^^ on v^ooci or in tlie ground. Cap regular, o[ten covered 
with mealy scales; stem slender, white and liollow. Ciils usually 
(rcc from the -stem, and becoming auto-digested from beneath 
(i.e.. soon dissolving away as a dark liquid, from the edyes 
inwards), Spores black or blackish. 

1. COPRINUS COMATUS. Often called "Inky Cap", this 
iungus is a frequent species on manure heaps .^nd in rich-soiled 
pastures. Ic is -conspicuous on acconnt of its large si^e atid is 
disdn^ixhed horn others of rhe genus by havirig a thin. mov^iWe 
annulus or "ring" on the stem (sec under Metrana, No. 8. for 
explanation of the "ring" iound in many agarics^ and a long 
cylindrical cap (2fn •6in. high) covered wiih white, shaggy scales. 
The apex of^the cap is smooth, unbroken, and ochrey in color. 
Appearing usuall)^ in autumn, C- comaUis is edible with a mild 
and pleasant Havour, though the odour when fre^h is Fauitly 
sMggestive of pigs. At matiirity (olTen reached in 24 hours) the 
cap becomes torn at the margin and blackish in color, hence the 
popular name of "Inky Cap". (Phtc KlJiL)- 

2. COPRINUS NIVEUS. Occurs alrnost entirety on horse 
droppings^ and, as the specific name indicates, is pno%vy white — 
from a thick vestitm*^ of mraly scales. The cap is cylindric, but 
much smaller than in C. comaf.m\ from wliich the species also 
differs in having a thin, scurfy stem, without any ring. 

3. COPRINUS* MICACEUS. This species has a varied 
habitat, formini;' colonies in pastures, forest land, along roadsides 
or abonc buried fragments of wood The cap is pale grey or 
yellowish In colour, very delicate, and deeply fluted, .splitting at 
the margm when mature ; it is covered at first with glistening 
nnca-like granules (which serve to distinguish this C(?l>yinus from 
other species) but later becomes naked. 

BOLBITIUS (Greek. tJolOiton. "cow dung'*). 

Growing on manure or manured soil and related to CopriniiS. 
but having rusty-brown spores. The genuii mdudes delicate, 
fleshy fungi, which either rapidly putresce or shrivel to a papery 
consistency. Gills nearly or quite free from the stem, which is 
typically tall and slender, 

4. BOLBITlLiS FRAGlLlS. May be searched for on 
manured ground along roadsides or in pastures during rainy 
v;?acher. The cap is up to 1 in. broad, paraboloid or bell-shaped. 


Plate XLIII 

April, 1934 

Coprinus camotus^ " Inky Cap '* 


i9;u, J, The .hnu'lcarcac or "GiUcd Fumii 

olive yellow and at first slimy, but later hecomin<( drv and smooth: 
it is poised on a long slender stem which is pale yellow in color 
and very fragile. In consequence of its thin watery flesh. 
B. fragifis is quite pellucid when held u]) to the light — ^any fungus 
which, when moist, allows light to pass through it is said to be 

AMANITOPSIS {Amanita, a large genus of agarics -f Greek, 
opsis. 'like"). 

A small genus of white-spored, fleshy and terrestrial agarics, 
belonging to the section VOLVAE, i.e.. with a volva or fleshy cup 
ensheathing the base of the stem. Ring absent, gills free or 
adnate, and the cap usually bearing a few irregular mealy scales 
— remains of the volva which at first com])letely encircles the 
young sporophore. 

5. AMANITOPSIS PULCHELLUS. This fungus, plentiful 
throughout Victoria after early spring rains, prol)ably is restricted 
in distribution to the Commonwealth. The small vermilion or 
yellow caps, clad with paler, flattened wart.s, are bright and con- 
spicuous objects among fallen leaves and twigs on the forest 
floor. The caps have a smooth or finely striated margin, the 
gills are while and crowded, while the white stem (about v3in. 
long) is ensheathefl at its base by a i)rominent. adnate cup. edged 
with yellow. 

6. AMANITOPSIS VAGINATA. A cosmopolitan species, 
which differs in many respects from the preceding. It is a tall 
plant (up to 6in.). varying in color from mouse grey to tan. The 
volva is loose with free margin, the stem beautifully flecked with 
grey, the gills greyish, and the cap covered with irregular mealy 
patches. ])ut the feature most sharply differentiating A. vaginata 
from its congeners is the margin of the cap, furrowed by deep 
striations. This species is also edible, having a sweetish, pleasant 

VOLVARIA (Latin, Woha. "a wrapper"). 

Similar in every respect to Amaniiopsis, but having pink spores. 

7. VOLVARIA SPECK )SA. A connnon toadstool, favoring 
roadsides and grassy paddocks where manure is present. The 
long, firm stem is attenuated u])wards, supporting a broadly conical 
cap which is also uml)onate (i.e.. with a rounded, central projec- 
tion or "umbo") ; the surface is whitish, pink or silvery grey in 
color, slightly viscid at first, but afterwards dry and polished. 
Gills thin, crowclerl. white then flesh colored : volva white, free. 
torn; odour and taste rank, but species is said to be edible. 

METRARIA (Greek. Mctra. "uterus"). 

Presunialily a mont)typic genus, confined to Australia. It 



W'u-i !s. Tiif .hHnit'tii't'tit* or "'irtth'd I'mujt", 

V'icl. Nal. 
Vol. L. 

.-hiuinita ochropliylla 

rescml)les .linanitopsis closely, hiU has a well-defined ring on the 
stem and pink sp(ji"es. 

Agarics with fleshy stems hearing rings helong to the section 
ANN ULAE. The ring itself originates from a protective, veil- 
like memhrane. which in yotmg plants is stretched across the 

Wi!] Willis, The AQOrkafim or "Gifhd Fmoi" 2?7 

gilU from the edge of the cap to the 4,tcm; as the cap ex|3andb. 
thk metubranc brcaVs avvay legubily, leaving a rjrcular flange 
(**thti ring") around the s!em and a few torn frajjinents adhering 
to the margin ol the cap. Rings so formed may Lm: fixed (i.e.i 
fused with rhc suKstanc^. of the siom) or Jiiovxtbic (i.e., distinct 
from i\\^ stem and capable of slipping: alon^ it). 

8. MblRAlUA INSIGNTS. A rare tiingns. which occasion- 
ally appears on Victtiriau forest land ntter heavy rams in sumnict- 
tinje; it is particularly handsome, as suggested by the specific 
name. Except for Uie pale pink gills ?ind a slij^jht hiowuish 
coloration at Ihc oenljc of the cap. the plant is wholly white and 
shining. A lax and spongy volva encloses ihc swollen hasal 
portion of the stem, which l>cars A 5jnall, pendulous, f>ncty striated 
riris^. i'he cap 3& clothed in siuall white pyramidal waris whioii 
eventually fall away and exhales a dehcaie perfume, not unlike 
thai of roses. 

AMANITA (Probably from Mount An\m%H.t m Cilida). 

Similar morphoLogK-ally to MHrorio, but wetli while spores. A 
Reims embiacing many Wgbly poisonous fungi. 

9. AMANITA OCHROrHYU.A. The mo<t eonspfcui^us 
of ir.s genus in VicLur»a, being' alijo afmadani in forest and scrub- 
land throufrhoiit the State; looiic, friable soil, capped by a debris 
of fallen ]e;ive.v and twJ^b, foriUi an ideal habiUit, The whole 
plant is creamy or ochre colored, and often artains large &izc — 
spccimcjis 32in. in diameter, with stems and 'z^jjs 2in. or 3in. thick 
are cunimon. A. odirophyUa r^rsembles a g're.y Rpecies. A. 
Strol>iiifor^fi^f'^'. of Kurope and ^'Vinerica, in having its cap at 
6rst often covered with large, acute, pyramidal warci, by whirii 
ii is easily recogrni/.ed in the field ; generally the wart3 fall away 
at maturity. The odour and taste are sweet and suggestive of 
Br^azil tint, and the species is said lo be edible. h-gK^ of a hronze- 
colured fly arc laid persistently jn young fruiting bodies, and n is 
exceptional to find a matured plant in tijc fcekl whicli is not riddliid 
with m'lgg^otJi , sfMnetimes a btem is bO completely ealai through' 
at the base that it collapses. This is not the only lungus corn- 
monly attacked by insect larv;e. ivlany species t»f Atminila hceome 
"w(^rmy" in the adult stage, while eeitain orher fung^i have made 
u.sfe of insect visitations to secure Uie dispersal of their spores- 
Of such are the Fhalloids— a remarkable group oi plants which 
a-si-ume many strangeiy fanlasttc sli^vpes, often resembling highly 
organised flowers. Phalloids arc mainly tropica! lungi. and, what- 
ever ?he design or colour, all have in common u rank and foetid 
odour; this serves to attract flies, which ea|^;"prly snek up the evil- 
smelling surface iriucilage containing jnany thousands of tmy 
spores. PIcurohtA ni4i.fonun; which will be described laler (>fn. 
61) displays yet another priobable method of spore disseniit^aliocj 


Wjti.iS, Tin? ylf)nvit'iu^cc or "GiHctl Fmtsi'^ 

L Vol. L. 

by insccla. It\ this instance, the iiuxgi liiive the power a( emitting 

a greenish 'ighr. which entices night-Hying insects to feast nn ♦>!? 

>pr)re-b<?ar(ng siir(ac<:s. and so carry away the spores in enortnotis 

qttJiUitics. (Fjg, 2.) 

This also is a very conimon 
species ill Victoria, appear- 
iii.iT usiKiHy after rains in the 
w«irmer vvciilher. The ex- 
panded cap ih rarely more 
than 4in. broad, is grey or 
smoky-brown in color and 
smooth, except for a few 
Hat, pa!e<orored warts or 
mfaly patches of the volva, 
whicli may |x;ri>ial. The 
volva of A. spissa is indis- 
tinct and friable, the ring 
large, \vhite and striated 
and the ta5te pleasant. Al- 
though this and other kinds 
of A^namta are reputed to 
be edible, one cannot exer- 
cise too much cautinn — 
dealh has often follo\ved a 
inisdelcrtniriatron of species, 
ui\d tlie i^afcht rule 5s to 
shnn ail toadstools which 
possess a vulvn- ( Fi^- •^)- 

IL AMANITA MAPPA. Though harmless \r) appearanv^e, 
this, species inay he branded as definitely poisotlons and is one of 
the most evil-smelling *ind vile-fasting agarics that exist ; the 
foetid, somewhat nitric odonr resembles that of decaying turnips; 
the fungus tastes even wor^e, and no one would care to eat il! 
A slender 5.tem carries the rather thtn cap. be^ct with lar^fj mealy 
frr^menls of the vnlva which in yoiini^ ^.pecimens also droop in 
ribbons from the margm. Volva and rin^ arc mealy and lax. 
The whole Eun^is is white, becomiiic; stained with yellow; it 
favours vich Noil^ under th? leaf mnuld in .sheltered guHie.*^ and is 
rather uncommon in Victoria. 

LEFfOTA (Greek, Upis. "a srgle*' + ous. ''an car^'). 

Fkshy, white-spored agarics, having a cat> distinct and separable 
(roiu the stem, which bears a defitiite ring, but no basal cijp or 
volva. Spcci<is of this genus are edible, almost without exception. 

12. LEPIOTA RHACODES. This species may be looked 
for in grassy i?J«iC<^s und^r trees^ especially planted conjCers, where 


Plate XLIV 

April, 1934 

Lepioia gracilenta^ " Parasol Fungus '' 

the large, while caps (oiieti a foot broad) form cxtenMve colonics. 
Each cap iS thick and permaiicnily covered with lai>je I'-'iggcd, 
yelliiwiah Aiialt-N, which soun heeome dark hrnwn. Stems ol 
L. rhacodcr* usually are S(]uat a«irl ver,^ hulhous At th^ l>a$C; th<r 
ring is while or L>row'pi>h an»l thi<*U; the grills whire, crowded and 
fi'ee. A Tuarked peculiarity of this species is the red coloration 
assumed by the flesh whc/i braised or expc^ed to the aii . 
L. rho<ofics has <i niilj, pleasant flavoiii*. ynd, when cooked, makes 
an exccDant dish. 

13 LEPIOl'A GRACILKNIA. Growi on moist flats, n\ 
glassy <tel!s and alonj^ th^ fidges of .srream:5. ]\ appears after Ihe 
lirsi good rains \n autumn, and has been caJled **Parasol Fung:u5** 
— an appropriate i»aii»<:, fi^ug^ested by ibe broadly corical. un>bOMak 
cap, the long, sleiuk-r sLcni and delicate. nu3vabl«J img. Thia 
species differs from the preceding in its smaller size (np to 3ui. 
broad), slender halvit an<I conical c;ip. which is densely bei^'t with 
sniiall brownish or rufcacenc scales. Also e?JihIe with a pleasant 
flavotn- (RsreXJJV) 

14. LtnOT.A rARVAN'NULATA. A =,ni?.ll. eleg^Lnt species, 
fjuire common in ihe fern guUies nniong our hills, where it occurs 
almost tliiDughout the year. Cap at first brownish and slightly- 
viscid when moist, but soon losing the thin sinface layer and 
beconinig pure while (smoodi or with glistening mealy fibrils), 
hygrophanon;? and delirately st>*iated. Siem and ux\^ also whif^> 
(he kulcr fixcd. 

FSALlOTA (Greek. Psdioi}, '\i ring"). 

This is rbe genu? ot true **miishronniA*'. differing from Lcpioia 

only in the; coloni' uf trs spores, which are purplish -brown. 

15. PSALIOTA ARVENSIS. The ''Horse Mushroom", at 
once distinguished by its large, silvery-whire cap (4in.-12in. broad), 
which is rounded like a Jonf of bread and usually stained with 
yellow. The siout. bulbous stem bears a large white ring, -fon-ni^l 
of two distinct layers, ihc outer ox^t cracking^ ii)to .scales. Gills ar<! 
at firtii white, then rtddibh-bruwji ; udour resembling fresh meal; 
taste sweet and pleasant, the iuugus being quite a good ntilrieni- 
P. tirusnsn.% ig common in padilocks. and also under trees, 
where ir.s fruiting bodies SMMiietimes grow to :orm the q\iaint 
'*fairy rings", ^o often mentioned in 5^tory hooks for children. 

16. PSALIOT.\ CAMPKSTRJS. Owing to \t> excellent 
taste and long-standinE; popi.ilarity as a Cable deJicacy, this is by 
far the best known of all fungi; our common field mushroom, 
found in eveiy pari of the world. Ic is a most variable plant, the 
flaltcne^l or convex cap. ranging from smooth and silvery white 
lo scaly and reddish-brown in color. Usually ic h much smaller 
than P. orvrn^rs. dcpartirAg fnrlhcr ficni3 tliat species in llic small, 

28(1 VVrLUS- The Atjoncacedc or "CifM f'nn0". [^vV^L.'' 

ihin rnig^, which usually falls away at maturity. The giUi are 
inttifllly white, soosi taking on a beautify] pink tint, and tjccotning 
finally chocolate coloured. Grassy paddocks (more xarely woods) 
M\ autumn are the visual habitat. Gut ^porophorcs can be rai?.ed 
sticcessEully i>ti manure by artificial jueyns. (They arc grown 
commercially in ca^ves. tunnels, etc., in Enffland a«d on the 

17. PSALIOTA. SYLVATICA. The "Wood Mn^hroom" is 
not unoDmmon in iorests and imdcr pine trees. It diiifers from 
fht two preceding species in having a Ihin fragile stem and cap, 
the latcer usually pointed and clad with>rown or coppery 
scales. It is. edible. 

ARMILLARIA (Latin, ApmUla. "a ring'O- 

Cap and stem fleshy bat not easily separable. Ring present. 
Spores white. Fungi growing either in the ground or on wood. 

18 ARMILLARJA MFXLEA. The "Honey Fungus". 
deriv-es ifa name hum the color of the cap which, as a general 
rule, approximates to the clear yellow-brown of a garden honey. 
The name can certainly not allude to ta?.te, for, akhowgh edible. 
A. melfea possesses an acrid fiavour, which is anything: but agree- 
able — edibiHcy does not always imply palatabilityt Perhaps no 
agaric is so variable m color or shape as this species; numerous 
varieties arc described, having white, cream, golden, grey, reddish 
or green caps, from an inch to as much as one foot in breadth. 
Most forms have a cap covered with delicate, brownish scale;?, a 
prominent white ring below which the stem is clad in downy, 
olive scales, and flebh colored gilli:. running slightly alont^ the 
5tem- A. nielha is very common in Europe, and has earned the 
reputation of a timber pest. Ckisters of fruitmg; bodies usually 
are seen growing on old logs and about rotten stumps in the 
foreit. buc occasionally valuable trees in orchards, parks osr planta- 
tions are attacked by the fungus, when rapid decay se^s in until 
rhe host plan: succumbs. Infection spreads to ail parts of a tree 
by cunous dark, toughened strand.s of iungsl tissue, which travel 
beneath the bark — ^thesc are called '"rhizomorpha". 

FHOLIOTA (Creek, Pholls, "a scale'^ — Ous, 'an ear*^. 
Similar to Armillaria, but having fU3ty-brown spores. 

19. PHOLIOTA SPECTABILIS. Another wood-destroying 
agaric, it is an rmpresi?ive sight at the ba^sc of stumps and diseased 
tre-es where the large, tawny fruiting bodies grow in dense clumps, 
Golden yellow is tlie perdominating color of stem. cap. gills and 
ring rn this species, in dry weather the caps, beanng small innate 
scales^ often, shine as if varnished. A strong, biiter flavour a*rt'aits 
anvrtne who ventures to taste P. sper.tabilis. (F^?- '^J 


11*;!*. J 

\\*n.i.i«;. The .iffariiaictti' or "CtiHcd fimtji" 


Fig. 4 
Pholiota spcctabilis 

20. PHOLIOTA rUMILA. This species contrasts with the 
precediiiL^^ in nearly every detail. It is a pij^^my plant, less than 
^in. broad. Inrkini; amonjj^st the dank moss which covers old lo^s 
in forests, or ^^rowinj^" on fallen leaves and twills, in moist 
situations. The tiny fragile caps are hell-like, ochrcy and sliininj,^. 
and the slender stem wears a creamy ring which, while minute, 
is movable and striking to the eye. 


W'lLLi.s. 'J'hc .-lyoiicaccae or "Gillal Uumji' . 

tVict. Nat, 
Vol. L. 

STROPHARIA (Greek. Sirophos, "a belt"). 

Of the same series as .Innillaria and Pholiota, having purple- 
brown spores. 

21. ST RO PH A R I A 
white or creamy yellow caps 
of this agaric are familiar 
objects on almost any lawn 
after a spell of showery 
weather ; manure provides 
the food for this species, 
which is also commonly 
found on horse-droppings 
by the roadside. The caps 
are lin. to 2in. broad, 
nearly hemispherical and 
perfectly smooth. Both cap 
and stem are slimy when 
wet. but they soon become 
dry and polished if ex- 
posed to sunlight. The gills 
are brownish, at length 
mottled with inky-black ; 
the ring is thin, white, and 
often incomplete. In taste, 
.S. scmiglobata may be lik- 
ened to fresh meal or maize 
seed, but it is of doubtful 
edibility. (Fig. 5). 

Cortina, "a veil"). 

The largest genus of 

agarics. (In England alone, 

more than 200 species 

forms which are notable 

Fig. 5 

Sirophana sciUKjlohalii 

are recorded.) It embraces many 
for their magnificent coloring — metallic purples, blues, greens, 
reds and yellows are all found among the Cortinars, besides every 
conceivable intermediate shade and hue. All species grow on the 
ground, have regular fleshy caps, fleshy stems, yellowish or rusty- 
brown spores, and gills j^rotected by a distinct membrane- or wel)- 
like veil, which persists as a circle of appressed remnants on the 
stem. This veil or '*cortina" is the chief diagnostic character of 
the genus Cortinarius. 

22, CORTINARIUS SANGUIXEUS. Wholly deep blood- 
red in color, this is a charming little plant in its usual setting of 
moss, on or about decayed wood in forests. The caps are 

j^"^^*] Witas, Tkc Aparicocfac or 'V^iUd Pungi'\ 2S3 

approximately liin. broad, talNr thin, and natlencd. On the 
stem Iri a circlet of fibrils marking t)ic point of atcachmenl of the 
red, cobwebby veil. The gills though ac firit red. boon have thdr 
color nuskcd by rU&ty-Lrown Irotn the inaLiirint; sporeti. A dark 
red juice exudes copiously from the plants, if thej-^ he ptcssed- 

23. CORTJNARrUS CrNNABARIKlTS. This cortinar is 
v^ry closdy iMated to the preceding, hut differs principaliy in it$ 
|j»Tger Mze. occurr*?nce on the ground among the httcr la^lling 
froiu irei^!^, aud in the paler sciirlei-red Cjolorarion. (Grt'clf. 
kistfuJbarK "dragons biood" ) Cap uvid stem are dry. smooih and 
shinijig, the former oiien somewhat pointed ajid thicker than in 
C. sangnineus. K<> juice exudes whfii tlic plant Is pie^stid 
(Hat^' A2, No. 6). 

tumrnOTiCfSt of Victori?.n Cortinar^. tUi^ ?«.pcciei displays a range 
of colour in the caps from deep reddish-browri throa>;h cinnamon 
(hence the name) to exfjuiaite bottle gK^en. A sillcy siieen 
intensities the beauty of the dry cap, while stem, gills and veil 
are bright yellow C. nmuwiomefts may be gatliercd ahiiost any- 
where in rimber^'d couniry during April -^ntl May. 

25. CORTINARIUS ARCHERl, A hand^me and briJliam 
fundus. It is nut uncOminoa during April in forest lands, where 
the purple or violet caps (2ij3. to 4in. broad) pubh up among 
decaying leaves. Cap, veil nnd bulbous stem are of the san>e 
bright colot and in early siages are excecdinj^ly siimy. The gills, 
iiuttally blue-grey, beciome tinted 3< lenp^lh with lusiy-brown. In 
mature and old spec>n?ens. the color fades lo a dull blue or even 
brown. Odour ratlier pronounced and suggcsiivc of new bread. 

RUSSULA (Latin, Russuius, "reddish"). 

, This and the following genus arc distmct from all other agarics 
in having rigid, milky flesh v/hich renders, the varinos specips 
brittle (like a carrot). Cap and stem re^gular. thick. fle;:hy 
Gills tree co decurrent and also brittlf;. Spore.*; while or yellowi.'^h' 
In Ktissuia the rtesh is dry or watery when brokei^. 

26. RUSSULA FOETE^vS. Once tasted, this fungus is not 
caoily forgotten, for the tiioagreeable burning s^^nsation produced 
in the mouth is hard to assuage. As the name implies, the plant 
IS also possc.'^sed oi a strong, unpleasant odour, rather suggestive 
of htirnt ruhher. Appearing in woods during Aucuum, die dingy 
yellow caps have each a deeply striated marjE^in and the rib? of 
the striations are curiously nodular. In wet wvather the cap is 
slightly viscid, the stem and giUr^ in R. fostens are white, beconv 
ing stained with dirty yellow 

27. RUSSULA KMETICA. Belonging ta the group of hot 
and acrid-iasLing species.ithis agaric has long been regarded as 
poisonous (Greek, Efiutikc, *'provokiitg sickness'*) . but some 

284 WiUTs. The A^i^riiry^eHe Of "GiUM Fmi^P 

L Vol U 

mycophagi-Sts state that it can be ^aten with impunity whun woll 
cooked. One can only say again that "Dtsirretion is the better 
part of valour." R, emeHca is a very bcautjfnl plant, the rosy 
to bloccI-reJ cap making a pleasing^ contrast with ils pinW or whitish 
sre)n and snow-white gills. Th« cap has a delicately srtiate^l 
ni<irgiii and is at first vjscul, bi?t later poUshcd and shining. 
(Piste XLII. No. 9.) 

28. RUSSDLA MARIAE. This is a name applied by several 
Students of mycol'^gy to a very common Victoriait fungus, but ih« 
species is not mentioned, &tranc;ely enough, in the works ot Cooke, 
Cavleton Riea, Crawshay and Riokcn. This species, occiirriiig^ 
in forest and fcrublaud, has a mild flavour an-i a dry cap. colored 
in huns of purple or lilac: it probably beari an sfflnity to the 
European R pinp-itrata, A small red variety occasionally is 
found: the gilb are always pale yellow. oUen wnh tlun b^o^^'T^ish 
ed^e$, and ehey sotnetimes run into each other near the »lem, 
whicb IS Dt a pmkish ccioi\ (Phte XT.TI. No. 11,) 

LACIARHJS (Utin. U^. ''milk'*) 

Closely rnJaied to Russula, but differing in the white oi colored 
milk, which exudes when the flesh is broken. Species arc usually 
funnel shaped with decurreut gills. 

29. LACTARIUS PfPERATUS Wholly white, this specks 
SMtigestis an ornament of polished ivory. The cap (2in. to 6in. 
broad) is smooth and {unnel-shaped, on a squat sten). The shortly 
decurretu gills when bruised exude a copious white milk which is 
exceedingly acrid and peppery to the caste. L. piperaft^ is to be 
sought in shaded. Icaiy sittiatiotis among the hills. 

30. LACrARlUS DEUCI0SU5. Appears only where pine 
trees 'AK grown, and the iungal threads probably enter into some 
mutually beneficial relationship with pine roots. The Spe^'ies is 
cvmmon in America, whence it has almost certainly been intro- 
duced to this country. The fruiting bodies arc large (4in. to I2in, 

wide), broadly funnel- 
shaped, and usually 
growing In exten.^ive 
co?om'cs. Orange -red 
\% the prcv?*i1ii)g color, 
wiUuones and blotches 
of darker brick-red. 
The stem is short and 
stout, the gills salmon- 
orange, and all parts 
ot* the huigns exude 
an orange milk rf 
bruised. At maturity 
the whole plant be- 
comes stained with 
dirty green. Though 
edible and highly 

Fig. p ^ 

Plate XLV 

Tricholonia ruiilans 

praised by some, /.. deHciosnj^ has an acrid taste which i^ appar- 
^ndy uniitiin'oved with cooking. (Fig. 6). 

TRICHOLOMA (Greek, r//n>. "hair" — Loww. "a fHnge"). 

A large genus of fleshy, white-sporcd agarics wuh regular cnp, 
central stem and usually siinml<^ gills. No volva, ring, nor distrnci 
veil is prcbtfilt 

31. TRICHOLOMA RUriLANS. A moM aifraclive. though 
poisonous, species, possessing a bitter tasto and fjTOwing about the 
bases of old stumps, particularly of conifers- The conveA caps 
are large and chickly fleshy; (heir yellow surface ujiour is ^ilniost 
hidden luider a dense covering of purplish-red. downy scales, 
while reddish hairs also cticirelp ihv tnargai. Stem stout and 
swollen, pale yellow and beset with snvill. graniilair, pui|)li$I) 
.scaJfs. The gills :ire rhtck, waxy, and rich golden-yeHow, so a5 
to belie the true spore coloration. 

HVFHOLOMA (Greek. Hyphe, "a web" + Urna. •'Cringe''), 

Similar to Tricholoma, but with purplish-brown spores, a web- 
hke veil and^ usually, clustered manner of growth, on or against 

:^2. HyPHOLOMA FASCTCULARE. Abundant all over 
Victoria, and easily recogni/.ed by its dense chjslers of yellow or 
orange-brown sporophores, thin species grows from the bases 
of stumps or on the ground aguiust fragments of decaying; wcMid. 
The caps are individually :imooth and somewhat pointed, their 
margins frequently carryi)ig remnai'its of a creamy, fibrous veil. 
Stems covered when young with whitish, mealy scales from die 
universal veil, then smooth. Gills of a typical sulphur-yellow or 
greenish color, very crosvded and thin Odour and taste strong, 
biUer, the ^species being probably poisonous. 

HYGROPHORUS (Greek, Hygros, "moist" -f- Pkcro, '1 bear**). 
A large genus of polymorphic species, having in cOniniOn <i 
regular fleshy cap, central stem, decurrenc and waxy gills and 
w/fcite spitres. The majoniy of forms are terrestrial, while many 
are delicate, fragile and watery plarUs 

33. ilVGROPHORUS MiNtATUS. Rivals any Cortinar 
\\x splendour of coloring. Its showy scarlet caps, peepi^ng [rem? 
beds of moss or dank grass, camiot fail to charm the eye of a 
nature lover who <'ombs the ground in moist pastures or heaths 
duruig early spnngiime It is a dny, [ragile plant (Ic;-'* thiui Htu 
broad), witliout distinctive odour and taste. The cap is striated, 
somewhat vl.s<'id wlien moist, and supported on a slender, silky, 
coneolorous stem, io wWch the flesh colored gills are veiy shortly 

2B6 WitLis. The Affdrlc&aac ot^ ''GiHcd P\m?\ [^Voi.^t!* 

34. HYGROPHORUS LLEWELLINAE. A species reveal- 
ing une of th« niosl unusttal and hcautiful colors Jo be seen in 
fungi. The whole plant (up to 2in high) is rosy-lilac, with paler 
gills, and ."=;tems tinted yellowish ai tlieir bases. \\^ firm, waxy 
gills are distant and deeply decurrent on the stem, which may li 
rather sinuotis. The species ts hardly common in Victoria, but 
sometimes \t appears late in autumn in considerable numbers, and 
then nearly always amon^' moist gnnss. (Plate XLIT, No. 1.) 

35. HYGROPHORUS CERACEUS. This agaric substanti- 
ates its L^tin name oF "waxy*. In iJ/e, sliape and habhat it 
approaches H. Liezveltinae, but the color is ofange-yellow. bleaching 
to nearly white m age. Frequently the caps grow in clusters on 
sinuous or distorted stems; they are snioolh. ntoist and buftery to 
the touch, with creani-ycllow. decurrcnt gills. (Plate XLII, Xo. 

.36. HYGROPHORUS CANDIDU5. (Latin, cttndidus, "shin- 
ing white"). One is reminded of some fairy pedestal in 
J&culplOretJ ivory on seeing H. candidus. From autumn onwards^ 
the plants may be nought in grassy pastures, and in the forest 
among fallen leaver, but the moat delightful j^etting: of all is a 
moss covered bank, overhung by dripping fein fronds. The plant 
is wholly white and dry. up to 3in. high by ^^in. to 2in. broad, with 
deeply decurreni gills and a mild, pleasant flavour. 

LACCARIA (Latin, Lac, "resinous excretion of the lac insect"). 

This smalK white-sporeH genus differs from Hygrophoms in 
having fleshy, not waxy, gills which soon become powdered with 
a whittsh inca!. The spores, viewed under a microscope, are 
rough with watts or spines (cf. smooth spores of Hygtophorus) 
and the stems are externally fibrous rather than fleshy. 

37. LACCARIA LACCATA. Practically cosmopolitan and a 
frequent agaric m Victoria after rains. The rufous or salmon 
pink caps (Jin. to 2in. broad), which rapidly tuin yellowish on 
drying, are to l>e found in forests, on heaths, or in scrublands; 
each is hygrophanous. somewhat depressed 3n<l often irregularly 
crisped. Stem re<I. fihrous, tough. GiUs adnate, flesh colored, 
then mealy-white. Odour and taste mild, the fungus being edible. 

CUTOCVBE (Greek, Kfitos, "a slope* — ATy?;*^, '*a head"). 

Close to Laccaria and Hygrophorus, and white-spored. The 
gills, however, arc neither waxy nor mealy; in many species they 
are thin, cjowded, rather watery, and typically dccurrent. Species 
cf Clitocybe sometimes approach CoUybia (stems cirtilagmous) 
or Tricholo^na (gills sinuate). 

38. CLITOCYBE PaRADITOPA. A plant of pastui*e field, 
pine grove and forest land, this is the common representative of its 

mV'] ' WttUS. Thfi Aqariciiccai^ cr -'Gifted pMgi".. 287 

Ijenus in Victoria. Frvibng bodies art unattractively colored — 
dmgy grey brown, bccuriting whitish injm the oeiitre when ilry — 
water^/. hygrophanous, lin. to 6iti. broad, often dcpresied and sonie- 
what irregular in outljne. Stem and ^ills are ashy whiJe. the 
latter Lruwderl ynd shortly decurrent. The whole pJfint has 
ti ;tr<jn;^. musiirooni-3ikc Uiste aod exliales a rank, sickly, rather 
pungent odour. 

39 CI ITOCYBF. EXCrNlRlCA. A dull ivory-whilc 
I'unpfijs, growing upon f.illen hranche;^, decaying logs. Or bark, in 
the fore£t. A somewhat distoncd stem is attached usually to an 
<ixve^^ric point .under the cap, which is flattened, hrc^ularty hbc^ 
and up to 4iu. wide; both cap and stein axe covered ai first with ;c 
fine, thin meal, but the tornier sooa sliines as it %tjrnl5hed. Gibs 
are thin, crowded, unequal ;ind broadly adnate Odoitr and taste 
pieasAiUly sweet, as of nieaL 

FLAMMU[.A (Latin. FhmmmU, "a little flainu')' 

A genui: of fleaiiy a^aries^ in the S:ime serve^^ ;is l-!yqr<f{>horHs 

and tliiocyhc, but having rur^.s^thvown sporps. 

40. FLAMMULACARBONARIA. The ipedfic name rctcrs 
to Ihe tact ihiit th^^ plant ^rows invariably on burn* ground or 
about ira^jmems ot charred wnod ; hence, it may be looked for 
after the rain.N that fglldw ;i biishhie The .gTeenish-yetiow or 
tawny cap.> i^i*e .smooth and a1 fir.*;t very slitny, their margins 
he;irm^ torn fragments of a white, tibriilose veil. Stem siJky- 
whire and also scaly at; gills cinnamon colored or paler, and 
adnate. Sporopbores oi F. ca-rhomiYicid.i't densly clustered, having 
a Sweet, almo^c fragrant odour and a mild, insipid taste. 

4L FLAMMUr.A SAPTNEA. Differs from the preceding, 
^ipecies. hi its dry. goidcn-broMai caps, yellow gills and strong 
astringent taste. The fruiting boditfS are otren iolitars\ growing 
on all manner of decayiug wood, especially that of conifers> and 
exhabug an odour that is mo;^t suggestive of pme-wood sawdust. 
A coveriufj of thin, liairy scales often adorns tile eap of /-. sapmea,, 
which is shiny towards the margin, but the veil is never manifest 
as with r . i(irb<?>mrui. 

COILVBIA (Greek. KoilyhoK, "a Ninall coin") 

ibe Iar^'e5.t geims in a seriti of agarics with regular, fleshy 
caps, differing '\r\ conststcncv from Ihc stems, which are central. 
rigid and oartilagimius. Margins at first incurved, exceeding 
the gills which arc sinuate to broadly vidnate. Spores white, rarely 

42. COLIA'BIA RADICAT.A. A ysirs stately plant, common 
throughout the world, in shaded pastures and woodlands The 
white> striated stem is tall and slender (oi'n. to )2in. high), parsing 

2m Wltlta, The A.cjancac^'oc c»- "GUM Fungi". [^V«l.*t.'^ 

beneath the ground into a lon^ uil-likc root, which has earriec! for 
C, rodicata the name of "Routing Shank". Pale olive, hister or 
bliick aic colors assumed by the MTUKith. convex or bossed cap 
(lin, to 3in. broad), which in damp weather is hityhly j^laUnous ; on 
dn'-ing, the cap usually bf'fomes wrinklefi. Gills arc thick, distarit, 
broadly adnate aiul clear shinitig-whitc -Thod^^h possessing a 
rcither insipid taste, C. radicala is claimed us an esculent .species. 

43. COF-l.VRfA TtUTVT^^CP.A. This species has two note- 
worthy characteristics — ^ wann, brown cup. which is ^vtt-py or 
'jrcasy to the touch, and a rniescent stem, promiuently dilated at 
the biise. The whole is iisually less than iin. high and 
broad, is perfectly smooth, and fitiurishes among Fallen Iwi^s and 
leaves or. occasionally, in loose .soil against an old stamp. In 
t huT),^racerf the gill-s ?,^e white, thin, nowded, and c-ilmout tree* 
At hrst the stems arc stuO'ed wiih a spongy tisane, hue cveulually 
they become hollowed 

44. COr.LYBlA VELUTIPES. Tke 'Velvet Fchu" is hkely to 
he tound anywhere iii Victoria where fallen timber ha.*; been mois- 
tened by the rain, fikl slumps, logs ;md dear! .saplings are snitabk 
hoscii. hut the fimg:us shows a decided preference i or the wood of 
wattle, trees — even living Contamnndras. Silver. Black and Cedar 
Wnttles. have been known to cilrty sporophores of C. VHuitpfiS, 
which is thereby .>n-;perr€d of p^nraNirrsm. Tl is a llindsonie plant 
ntid very difttenctive in appearance. Qrarige-vellow to tawny caps, 
wirh slimy then smooth and •shining surfaces, are borne in dense 
clusters on slender, flexuose stern.*i. The irlems themselves are 
exceedingly tough; yellow, amber or black in colour, and densely 
velvety. Gill& (hill, ycllowie-h and very unequal. Though edible 
and supposed to have a superior flavoirr, C. velniipes, as occurring 
ni cbis country, po&s^iiscs a rarjk, unpleasant titste. (Plate XLIJ, 
No, 2). 

45 COLLVBiA AMBUSTA. A dusky msignJficant ?pec!es, 
confined ti) scorclied ^^^ronnd and charcoal heaps. The fructiiica- 
tions are about lin high and broad, varyn^p in colour troin dark 
grey-btown to pilch-black. Kadi small cap •§ fialtened and slij^htly 
umbonaie. with crowded^ adnate J3:i1ls. which change from white 
to grey-bin wn as ihe plant develops- 

LEPTONIA (Greek, Lep^o^, "Ihin"). 

Practically identical with Collybt^i, but having pink, angular 

46. LKHTONIA LAMPROPUS. An apt name for Ihis 
species iis "Brij=;ht-fout''j fur it has a stccly-blue or violet Stem. 
Indefed. the whole plant reflects a beautiful ^--iolei sheen. Each 
hollow, slender stem 5upporl> a dainty, silken c<ip (up to lin. 
broad), which is obscurely zoned, depressed, and beset with 
minute scales. The gflU are thin, distant, unequal and white, hut 

^^^//'] WILLI'S, The Aiiarkaccac cr "Gtikd Fm^r. 2fi9 

soon change to n rosy hue. An acfid iaslc accompanies this 
i|Kdes, wiiich favours mo'^sv .situations iirtd<er cUw banks ynd in 
sheltered giillies. C'^^^te XLTJ. ^^o- 5.) 

NAUCORiA (l^atin. Noucu^n, "^ flock of wool"). 
The l^rown-sporf-d analogue of Colly bia and t.tfptonia, 

47. KAUCORIA SIPARIA. A ^nmlL agaric, fonnd occasion- 
uUy in forest country, where it inhiibits fragments oi dead wood, 
twigA. fern btalks^ and even J)bi<ie's of grass The brown cap (iu). 
TO lin. broad) is ver.v distinctive in its vesiiuire of dense, Avoolly 
fjbnls. Sx^m under Im. long, tense, fragile and also thiekiy beset 
with hrowmsli wuoliy ^ziCiOes. The russet gills are i-ather thick and 
Jiave njinutely downy edges. 

PSlLOCViJt: (Greek, rsihs, "naked" -(- Kyb^, "a head"). 

The genus of iKc CoUyhia Series, having |iun>ip-hrown sporfts. 

4«. PSIJLOCYBE SlJBAFIRlJfiTNOSA. Slf^nvler. tlexuosc 
stems can-y the .somewhat hell-shaped caps of ihe si>ecie?i, wliieh 
are lin. to2in lirttad. otiv^e-bTowm, mnrst and ]ierfeciU- inKJOth. Al 
first a pallid cobwebby veil ^ippends from ihe cap. and matured 
■sporopKores may •5ometimes beat Iragnieiils u[ die veil, smined 
purplish-black from TaJleti spores. The yteTijs. which, in younj^ 
plants., arc silky-whitc, frequently become variegated with blQCchfs 
of green utid blue; this colour chang:c appWe's in a minor degree 
to the caps, which also bleach buff on cfryin;^. The i|iHs 5re thin. 
unectual and grey-brown, heconnnj^ darker and purplish wild ag^c. 
Odour and ta.ste sweet, mild, as of nieal. Damp. j:fra$sy areas under 
trees form the usual bahitat of t*. suba^rnttpnosa-. vvluch niay h^ 
exceedingly abundant during some winters and then disappear for 
.several recurrent seasoi^s. (Plale XLII. No. 4.) 

PA ^AEOLUS (Greek, Patkuclos. "all variegated"). 

Tbi.s ^emii is the tnfch and black-spored member of the "C<J/^ 
iyhta Scrie:?-". All oi* the species inhabit dung or manured soil. 

49. PANAHOLU5 PAFIL10NACHU5, Kicked aside or 
Ignored by die niajoritv. this fungus is worlhy of closer scrininy. 
Though imprclcnboui iti Us colour, the plant is a model of perfect 
-Symmetry; hcnii:>plu'ri<:al. then conical, caps i^iumount the rigid, 
cohm)iiar 5tcms, ritiin^ ><;ntincl-like lYnm hunse drupptngi or 
deposits of rich sod. in brief, the principal features are as* follow: 
— Cap lin. to 2in. broa4l. pale grey-l>rown, with smciDlh surface* 
which soon becomes cracked into scales, ihe interstices shining 
when dry: seem covered at first with a pinkish bloonr iben pallid- 
rufcsceni with a silkv lustre, ^naied ji die apex. ^dlU jliin, 
crowded, unequal, ascending, adnaic, grey at first, then niotilcd 
witl? blacl;. edgrs j>ale; taSfe liiild, with rather unpleaiiant flavour. 
A very common agaric throughout Victoria 

'J!90 Wn-iis, The Agarkaceae or "CUM Fmsjr. [^v^.?'^' 

MYCENA (Gr^k, Mykt^.s. "a fungus"). 

This very Urge group (100 s^K'cie;* 2fcT« recorrkd in England) 
diflfers from CoUybki in having caps with th^. mavgiii uever 
incurved, but straight a)Kl at first flatterie<l agaiiist the stejn. The 
species as a whole are. deHcate and pellucid, while many are cxccecl- 
ingly smaJI plants; all have white spores. 

50 MVCENA rURA Smells and tastes strongly of radtsh. 
It is poisonous, too, but withal a WaittiCul species. Caps of thi* 
Myccna ar^ among the largest to be found u\ the genus, and may 
attain rli^mclej.s of 3in.., they are rosy-pnrpk. hiac or greyish 
(rarely white), smooth, convex, hygrophanous, fragile And 
striated; wilh pale, intcivejned gilU. The stem is similar in colour, 
lustrous, hoUow and covered with soft, woully-while hairs at its 
base. AL pitra is a common agaric on the forest floor and in pine 
plantations, where fruiting bodies often grow by the thousand 
among fallen needles. 

51- MYCENA COCCTNEA. A fungus which brightens the 
ground in pine plantattoit and forest ilcll with tiny splashes of 
vivid itC.irkt. Falkn cones, nredlos, gum-lccnves. twigs and logs 
Are all patronjzcd indiscjiininatdy by this handsome little ?ipecies, 
^vhadi seldom growt; to a height of rttore than lin. The thin. 
Wheel-like cap is attached lo a slender, h'uigliish stem of the same 
deep red colour, while die gills are orange-pink. 

52. MYCENA FLAVO-VIRENS Pale green in colour 
(unusual among agarics) and restricted in occurrence to the mossy 
rucks and tree-tern trunlcvS m mountain gxdlie^, this is without 
doubt one of our rarest Victorian fungi. Cooke records the species 
in his Handbook' of Attsiralian Fnugu b\n in recent years it lias 
been found only in one locality, to the writer's knowledge, viz.. 
among ierrrs at Muldle Creek, near M(. Cole, m Western Vicioria 
Both cap and st(rm are grctw, pellucid and fragile; the former is 
prominently 5trr;aed, about 1" in breadth, with white, adiiate gills- 

53. MYCENA GALERICULATA. Commonly grows in 
dense colonics on logs, stumps or tree-trunks. The greyish ^nd 
typically conical caps are doubtless quite familiar to most hush 
ramblers. For a Myc^na^ the cap is rather large (iin. to 2in.). 
exhibiong a wide range of tolfiur — white grey, ohve. rufescenfc or 
sooty; it IS also umbonate. hygrophanous and conspicuously 
striated. Stems are yellow-grey, solid, rigid, smooth and polished, 
with liairy and rooting bases, The gills are adnate. rather dis-tant 
and usually connected by veins; they change colour from white 
(o yellow-grey as the fungiiS matures 

M. MYCENA CAPILLARTS. Piobably ihe smallest of its 
genus in Victoria, though many are pigmy plants wiili caps little 
bigger than pin-heads. This species is common on fallen leaves^ 


WlLtTS. T!tc Aiiariraccoe or '\lilU-d Futun". 


on nvigs and am<>ng moss; the stems are up to 2in. long; filitonn 
and often flexiiose, each uu-minating in a white, bell-like cap 
which ia barely gtn. wide. On close examination, the tiny heads 
are. seen to be smooth, and striated, usually with a definiie um- 

FiR. 7 
Myccna capiflanx 

bilicus. Gills few (about 12). white, ver}'" dtstaiic, and fused to ^ 
collar at the apex of the stem. (Fig. 7.) 

NOLANEA (Latin, Noh, ^'a Kitte beJl"). 

Differing from Myc^na only in its pink spores, and slightly 
larger, terrestrial fruititig bodies. 

55. NOLAKEA PAPILLATA. The specific name refers to 
the nipple-like projection, Avhicli usually crowns each cap. The 
species is widespread over Victoria, lu pastures, gardens, flat.s 
and amongst decaying leaves on the forest floor. Caps are Im. to 
2\v\. broad, convex lo plane, and often crisped when mature. The 
surface of both cap and stem is yellow-grey to sooty in colour, 
sinning- like satin when dry. Gills thin, crowded, and adnate; dull 
white at first, theu rosy. Odour faitit and taste mild. 

GALERA (Latin, Gaterus:, ^'a cap '). 

A genus of terre-^trial agarics, which are the browa-spiired 
representatives of the 'Myccna Series'*. 

56. G/VLERA TEN ERA. This fo^dstool may easily be mis- 
taknn for a dark variety of BolbiHus iragilis, since both grew on 
nianure or rich soil in grassy places and are pmctically cdeTiticai 
IR shape and sjzc. 6. leyiem, l^owever, differs in its dry, almost 
unstriated cap. which is hardly fragile and never rapidly putres- 
cent. C^ps are russet, paling with age. smooth, bell-shaped and 
regularly paral)oloid (up t'> liu. broad i. The stems are thin, tente. 
fragile and concoloroiis, while the gills arc near cinnamon-coloured 
and almost fiee. 

57. GALERA HYPNORUM. Usually at hv^e m beds of 
dank moss. The beil-Iikc caps are les5 than lin. in diameter, each 
beuig pointed, ochre to tan-o.^lourcd and striated with darker. 
distant lines. Stents concolorous or paler, slender., hyj^rophanous 
and often flexuose, Gills tJistant. adnate. alternately long and 
short, tawny coloured with minutely downy e<lg€>. The rather 
sliong- tatte in G, Ityp-riorHsn is suggesth'c of nieal. (Plate XLIT. 
No. 8.) 

PSATHVRELLA (Greek, Pmthyr(ys. "fragile"!. 

Similar in struct«i"c to Myceno^, Noliinea and Galcra, but with 
black spores. 

58. PSATHYRELLA DISSEMINATA. Tbe specific name 
of thii species (meaning ''spread abroad") gives a ckie to its 
amazing prodigality. Huge colonies c;<cnr on olvl stumps, wet 
logt^ grassy swards or clay banks, as the ca^e may be, and the 
writer has even foimd specimen?, on damp ptascer vvalls inside a 
hO'USe! The yellow-grey or whitish, ovoid caps (^in. to ^in. broad) 
are deeply fluted and covered at first with a sparkling, sciirfy 
meal — they resemble nothing more than tiny, ornamental lamp^ 
shades- Stems are hollowed, slender, fragile and silky white. The 
gjiU ot P. dtsseminuia are thin, adnate, whitish at first, then black 
fr<.jm the ripened spores. 

OMPHAUA (Greek. Ompltahs, "the navel"). 

Agaric:^ with fl&ihy or membranous, usually depressed and often 
funnel-like caps; cetitral. ciirtilaginous items, and deeply dectirrent 
gills, which bear white spores. The genns is related to Cof(ybia 
and Myceyui. from which it ditTers mainly in the decurrent giUs. 
Margin of cap may be either straight or incurved 

59. OMPHAUA FIBULA. With convex, top-shaped caps 
(4in. to im. wide) aT»d gills running far down an elongated stem, 
this specie^ might well be called "Pixies' Parachute", for the 
resemblance to an expanded parachtite is most strikmg. In V^ic- 
toria, this species is nut comsnon. but it may be overlooked on 
account cf its smalt size. Moss is the usual habitat, though any 
moist and sheltered nook is sufficient for the fungus. Stem and 
cap are pale golden-yellow, delicate, hygiophanous, with a tew 
white and distant gills 

60. OMPHALIA FIBULOIDES After much i:onsidtfration, 
this name has been applied to a very common Victorian agaric, 
long passing as a form of O. fibula. The diflFer^rnces (vix., larger 
size of cap — tin. to l^m. broad — short, thicker sterns. or;ingc and 
veined gills, inore robust habit and larger spare^j) are all remark- 
ably constant. Kauffn>aiv in his Agarica<eac of Mirfvigdn^ JiMs 
0. ftbuloides, but neither Cooke, Rickcn. nor Carletoii Rea make 
any mention of it in their works on agarics. The $iniibnly ol 
Kauffman's species with our Victorian plant is 5o clost? as Fully 
to warrant the name here applied. O. fibithidcs, then, is a funncl- 
shapeJ, Inight orange fungus aiid proliably the coinmone!St gilled 
species in the State ; it is found on Uk ground from autumn until 
late springs and appears in iore.sce^i lands. ]:»addocks, open ptains 
or heatlis near the sea. (Plate, >io. 10.) 

PLEVROTUS (Greek. Pleuton, "the side" — Ous. **an ear"). 

This genus introduces a seri-^s ot fleshy, wood-fnhabiiing agarics, 
with or without confluent litems; ^sterns when present are exceutric 
or quite lateral. Species ot Pleurotus are white-spnred, having 
the gillii adnate. decurrent or radiating from some excencric point. 

61- PLEUROTUS NIDIFORMIS. This species has several 
points of interest, but the most remarkable of all is its power to 
emit light. In a nioist atmosphere^ its si>orophores will glow with 
lund, greenish lifiht. The sudden ghmpse of 3 clutnp of P, nidi- 
f<yrfm.K at night-time lias been responsible for ma^y a 'ghost 
yam", sucJi a sight is indee-d. startling to most uninitiated folk? 
The luminosity often is strong enough to enable one to read news- 
print, and it may persist for as long as a week in specimenv^ which 
are gathered and kepi irt a cool place. Thii. species grows invari* 
ably at the bases of stumps or dead trees, where it commonly 
forms dense cUister:s of sporophores (up to a toot broad) with 
excentric, lateral or fused stems. Individual caps are smooth, 
convex, irregularly ftmucUshaped or spoon-like. The dominant 
colour is white, i?ut yellow, red-brown i>r pyrple tmts may be smgly 
or all present in one specimen, tlie young sporophores being usualJ> 
darker. Stems are tough, hbrillose and often irregular: they also 
vary io colour from whale to ^aooty-purple. Tlie decurrent gills 
arc thin deep, rather distant and creamy-white, exhaimg a pleasant 
odour as of new bread. P. fudifor$nis is common in Victoria 
after rains in late summer. 

62. PLEUROTUS PETALOlOES. A fungus which remmds 
one of a sea-sheUr The fruiting bodies, occasionally (ound in 
small clusters against old eucalypt stumps or pieces of buried wood, 
are broadly convex, i>raooth and fan-like, with slightly incurved. 
even margins. Each cap is liu. to 3jn. wide, passing beliijid into a 
short stetn-like extension; the surface is glossy and deep brown 


VViLLiii, Tl'o j^ tfaHcacfac or "Gilled Fit.noi'\ 

tVict. Uai 
Vul. L. 

in colour, pnlin^ to iiesr ha?.el with age. Gills are white, tecominj:^ 
pinkish-grey, thin, crowded, translucent and deeply deciMTCTU- 
Odour and raste strongly of new meal, mild and jjlea^ant. (Fig. 

Fig. S 
PU\noUu pet&hides 

CLAUDOPVS (Lalin. Claiuhs, '^larnc'— Greek. Ppt^^ "a foot") 

The pink-spored anaJogiie of Pleurofus; a i^niall genus. 

63. CLAUDOPUS VARIABILIS. A very common species 
on decaying branchwood. twig^s and fallen leaves <luring winter, 
rarely found growing on naked soiK The fructifications are soitv 
white and delicately woolly They at first grow as discs flattened 
against the host, with gills uppermost: later on, the body becomes 
retlexed and more or less bracket- like, having a short, woolly and 
excentrk attachmefit. Gills are while then flesh coloured, broad, 
distant, and radiating from an excenfric point under the cap, 
which is neyer mare than lin. broad. 

^'j U'^, Tht Agitricacrafr or "GiiWd FungC, 29^ 

CREt'UyOrU.'i (Greek, Krepis, "a Jiiaa's boot"— 0«J. *'au ear*^). 

Similar to Flcurotus anH Clandofms, but with rusty-brown 

64. CKEPIDOTUS EUCAl.YrrORUM As its mmc 
implies, this agaric is lo be lound iin ihe trunks of bviiig eucalypTs 
a»d probably nowhere else. Grey Box (£. hcmiphloui) aft J 
-Swamp (.iinn(/:. ovata)uie preFfTreJ above otjirr eucalypts hv lli;s 
species, wliich apparently does no lianii to the trees, but lives 
merely a*i a saprophyte on the outer Iwrk, aj>pcariag when chmati< 
C£>ndition:s are favourable (j.ti.r during winter). \\\\t dry hotxl 
like caps are yellow-brown in colour and devoid of any stem ; each 
has a finely woolly surfaer, becoming ahiiost ^^niooth a^ fhe marg;in 
which overlaps ihe gills. Gills Jhiti, pale biown, railiating ft'oio 
(he point of attachnienl lo host. C. t'lu'alyfftornm has a slightly 
bpUcr liisie, in common with many other wood-inhabJting forms. 

•65. CRRPIOOTUS MOLLIS. A limp, watery fungus, grow- 
ing as sessile or shortly ^talked bnicl^els on all manner of decaying 
wood ifi the fores^rs ai^d pine plamnLions. Brackets are conve.s 
W nearly plane, white or crcani-colourcd, with densety woolly 
Siirfaec towards the rear. lin. to 5in. broa*! and often somewhat 
lobed when lar^e. The ^'ills are thin, crowded and unequal; at 
first white, then pinkish-grey to pale cinnamon. C". mollis also 
has a rather biUer taste- 

most widespread of ivoud-inliabitmg agarics. Any fallen tree or 
>lack of wo(hI left to He in the forcit will almost certainly bceonii" 
the abode of this species. The fruiting bodies are thin, six>on- or 
kidney-Sth;i]>ed, rarrly irregular, usually lirss than lin. Iirt>a<l, 
Miiootiv reddish-brown lo tan-colomed, and somewhat leathery in 
consLsleticv. Stem lateral, compressed, whitish, and den^^ely woolly 
at the ba^se; gilh thin, cirjiramun-brown. uncfjiial and adndte; taste 
unpleasaiU. decidedly bitter and ofl^i acrid. 

M,iRASM!U$ (Greek, Maraino, "I die awa>**)- 

A genus of loujjh, r>on-pulresccnt gilled-fungi, which revive 
when moistened. Cap mcrnbranous. sometimes almoM leathery, 
usually regular. Stem ectid-al, very rarely absent, cartilsginous 
or horuy. Gills adnate to free. Spores white. (Certain species 
arc difficiak t<? separate trom those of Collybia.) 

67. MARASMIUS ERYTHROPUs! Flourishes in deposi- 
tions of rich leaf mould under tre^^. preferring gu)hcs where 
niiiisture is abundant. Dense clil.sters of bright reddish-brown 
caps qrow from a mat of toughened m^telial threads at the surface 
of the grontid. Thfj individual cap is up to 2in. brnad, convex, 
minutely velvety, reddish oi fawn coloured and ultimaidy pow- 
dered with white, the margin becomes tigfhtly incurved on drying. 


Weli.!?. The Ananracvac or *'CifU<i t'mufi' 

L Vc» L. 

Fig- 9 

Slems are ihin, lense, 
shiny and somewhat 
horny; dark purplish- 
red to almost black 
hentath, paling to 
nearly white at the 
apices, pruinose when 
dry. Gills while, then 
creamy, adnate to 
nearly free, and thick- 
ish. Odour faintly 
disagreeable, the wste 
atroiig and rank; 
nevertheless. M. eyy- 
fhropiLs is said to be 
edible (Fig. 9). 

LUM (Greek, iVteo, 
"I split"— PA v«o». "a 


A very imall genus of non-putrcscent. leathery agarics in which 
the gills hecnnie longitudinally split along their edges, which then 
curl outwards. Stem lateral or absent. Spores white. Growing 

on wood. 

68. SCHIZOPHVLLUM COMMUNE- A cosmopolitan 
species, presumably the only one in its genus. The lobed aiwl 
fan-like caps ^in. to l^in. broiad, are common on fallen tree trunk?, 
branchwood, stumps and bridge timber, especially in mountain 
districts where ihcy m^y Ik.* foitnd at any time of the year. The 
upper surface is greyish or flesh-coloured, becon>jn|t snow-while, 
very dry. and clad with downy fibrils. Stems are lackin^^ or repre- 
sented by shorty lateral, coarsely hairy attachments. The gills, pale 
grey or ptirph&h and radiating from the rear, have the pccAiKarity 
(unique among agarics) of splitting lenjc'thwise : each hall of a 
gill so divided curls outwards at the edge (Fig. 10). 

PANUS (Greek, Fm, "air'--OH^, "an ear'*). 

Tough, non-potrescent agarics wirh while sporigs ancf fleshy- 
leathery caps. Stem cxccntnc. lateral or abijcnt. and confluent 
with the cap. Gills normal, numerous^ sofr then leathery, decur- 
rciit or radiating Growing on wood. 

69, PANUS STIPT1CU5- Occurs often in association with 
Crfpidoius snbkausteUans (q.v.) on dead trunks, logs, stumps. 
wood .stacks, et<x It differ? frctu the latter species in its paler 
colour (ochre to buff), and more regular caps, which arc kidney* 


muJ The Agancaceaa or "GUhd fntiQi'". 


shaped, obscurely zoned and minutely beset with a mesly wool. 
The 3tem is short, lateral, whicish and mealy, while the adoAte 
gilts are pale onnamou in colour, and possess curiously sticky 
edges. F~ sHpiuux IS poisonous, liaving a sweetish taste, which 
soon becomes acrid in the mouth. 

Lower Si/r/acc V* 

Fig. 10 

XEROTUS (Greek. Xeros, -dry*— Oas, ''an ear''). 

Whne-spored agarics related to Panus, but with thin, mera- 
btano us -leathery caps and curioas fold-like gills, which arc very 
few in number and usually branched. 

70. XEROTUS ARCHERL Forming colonies on dead branch- 
wood and fallen sticks, tliis agaric is riot uncommon in the Dandc- 
nong Ranges; indeed, it seldom is found far from timbered gullies. 

M •■Bi-ff-sfifak:' "l^uuk:' md "BhaUlto-m' Bn'ad'\ V\\d. 


The cups, or mote corm^lly^ "hoods", arc thin, up to lin, in breadth, 
convex and fan-like, with smooth, dutl. reddish to t^in surfaces 
which become paler on dr3/ing. The stem is minute and little 
more ihan a narrow, wfiitc attachment X. Arcketi has very few 
^l!s (often only 4 or 5), which iire pale brown, shallow, fold-like 
and interspersed with several gill-hke veins. The taste is appar- 
ently mild and ajtjreeahle. 



The fungus world has forms, designs ati^ colours to suit every 
fancy. In the enormous group of agarics or gillcd iungi (popu- 
larly dubbed "toadstools") wc sec an tmcndhig variety of hues 
and shades. Or again, U one is in search of the quaint atid bizarre, 
why not look among fungi? Here you wjll find growths resem- 
bling umbrellas, cups, birds* ncits, starfish, latticed balls, corals 
or bright pieces of jelly; some are sponge-like, some as hard as 
wood. liOtnc licset with fur, spines or bristles, while others wear 
veils, rings or tight-fitting caps. 

With the approach of winter and cool, misty days, the fungus 
enthusiast becomes excited — there are dreams of pa-st trophies 
and pleasant anticipations of find.s to he made. Onre you have 
discovered a rare speaes and your interest is fairly captivated, at 
is <»m;^7irg how the fungus fpver will i^ow; every patch of bush 
and scmh is a hunting ground — rich in possibilities; even rotting 
logs, fence-posts, lawns, or manure heaps in the garden, become 
potential treasure mines. Perhaps the greatest thrill in huntmg 
Austrahan fungi is the Icitowledge th;u few others have heeri jn 
the field, that very little is known about our fungi, and that any 
s]:»ecimen may prove an addition to the list of species already 

In a small article it is impossible even to touch on the variou? 
kinds ol fimgi that grow in Victoria, but any writing would be 
incomplete without reference to the Poiyporoids — a large and 
economically impoitant group. 

POLYPOROTDS, briefly, are "fungi which bear many pnres". 
They are Rasidiomycetes and tlie layer of pores (usually borne 
on the under side of a cap or bracket) is quite exposed from the 
first, i.e., never protected by a veil as are 5he gills of agarics. 
Certain species grow in the gn^tind. with a cap and central stem, 
like toadstools, but the inajorily are to be looked for on wood 
(srees, stumps* logs, fences, etc.), where they form typical, 
refunded brackets — hence the common name of "Hrackct-fungus*". 

The si?es of Polyporoids vary from less than one-eighlh of an 



Aprily 1934 

Blackfellows' Bread : Sclerote and Young Fruiting Body 

19:M. J 

"Ficrf-sfcak," "Punk." and "filackfcHira's' Bread". 


inch to several feet in diameter; some are soft, fleshy fun<j^i. otliers 
are extremely hard and woody, while many are parasites, bringing 
a])OUt the decay or death of the trees on which they live. 

When ]:)rackets or fruiting bodies appear on a tree-trunk, it 
may be taken for granted that there is a deep-seated infection — 
they usually represent the last stage in a cycle of destruction which 
has been going on, slowly, but surely, in the heart of the tree 
concerned : microscopically slender threads have si)read insidiously 

■ * ..7 ' -^ - ■ . , ■ 

/~y'rc /^uArff. 


Fig. 1 
"Beef-steak" Fungus ( \-\sinV\na hcputica ) . 

throughout the wood tissue, robbing it of essential food and 
strengthening material, until only a skeleton remains ; then the 
fungal threads travel to some point on the surface of trunk or 
branch, fuse in a wonderful fashion, and produce the familiar 
bracket, whose sole function is to develop spores ; these are dis- 
seminated by the wind to other trees where similar infections may 
be set up; and so the vicious circle repeats itself. 


Beefsteak." "Punk," and "IHaekjelloi^'s' Hvead' 

I. Vo 

1. L. 

To this category belongs the genus Fouics. eml)racing peren- 
nial bracket-fungi, which arc so hard and tough as to resemble 
wood; Fames robnstus is our common \'ictorian form — a large, 
almost black bracket with cracked surface, found principally on 
eucalypt and tea-tree trunks (especially l^lue Gums and Swamjj 
Gums). Hard bracket -fungi have I)een known collectively as 
**]nniks" ; they have the pro])erty of snK)uldering for many hom-s 

Fig. 2 
Blacklellows' Hrcad {I'oly fronts Mylitfte) 

when once set alight, and it is interesting to note that a certain 
"punk" was widely used by the Tasmanian aborigines in carrying 
fire from one encampment to another— the duty of guarding each 
precious punk-fire fell to the women folk, and woe betide an_\- 
careless lubra whose fire was allowed to go out ! 

Of all Pol\poroid genera, the largest is the ty])e genus. Polx- 
porus. containing hundreds of species: unlike Fciiies, tliesc 
are all annual plants of softer consistency. The name "White 
Punk" has sometimes been applied to Polyf^orus ciicalyptovum^ 


Plate XLVII 

Aprih 1934 

Blackfeilows' Bread : Sclerote and Fruitin^ Bodv, Late Sta^e 

a large. apoiig> plants ritscnibling a hug^. wlntc hoof or lna£ gf 
bread; thJs |jTobaIi7)' In the cuninsancSL amsf of ht^art-rot ftl 
euGilypts; ^iant R^d Gums on the Murray River nre otten 
atr^okeri Iiy it, and rhf? sc^tiri core of infectf^d trees soon hcroni^s 
reducjed to 'i white, papery niass. Ofh^r i?uca].vpl.s c^^iviruonlv 
attacked axe Messmate, Manna Giim, Candle-bark. Apple l^cv. 
and PeppcnniiU, ihc fm^gus gaining entry t<:i rts ha^t tlirougf; 
soai« wound, e.g., a torn hint), a -fire scar or an abrasion. 

No ^cpecies oi Pofyporu^ is more remarkable than /**- ^wjh'i'^ar 
or "Hl:u-kfeliaws' Bifnd". Its "wbilc iruittng caps are rar^h' .<een. 
bui tbe t'cgetative. |)ar( of tiie fungus is famiUar, as a dark, com- 
pacted body gJ'owiTig jubi beneath the stirface of the ground: this 
vetj'eUtivf. body ib Known iciciitificahy as ;i ^'sctcrufium'^ and, 
chaugh exceedingly tcnigli ard horny when dried, i: is of the con- 
sistency nf grastle in fi'ctih si>ttc.irrjpns- — \'nung Mcteroha are said 
to hnvfi been used as fond by the aborigines, lience the welbknown 
name of "Hlackfellows' Grearl" It is not nncjommon for farmers 
la filnn.j];h up "loaves"' as large as footballs and w^eighing any- 
thing <rom \\) lbs to Z Olb^. (^~ig. 2). A section through any 
M-leroiinrn wnW reveal a 1yt>ical, honeycumb-bke structnrc, jvul 
fragments nf these, tf kept in. a waim, moist phiee (near a stove 
for exan^ple). may be indiicecl to ^cjiow fruilmg bodJe.5 — gaierally 
ioniewliat deformed when jgrowu under artificial condnioiis. 
(PI31C5 XLVI and XLVIl) ) 

Before leaving the subject of Polyporoids, one miffht memrioi) 
the "IVef-steali Fnngivs" (Fishditm).. discussed in nnmrrnns 
bookSj but us yei iiardlv known in Auatraiia. The "Vegetable 
Bccf-steak" of England and '*Ox -tongue" of France (,a far more 
apjirop-u'ite name) is tommon (hiring >nme winters in Vktoria. 
J'he fleshy fniitiag bodies grow nt ihe bases of decaying encalypi 
srump?; and resemble nothing more closely ilian a laig^e, thick. 
reddish brown tongue. TEuj up]>cr surface is ronghenc<i with 
glandular papilbe, while tbt- lower — -at first bright pnik, tlicn 
yellow — bears the pores (Fig. 1). Pores of fiMiitina arc unique, 
e^ch benig a distinct and separate litUe tul>e ; they ate never 
cuhta'enc aB in Forneys and Folyp/Trns, 

A great deal has been written about the cxccJlcncie.^ of the 
** Reef -steak" a.a ait ?-rtiiie of fond, hLnvcver, after due experiment 
•on both raw and cooked sjiecimens, i am incHned to agree with 
the greiit Americar) mycologists Lloyd, who. when speaking of 
Fiuulina, s-aid. "It does look something like a pieoe of mc^l, hnl 
the re«en^blancje slops tliere. and il can be no more conapared In 
^ btef-?teak. either for flavosii" or <tuahtv, than '^t a piece of'M 

The foregoing remarks du nu more clian nnroduce readers tn 
flic Vast and f;tsciiiann/r study of V»->lv|v>rnids, bnr, if ihey havp in 
any way ?(erve.d to sTinuiUre intcrefit m our ntan'v'e fnngi/ihcv will 
have adneveil much. 

:^2 ''VetjcioUc CfiicrplHars:'' [^v^^Li."*^ 


"Cfintyccps are the most curious fungi that ginw.'" writes Curtis 
G TJwd in his introdiKtic-n ti) the- Ci>r,iyrrps of /itis trO-lnsK^ 
<10I5). Hut, one might ask, "just Jt'luU is a Cc'rdycepsT" 

OcCcLiiotially an angler, digguic: for wornis uudci itioist hntntis, 
or 3 gardener, mukhing Ivs '\zihh:{g^ piitch". will unearth what 
appear to he the dxieA bodies of caterpillars which havft "spioutecr', 
Kach body is wbiii5h. rigid and brittle, as if pcirined, and from 
nc<ir thv' head sprutg^ a slender stalk, tcnniriaiiiig in a flcbhy, 
dlib-ihaped atructurr. 

Naturalists m mc:dicval times, v/cre iamiUar with the strange, 
cJuWsk^ growth-^ which wtrr snmetimps re^^n nn <?ead c^l-erpill?*!'?., 
rhvysalid.s arid even perfect insects; tl^ese. they supposed, fxeniplf- 
^c*l a Jran.xnn;T;^tion frnm the nnininl to the plant kingdom, ?ind 
rrioch was written on Che .subject. Tt was suj^gested by sonic t1»ai 
u grub tuight be louad to cliange into 3 new species ot woody 
plant' Although we nray bt.- constrained to luuglt at the ci.vnclil- 
-sious- ill out {orcbcarb, it must rxrvertheless be remembered ib^t 
niost or their scientific inquiries were inflncTiced by the Cfinimon 
Id^as erf The age -astrology . alchcniy and KvltclKraft, eueh had 
a part. 

fn *-7o<X a delated deFtriptinn \v,i< made by Father 'Foniihin. 
ffi Cuba. 01 a growth which he liad observed on the bodie?- of 
ccrtaui wasps, liul il was tio( until (he enrly nineteeuih ccTilur^* 
thut the true nature of thei^c "Towlh?; on inseers was made known. 
Myi:oto'i;iat.s have long t^incc shown them to he parasitic Uing" of 
jhc CtLuuti CtfrJyci'ps, belonc^ingr lo the ^r^-at divi?inn ASCOMY- 
CE'lAL f,t*p. Batidioniycclac, which includes gilled fungi, and 
pare tun^i). 

There are nearly IW known .species of Cordyceps, which arc 
distribiUfd throiighoiit the glnbe chiefly in torrid rpginn>'. yio<t 
species have fruiiini; bodies up to 3iu. in length, bur Australia and 
New Zealarid can boast several gianr iiie«nber« of the genus, with 
fructiiications ai nntch as I2in. in length, h) cojumovt with the 
majoritA' ot our fuugi. AustcaliM C^oiycepj arc as yet very nnper- 
tectly known. 

The liCe history of A Coydyr&ps is fascinatinp.' indeed. Tt is 
believed that -i^pores ndhere to the Holt moist bodies oE caterpillars 
or srubs, otiininatc, and pouetrate ihc outLT -skin by a ihm lube. 
Once inside the body of its host, the initial tiu\-acl of a CordycFps 
bmnches rapidly until the ias':^ct s whole body J:^ rvimificd by iungal 
hyphae, which de.^troy the H^'sucs and, finally, kill the liost. On 
OCcasi'ui a brv/T. will reach its pupal, or even its imago stage before 
vicaiil Cliques, hut usually it is Uillod whiJe bitrrowing in the ground. 
At last, nothing remains of the heist but a thin shell, packed with 
fungal threads. After extracting aU possible food materia? from 
its hoil, a C&fdv^eps fungu.s then develops its fruiting body— q 


"Vegetable Caterpillars, 



Fig. 1 
Vcfjeiahle Caterpillars' 

simple or branched structure, borne on a stem, which varies in 
length according to the dt-pth of the host below ground level. 

In collecting specimens of Cardyceps, one should always dig out 
the host, intact and attached to the fruiting body, so that its 
identity may be established ; it will be found that caterpillars of 
the larger Lspidoptera are most frequently attacked, though wasps, 
ants, flies, and even bugs, have been recorded as victims to the 

3(M '^V^iimhi^. CatirpiUays." [^J?^f, ^^^ 

Cnngal adack each species of Cordycf^ps favouring some particuhr 

By iar the commonest Australian apccics is Cordyceps Gimnii^ 
foinul in kafy .soils iin the caterpin;ir:i nC Pi^fusi. The. simple 
fiiiitii»g bodies spvinfT tioni neat the, head of th<> host; each con-' 
sists of a long, pale yellow stem meiging gra^^nally into an elon- 
gated club, lui. to 7i\r\. loiifj. The ohibn are roundwl and, 
dark olive-green to neaiiy black in colour and bcscf with minute 
dots — these are the 'perithecKi. or mouths oi the tiny flask-like 
pockets, which prodlice .spcn'e hridie.s. When ripe, the spores oCteni 
protrude Lhroujii'h the vaiions pfnthe\-ia, covering the club with 
copious snowy floccules. Each spore i^ fiiiform, bnt soon becomes 
disarticulated into dozens ut exceedingly small sccoitdafy 5.pore& 
Icsfi than one. five-thousandth part of an inch in diamelcr. 

Another Cordyceps found in Auatrulia is C. gracilis (soe Ivig. 
1 for fheae two spp.), which rarely attains a greater licight tJjan 
Itn. or 2in., the tiny, rounded cluhs (about ^in. lonj^) are -jehrc 
coloured and dotted with rathe** distant, dark brown perilhecin. 
This dainty little plant also springs Srom insect larvae in the .?ci1- 

Cordycrps have often been called "Vt-igHabk C afcr pillar. <" , a 
name whidj mi^^ht be applied with jnstiftcution to C Robert sii — 
a-larpfe New Zealand species which i^ catc" by the Maot^ies and 
called, iu their langua.i^e. "Fepe^weto' or 'Tlotcto" ; it is princi- 
pediy sought in soil beneath the Rata tree^. 

.The largest anti. in many ways, the most pxtraoidinary member 
ok* the gciuis 19 C. Taylon, which occurs throu^hoat AustiaJa^ia. 
on a large burrowing calerpillcir, hut is rarely collected. Here 
the fruiting bctdv dundc? iiilo numerous stout, roughened branches 
which yimufate the antlers oi" a sUff- 

Probably many Other qtiahit and weu'dly- fashioned species of 
Cordyirpr- remain to be discovered in oitr continent . atid who can 
^<-il what may be biuti^lit co hghibv the waichfubicifi o\ lliose 
who are interetted in the study o( Ttrngi? 

T. H, Wtcms. 

The '>hotr»firaph& oi "Ulackftllowo-- Rrcafi" (plates 46 and 47) wcrft 

received from Mr. N. <). Rayiier, oI Sale, wtio gn October 26. 1W.3, 
obtained tbe &pecimcn lIUtsfr.itrH, frnm WirhiM North. 

■"^Tt wa:-. pbced in a gbs? case in a watm room. aTid within three day-j 
itarted to sprout. On NnvcmiKr 3 it iiie;i5i»rcfi "^k Itxli^s Sn b^iglit, vhik 
tijc to)> h'dd sv>rca'I to 5-i rnclvei. One nifjht I drainiMl off Troin ii about half 
;: rap of water, whiuh had a niiisiy- .^mell" The scrnnd phnrograpb vv^s 
taltett on November 13. .. 

Mr. J. Hi VVUlhi, Forest OITiccr, Cackatoa, rfeiircs fresh f!o\^*enng platilS^ 

of the Alpine Perching Lily, AUt'lUi Cilpim< E.xpense^ would he y^l<\ ti> 
any :nemt»er V^bo can procure uamc S(>cciracns and poiil lo Ihe abov^ address.